Characterization of an avian-pox virus isolated from an Andean condor (Vulur gry-phus)

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, 2001 S. Lincoln Avenue, 61802, Urbana, IL, USA
Veterinary Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 11/2003; 96(3):237-46. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1135(03)00247-5
Source: PubMed


A novel pox virus, condorpox virus (CPV) isolated from the spleen of an Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) by inoculation of chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos was compared biologically, antigenically and genetically with fowlpox virus (FPV), the type species of the genus Avipoxvirus. Susceptible chickens inoculated with CPV developed only mild localized lesions but were not protected against subsequent challenge with FPV. Based on Western blotting, in addition to the presence of cross-reacting antigens, distinct differences in antigenic profiles of CPV and FPV were observed. Sequence analysis of a 4.5 kb HindIII fragment of CPV genomic DNA revealed the presence of eight co-linear genes corresponding to FPV open reading frame (ORF)193-198, 201 and 203. Interestingly, reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) sequences present in the genome of all FPV were absent in CPV. Although, the results of a phylogenic analysis suggested that CPV is a member of the genus Avipoxvirus, its unique antigenic, biologic and genetic characteristics distinguish it from FPV to be considered as a new member of this genus.

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    • "Previous studies give contradictory conclusions about APV cross-immunity. While most of them show no cross-protection between clades [32,33] and even inside the same clade [34], a more recent study provides evidence of cross-protection between FWPV-like viruses and CNPV-like viruses in experimentally infected zebra finches [35]. In FWPV-like viruses, the absence of cross-protection has been shown to be linked to the presence of the integrated reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) sequence in the FWPV genome [34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Implementation of conservation breeding programs is a key step to ensuring the sustainability of many endangered species. Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of such initiatives especially since knowledge on pathogens affecting those species is usually scarce. Houbara bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations have declined over the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years. Avipoxviruses are of the highest concern for these species in captivity. Pox lesions were collected from breeding projects in North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia for 6 years in order to study the diversity of avipoxviruses responsible for clinical infections in Houbara bustard. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 113 and 75 DNA sequences for P4b and fpv140 loci respectively, revealed an unexpected wide diversity of viruses affecting Houbara bustard even at a project scale: 17 genotypes equally distributed between fowlpox virus-like and canarypox virus-like have been identified in the present study. This suggests multiple and repeated introductions of virus and questions host specificity and control strategy of avipoxviruses. We also show that the observed high virus burden and co-evolution of diverse avipoxvirus strains at endemic levels may be responsible for the emergence of novel recombinant strains.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Veterinary Research
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    • "Avian pox (Avipoxvirus), a widespread viral avian infectious disease, has been found to affect around 2.5% of living bird species (Bolte et al. 1999, van Riper III & Forrester 2007). Twenty three species of diurnal and nocturnal birds of prey have been reported infected with avian pox (van Riper III & Forrester 2007, Vargas et al. 2011), these include Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura and Andean Condor Vultur gryphus (Forrester and Spalding 2003, Kim et al. 2003). Avian pox infection is expressed in two forms: the diphtheric form affects the respiratory and digestive track with high mortality rates, and the cutaneous form which produces lesion on the featherless areas of the body and shows low mortality rates (Bolte et al. 2009). "

    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    • "Furthermore, little is known about the host range of the avipoxviruses, although generally it is assumed to be limited (Jarmin et al., 2006). Kim et al. (2003) "
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    ABSTRACT: A novel avipoxvirus caused diphtheritic lesions in the oesophagus of five and in the bronchioli of four Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) and also cutaneous lesions in eight Magellanic penguins housed in outdoor enclosures in a Rehabilitation Centre at Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. At the same time, another avipoxvirus strain caused cutaneous lesions in three Magellanic penguins at a geographically distinct Rehabilitation Centre localized at Vila Velha, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology and use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical signs in the penguins included cutaneous papules and nodules around eyelids and beaks, depression and restriction in weight gain. The most common gross lesions were severely congested and haemorrhagic lungs, splenomegaly and cardiomegaly. Histological examination revealed Bollinger inclusion bodies in cutaneous lesions, mild to severe bronchopneumonia, moderate periportal lymphocytic hepatitis, splenic lymphopenia and lymphocytolisis. Other frequent findings included necrotizing splenitis, enteritis, oesophagitis, dermatitis and airsacculitis. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were seen within oesophageal epithelial cells in five birds and in epithelial cells of the bronchioli in four penguins. DNA from all samples was amplified from skin tissue by PCR using P4b-targeting primers already described in the literature for avipoxvirus. The sequences showed two different virus strains belonging to the genus Avipoxvirus of the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, one being divergent from the penguinpox and avipoxviruses already described in Magellanic penguins in Patagonia, but segregating within a clade of canarypox-like viruses implicated in diphtheritic and respiratory disease.
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