Islet Autoantibodies in Cord Blood from Patients who developed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus at 15–30 Years of Age

Umeå University, Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden
Autoimmunity (Impact Factor: 2.71). 07/2003; 36(4):227-31. DOI: 10.1080/0891693031000141040
Source: PubMed


Islet cell autoantibodies are early markers for type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether islet autoantibodies were present at birth in young adults who developed type 1 diabetes at 15-30 years of age. Cord blood sera from 30 patients who developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age and sera from 320 randomly selected control children were tested for islet cell antibodies (ICA) by indirect immunofluorescence and autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), islet cell antigen-2 (IA-2A) and insulin (IAA) by radiobinding assays. The young adults who developed type 1 diabetes did not differ from controls in the cord blood prevalence of any of the four islet autoantibodies. This is in contrast to our previous findings that children who developed type 1 diabetes below 15 years of age had an increased prevalence of cord blood islet autoantibodies. Our present data suggest that, in contrast to children, pre- and perinatal risk factors are less likely to be involved in the development of type 1 diabetes in young adults.

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Available from: Ake Lernmark, Jan 08, 2014
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    • "We have previously reported that cord blood islet autoantibodies did not affect the risk for type 1 diabetes in 15–30-year-old subjects [25]. Therefore, in this study, we examined whether intrauterine exposure to enterovirus infection in the 15–30-year-old ages was associated with an increased risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes, also with particular reference to possible gender difference. "
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    ABSTRACT: The GAD65 epitope immunoglobulin binding pattern in cord blood of children (n=37), who later developed type 1 diabetes at 3.2-14.9 years of age, was analyzed. First, the binding at diagnosis was compared with that in the cord blood serum. The next comparison was between the cord blood serum and the mothers' serum taken at delivery. Basal GAD65 binding levels were determined in Protein A Sepharose-based radiobinding assays with (35)S-labeled human and rat GAD65, rat GAD67 and GAD65/67 fusion proteins representing N-terminal (N), middle (M) and C-terminal (C) epitopes. In the first comparison, 28/37 children had GAD65 binding above 2.44 relative units (RU) (upper three quartiles), representing a marked increase from birth in the binding to human GAD65 (p<0.0001), rat GAD65 (p<0.0001), N- (p=0.04), M- (p<0.0001), C- (p=0.001), and M + C-epitopes (p<0.0001), but not to rat GAD67. At birth, 9/37 had GAD65 binding above 1.56 RU (upper quartile) demonstrating that their binding of human (35)S-GAD65 was higher in cord blood than in the mother (p=0.008). Higher cord blood binding was also observed for the N- (p=0.02) terminal epitope but not for rat GAD65, rat GAD67, and the remaining epitopes. These data suggest that differences in the epitope GAD65 binding between mother and child at birth are limited. In contrast, the epitope pattern at diagnosis differed from that at birth, supporting the view that disease-associated epitopes develop between birth and diagnosis.
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