The effect of age and gender on cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and markers of bone metabolism. Exp Gerontol

Department of Pathophysiology, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090, Austria.
Experimental Gerontology (Impact Factor: 3.49). 11/2003; 38(10):1119-27. DOI: 10.1016/S0531-5565(03)00189-X
Source: PubMed


Aging has been associated with various alterations of immune functions, the musculoskeletal system and a decline of sex hormone levels. Estradiol has a central role in the regulation of bone turnover and also modulates the production of cytokines such as interleukin-1 and -6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. We therefore studied the effect of age and gender on cytokine production by mononuclear cells and markers of bone metabolism.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from young and elderly subjects; intracellular detection of cytokine production after stimulation with ionomycine and PMA (T cells) or LPS (monocytes) was performed by four color flow cytometry. Sex hormone levels and markers of bone metabolism were measured by RIA or ELISA:
When we compared elderly to young women we found an increased proportion of T cells that were positive for interferon-gamma, interleukin-2, -4, -10 and -13. Also the percentage of cells producing interleukin-4 or interferon-gamma within the CD8(+) population was higher in the group of elderly women. In contrast, proportionally fewer monocytes of elderly women were positive for tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-6 than those of young women. In elderly men a higher percentage of T cells produced interleukin-2, -4 and -13. In the group of aged men we found a higher frequency of cells that produced interleukin-4 within the CD4(+) or CD8(+) population. Moreover, within monocytes of elderly men we found an increased percentage of cells positive for both interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The data on markers of bone metabolism indicated an increase of bone turnover in old age.
Our data demonstrate that aging is associated with significant alterations of bone metabolism and cytokine production by T cells and monocytes. For particular cytokines (interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 in T cells, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in monocytes) these changes are gender specific.

Download full-text


Available from: Meinrad Peterlik
  • Source
    • "However, these effects of LPS have been investigated in males (Cani et al. 2007; Amar et al. 2008; Smith et al. 2009), and much less is known about the responses in females (Pohl et al. 2013). Gender and sex hormones undeniably have a crucial role in regulation of metabolism and may affect inflammatory reactions and susceptibility to the development of T2D (Pietschmann et al. 2003; Logue et al. 2011). Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of chronic inflammation on female physiology, focusing on glucose handling and adiposity. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity-related inflammation may have a causal role in the development of diabetes and insulin resistance, and studies using animal models of chronic experimental endotoxemia have shown the link. However, many studies use only males, and much less is known about the role of obesity-related inflammation in females. Therefore, we addressed how experimentally induced chronic inflammation affects body mass, energy intake, and glucose metabolism in female rats. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with slow release pellets that delivered a constant daily dose of 53 or 207 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per rat for 60 days. Control rats were instrumented with vehicle pellets. Due to inflammatory nature of high-fat diet (HFD) half of the rats received HFD (60% of calories from lard), while the other half remained on control diet to detect possible interactions between two modes of induced inflammation. Our results showed that chronic LPS administration increased female rat body mass and calorie intake in a dose-dependent manner, and that HFD further exacerbated these effects. Despite these effects, no effects of LPS and HFD were evident on female rat glucose metabolism. Only LPS elevated expression of inflammatory markers in the hypothalamus. To conclude, female rats respond to experimentally induced chronic inflammation by increasing body mass, but do not develop glucose intolerance in the given period of time.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
  • Source
    • "It is known that females' immune response is more active and autoimmune diseases has higher incidence in females [27] [37]. Immunomodulatory cytokines (interleukins and interferons) are produced by the immune cells gender dependently, influenced by sex hormones to which receptors are present on the immune cells [2] [27] [161] [186]. The hormone production by immune cells of the two genders is also different. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immune cells synthesize, store and secrete hormones, which are identical with the hormones of the endocrine glands. These are: the POMC hormones (ACTH, endorphin), the thyroid system hormones (TRH, TSH, T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, melatonin, histamine, serotonin, catecholamines, GnRH, LHRH, hCG, renin, VIP, ANG II. This means that the immune cells contain all of the hormones, which were searched at all and they also have receptors for these hormones. From this point of view the immune cells are similar to the unicells (Tetrahymena), so it can be supposed that these cells retained the properties characteristic at a low level of phylogeny while other cells during the evolution accumulated to form endocrine glands. In contrast to the glandular endocrine cells, immune cells are polyproducers and polyreceivers. As they are mobile cells, they are able to transport the stored hormone to different places (packed transport) or attracted by local factors, accumulate in the neighborhood of the target, synthesizing and secreting hormones locally. This is taking place, e.g. in the case of endorphin, where the accumulating immune cells calms pain caused by the inflammation. The targeted packed transport is more economical than the hormone-pouring to the blood circulation of glandular endocrines and the targeting also cares the other receptor-bearing cells timely not needed the effect. Mostly the immune-effects of immune-cell derived hormones were studied (except endorphin), however, it is not exactly cleared, while the system could have scarcely studied important roles in other cases. The evolutionary aspects and the known as well, as possible roles of immune-endocrine system and their hormones are listed and discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
  • Source
    • "However, there are numerous cytokine studies that report inconsistent findings. One reason for the heterogeneity might be that cytokine levels are strongly affected by socio-demographic and environmental factors such as age, gender (Pietschmann et al., 2003), exercise (Hayashino et al., 2013), obesity, insulinresistance (Hotamisligil, 2006), smoking (Rom et al., 2013), as well as by the heterogeneity of major depressive disorder itself, and therefore exhibit high inter-individual variance. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased inflammatory activation might only be present in a subgroup of depressed individuals in which immune processes are especially relevant to disease development. We aimed to analyze demographic, depression, and trauma characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with regard to inflammatory monocyte gene expression. Fifty-six naturalistically treated MDD patients (32 ±12 years) and 57 healthy controls (HC; 31 ±11 years) were analyzed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We determined the expression of 38 inflammatory and immune activation genes including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)α and GRβ genes in purified CD14(+) monocytes using quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Monocyte gene expression was age-dependent, particularly in MDD patients. Increased monocyte gene expression and decreased GRα/β ratio were only present in MDD patients aged ⩾28 years. Post hoc analyses of monocyte immune activation in patients <28 years showed two subgroups: a subgroup with a severe course of depression (recurrent type, onset <15 years) - additionally characterized by panic/arousal symptoms and childhood trauma - that had a monocyte gene expression similar to HC, and a second subgroup with a milder course of the disorder (73% first episode depression, onset ⩾15 years) - additionally characterized by the absence of panic symptoms - that exhibited a strongly reduced inflammatory monocyte activation compared to HC. In conclusion, monocyte immune activation was not uniformly raised in MDD patients but was increased only in patients of 28 years and older.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Brain Behavior and Immunity
Show more