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Combining motivational and volitional interventions to promote exercise participation: Protection motivation theory and implementation intentions

Article

Combining motivational and volitional interventions to promote exercise participation: Protection motivation theory and implementation intentions

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Abstract

This study compared a motivational intervention based on protection motivation theory (PMT, Rogers, 1975, 1983) with the same motivational intervention augmented by a volitional intervention based on implementation intentions (Gollwitzer, 1993). The study had a longitudinal design, involving three waves of data collection over a 2-week period, incorporating an experimental manipulation of PMT variables at Time 1 and a volitional, implementation intention intervention at Time 2. Participants (N=248) were randomly allocated to a control group or one of two intervention groups. Cognitions and exercise behaviour were measured at three time-points over a 2-week period. The motivational intervention significantly increased threat and coping appraisal and intentions to engage in exercise but did not bring about a significant increase in subsequent exercise behaviour. In contrast, the combined protection motivation theory/implementation intention intervention had a dramatic effect on subsequent exercise behaviour. This volitional intervention did not influence behavioural intention or any other motivational variables. It is concluded that supplementing PMT with implementation intentions strengthens the ability of the model to explain behaviour. This has implications for health education programmes, which should aim to increase both participants' motivation and their volition.

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... PMT is a cognitive model for predicting individuals' behavior and was originally proposed by Rogers [21]. Similar to HBM (proposed by Rosenstock [22]), it has been widely adopted as a framework for investigating health-related behavior [23], for the purpose of understanding and changing an individual's attitude towards health and responding to messages about health risks [24]. PMT follows the theoretical premises of HBM and its emphasis on the cognitive processes mediating attitudinal and behavioral change [25,26]. ...
... Indicators on the certainty of punishment by authorities (i.e., formal certainty-FC) and by society (informal certainty-IC) were adapted from [56]. Perceived response efficacy (RE) was adapted from [23] and [57], and perceived self-efficacy (SE) was adapted from [23]. Except for one item in each of the following constructs, which were selfdeveloped, the perceived vulnerability to the disease (PV) was adapted from [58] and [59], and the perceived severity (PS) of the disease was adapted from [59]. ...
... Indicators on the certainty of punishment by authorities (i.e., formal certainty-FC) and by society (informal certainty-IC) were adapted from [56]. Perceived response efficacy (RE) was adapted from [23] and [57], and perceived self-efficacy (SE) was adapted from [23]. Except for one item in each of the following constructs, which were selfdeveloped, the perceived vulnerability to the disease (PV) was adapted from [58] and [59], and the perceived severity (PS) of the disease was adapted from [59]. ...
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The emergence of a pandemic is usually accompanied by different measures–economic, social, preventive, and (self)protective. In the case of the COVID-19, several preventive measures were formally enforced by state authorities in the majority of countries worldwide. Thus, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the intertwining of formal and informal social control could be observed. Hence, in this study a cross-sectional design was chosen to explore the issue in Slovenia. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first in the current literature to empirically test the general deterrence theory in pandemic circumstances (as external factors predicting individuals’ compliance with the COVID-19 preventive measures). The results suggest an important role of informal punishment, with perceived informal severity being the only statistically significant factor from the general deterrence theory. In contrast to external factors, internal factors play a significantly greater role in promoting people’s self-protective behavior in pandemic circumstances. During the unknown, the uncertain and delicate situations with which people have no previous experience, both personal beliefs about the effectiveness of measures and perceived self-efficacy are more important than fear of formal sanctions.
... The data of the present study were collected during April -June 2020. A questionnaire was developed to measure protection motivation of people during pandemic by adapting validated scales from previous studies (Bashirian et al., 2020;Milne, Orbell, & Sheeran, 2002;Paital, Das, & Parida, 2020;Plotnikoff & Higginbotham, 2002;Redd, 2012). First draft of the questionnaire was sent to three clinical health psychologist and their feedback was used to revise and modify the questionnaire. ...
... To measure fear participants were asked to rate their level of emotional reactions when they think about COVID-19 (Milne et al., 2002;Redd, 2012) on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = never, 5 = quite a lot). ...
... To measure response cost, participants were asked to evaluate cost (including money, time and effort) of these preventive behaviors (Milne et al., 2002;Shafiei & Maleksaeidi, 2020) on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = at no cost, 5 = very cost). ...
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COVID-19 has been a global threat since November 2019 due to its high transmission rates and the issue of unwillingness to vaccinate. Effective risk management requires accurate health communication and public compliance with reccomended preventive behaviors. Therefore, we investigated predictors of COVID-19 preventive behavior intention based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in addition to frequency of public’s use of and trust in a group of COVID-19 related information sources. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 458 adults in Turkey with online survey. Results showed that all PMT components (except perceived susceptibility) accounted for 49% of the variance in protection motivation and there was relationship between information sources and protection motivation. Overall, our study findings suggested that being more informed and having confidence in the feasibility (self-efficacy) and effectiveness (response efficacy) of preventive behaviors may particularly help slow the disease spread.
... In accordance with the protection motivation theory (PMT), protection motivation is operationalised in terms of the "intentions" of the individuals to perform a recommended precautionary behaviour. The behavioural intentions are influenced by the two sub-processes of threat appraisals and coping appraisals (Maddux & Rogers, 1983;S. Milne et al., 2002;Rogers, 1983). The variables that are used in the fear arousal for threat appraisals are students' perceived severity and perceived vulnerability (Maddux & Rogers, 1983;S. Milne et al., 2002;Rogers, 1983). In coping appraisals, the variables used are the student's beliefs about response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and response cos ...
... precautionary behaviour. The behavioural intentions are influenced by the two sub-processes of threat appraisals and coping appraisals (Maddux & Rogers, 1983;S. Milne et al., 2002;Rogers, 1983). The variables that are used in the fear arousal for threat appraisals are students' perceived severity and perceived vulnerability (Maddux & Rogers, 1983;S. Milne et al., 2002;Rogers, 1983). In coping appraisals, the variables used are the student's beliefs about response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and response cost (Maddux & Rogers, 1983;S. Milne et al., 2002;Rogers, 1983). When an individual student believes that the response will be effective and is confident of performing the recommended behaviour ...
... The variables that are used in the fear arousal for threat appraisals are students' perceived severity and perceived vulnerability (Maddux & Rogers, 1983;S. Milne et al., 2002;Rogers, 1983). In coping appraisals, the variables used are the student's beliefs about response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy, and response cost (Maddux & Rogers, 1983;S. Milne et al., 2002;Rogers, 1983). When an individual student believes that the response will be effective and is confident of performing the recommended behaviour and perceives the cost of misadventure recovery exercise to be low, then he/she will be more likely to adopt the recommended coping response (S. Milne et al., 2002). The protection motivation the ...
Article
This study explores the important components of decision-making that influence the behavioural intentions of international students for educational tourism. A total of 367 samples were generated by using quota sampling technique. The partial Least Square approach was applied to assess the measurement model and structural model. Based on the statistical results, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy and perceived self-efficacy are positively related to behavioural intention, whereas response cost is found not to be negatively related to behavioural intention. This empirical paper has contributed to the existing theoretical literature by adopting Protection Motivation Theory to further understand the elements of the decision-making process. The results revealed that, as compared to threat appraisal variables, coping appraisal variables are more significantly associated with behavioural intention. With these prominent findings, the ministry of education and tourism board can gain an insight on international students’ attitude and behaviour related to educational tourism perspective.
... In total, 2936 participants were randomized to the planning interventions group, while 2948 participants were assigned to the controlled group, with the mean age ranging between 8.06 and 73.30 years old. There were 5 studies targeting women [32,40,43,45,58] and 28 studies with more than 50% female participants [30][31][32][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][58][59][60][61][65][66][67][68][69][70]. Table 1 provides a detailed introduction to these demographic characteristics. ...
... Three studies [49,55,64] explicitly mentioned a sufficient blinding process of participants and researchers, whereas others were unclear. Relatively complete outcome analyses and reports were shown in most of the studies, except in nine studies [30,46,48,[52][53][54][55]60,63] with relatively high drop-out rates. Regarding other bias factors, three studies [50,59,66] were deemed to have a high-risk bias. ...
... In 34 of the included trials [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]47,[49][50][51][52][54][55][56][57][58][59]61,62,64,65,[67][68][69][70], the risk of bias was classified as low or uncertain, whereas 7 studies [30,46,48,53,60,63,66] were classified with high-risk bias. In all 41 studies, sufficient random sequence generation was observed, whereas few of them had conducted their allocation concealment. ...
Article
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Planning interventions such as action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) have been recognized as influential strategies in promoting physical activity (PA), but mixed results of existing evidence have been observed. This study aims to perform a systematical meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of planning interventions for improving PA in the general population. Eight databases, including Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest, CNKI, and Wanfang Data, were searched to locate relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from their inception to 31 December 2021. In total, 41 trials with 5439 samples were included in this systematic review, and 35 trials were used in our meta-analysis. The results showed that PA was better promoted in the planned intervention group compared to the control group (SMD = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.25–0.44, I2 = 61.4%). Based on the subgroup analyses, we found that planning strategies were more effective among patients, males, when adopting AP intervention, when using the face-to-face sessions delivery mode, and when reinforcements were conducted during the follow-up. The findings of this study indicate that planning interventions significantly improved PA behavior, and, in some contexts, the effects performed better. Future research needs to be conducted to explore the underlying mechanisms of planning interventions and validate their effects more extensively.
... The Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) is a psychological and sociological concept that was introduced by Rogers in 1975 and used in recent years to predict individuals' intention to engage in protective behaviors. 15,[116][117][118][119] The theory speaks to reasons and processes by which individuals are motivated to make behavior changes, trying to explain what motivates behavior change. [117][118][119][120] It is based on three main components of fear appeal: the extent of an event, the probability of its occurrence, and the effectiveness of a protective response. ...
... 15,[116][117][118][119] The theory speaks to reasons and processes by which individuals are motivated to make behavior changes, trying to explain what motivates behavior change. [117][118][119][120] It is based on three main components of fear appeal: the extent of an event, the probability of its occurrence, and the effectiveness of a protective response. 116 The PMT model is based on the principle that these factors influence the intention to engage in any behavior, the main determinant of the behavior. ...
... 120 Intention brings about protection motivation, which guides activity for behavior change. 119 However, motivation is only the starting point for behavior change. 119,121,122 Adopting a behavior includes weighing the costs and benefits of the behavior and also developing techniques and plans to ensure to act on the intention. ...
... When coping appraisal and threat appraisal were considered as the second-order construct [17], these two appraisals were used as the second-order reflective measure following the guidelines of Wang and colleagues [17], and each first-order factor could only have two indicators [48]. For the appraisal process in PMT, the measurement variables and scales from the study by Milne and colleagues have been widely adopted [3,29,49]. Thus, all items, except for the new sub-dimension overcrowding perception, were mainly adapted from the study by Milne and colleagues (i.e., severity perception, vulnerability perception, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost) [49], which was modified in order to relate to the pandemic and tourism (e.g., 'If I caught COVID-19 while traveling I would die prematurely'). The new sub-dimension of overcrowding perception in threat appraisal was suggested by Lu and Wei [15]. ...
... For the appraisal process in PMT, the measurement variables and scales from the study by Milne and colleagues have been widely adopted [3,29,49]. Thus, all items, except for the new sub-dimension overcrowding perception, were mainly adapted from the study by Milne and colleagues (i.e., severity perception, vulnerability perception, self-efficacy, response efficacy, response cost) [49], which was modified in order to relate to the pandemic and tourism (e.g., 'If I caught COVID-19 while traveling I would die prematurely'). The new sub-dimension of overcrowding perception in threat appraisal was suggested by Lu and Wei [15]. ...
... The new sub-dimension of overcrowding perception in threat appraisal was suggested by Lu and Wei [15]. Social distancing intention was measured with three questions referred to Milne and colleagues [49] and was modified with the social distancing behaviors proposed by Chen and colleagues (e.g., 'I intend to stay at least 1.5 m from other people while traveling') [7]. Three items for moderator social norms were validated and applied by Chou and Sun [43]. ...
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While protective measures in response to infectious diseases may reduce the freedom of tourists (regarding their behaviors), few studies have documented the effects of destination protective measures on the self-protective behaviors of tourists. By applying the protection motivation theory, this study examines the effects of perceived destination protective supports on the social distancing intentions of tourists during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results reveal significant relationships among perceived destination support, coping appraisal, threat appraisal, and the social distancing intentions of tourists. Moreover, two cognitive appraisals-toward the pandemic-partially mediate the relationship between perceived destination support and social distancing intention, and this mediational process is 'intervened' with by social norms. This has implications on whether tourist destinations apply more rigorous social distancing polices during the COVID-19 pandemic, to enhance the coping confidence behaviors of tourists, without causing anxiety and fear, and to achieve the goal of enhancing tourists' intentions to protect themselves.
... Moreover, as expected, motivation was medium-high across groups. Previous research has shown that II are not highly effective in goal attainment when individuals have not enough motivation (Milne et al., 2002;Prestwich & Kellar, 2008;Sheeran et al., 2005;Soureti et al., 2012a, b). Thus, the levels of motivation in this study are deemed adequate for II to work. ...
... Second, as other authors have noted in previous studies (Milne et al., 2002), there may have been conflicts with other healthy goals, such as a reduction in calories or fat intake: many fiber-rich products have a high caloric content (e.g., nuts and dried fruit) and thus may be perceived as "less healthy". Additionally, fiber-rich food could be perceived as less palatable than non-fiber-rich food. ...
Article
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Healthy eating is a main concern to public policy. Despite the public attention that overweight and obesity has received in recent years, research is still short of evidence about fiber consumption, even though fiber intake represents the third pillar of a healthy diet. This study assesses whether a volitional intervention based on goal planning and educational information raises fiber intake among healthy individuals. We test the effectiveness of implementation intentions accompanied by educational information on fiber intake in a 2x2x2 experiment with 205 university students. The results show that fiber intake did not significantly increase. However, the groups that had made plans for goal attainment narrowed their intention-behavior gap, and those receiving educational information had more knowledge about fiber-rich food. These results are puzzling as fiber intake meets the conditions where implementation intentions would work best. The authors suggest that to raise fiber intake, a combined strategy that involves manufacturers, public authorities and health professionals is needed to create a supportive environment so that individuals can successfully implement their plans.
... De protection motivation theory (PMT) is een sociaal cognitieve theorie die gedrag voorspelt en zich richt op de motivatie die mensen hebben om zichzelf te beschermen. PMT werd in 1975 opgesteld door Rogers (1975) en heeft sindsdien een aantal revisies ondergaan (Floyd, Prentice-Dunn, & Rogers, 2000;Milne, Orbell, & Sheeran, 2002;Norman, Boer, & Seydel, 2005). Conceptueel is "protection motivation" hetzelfde als het hebben van een intentie (Floyd et al., 2000). ...
... Daarnaast beslaat de theorie een breed spectrum van factoren, die samen voorspellen en verklaren in welke mate mensen gemotiveerd zijn om voorzorgsmaatregelen te nemen en preventief gedrag (precautionary behaviour) te vertonen (Floyd et al., 2000;Milne et al., 2002). Volgens PMT raken mensen gemotiveerd om zichzelf te beschermen tegen een dreiging (threat) na een evaluatie van 1) de dreiging en 2) de maatregelen tegen deze dreiging. ...
... In everyday life, planning defines when and where an action will take place, and updates/prioritises the plan of action based on the received information (e.g., I received a letter notifying me of my overdue electricity bill, so, tomorrow I will need pay it after work; Morris & Ward, 2004). Indeed, effective planning has been found to improve PM functioning (Azzopardi et al., 2017;Gonneaud et al., 2011;Liu & Park, 2004;McFarland & Glisky, 2009;Milne, Orbell, & Sheeran, 2002;Mioni & Stablum, 2014;Vanneste et al., 2016;Zuber et al., 2019). Another executive function which is often found to contribute to PM functioning is task-shifting (Azzopardi et al., 2017;Gonneaud et al., 2011;McFarland & Glisky, 2009;Mioni & Stablum, 2014;Vanneste et al., 2016;Zuber et al., 2019). ...
Article
Studies on prospective memory (PM) predominantly assess either event- or time-based PM by implementing non-ecological laboratory-based tasks. The results deriving from these paradigms have provided findings that are discrepant with ecologically valid research paradigms that converge on the complexity and cognitive demands of everyday tasks. The Virtual Reality Everyday Assessment Lab (VR-EAL), an immersive virtual reality (VR) neuropsychological battery with enhanced ecological validity, was implemented to assess everyday event- and time-based PM, as well as the influence of other cognitive functions on everyday PM functioning. The results demonstrated the role of delayed recognition, planning, and visuospatial attention on everyday PM. Delayed recognition and planning ability were found to be central in event- and time-based PM respectively. In order of importance, delayed recognition, visuospatial attention speed, and planning ability were found to be involved in event-based PM functioning. Comparably, planning, visuospatial attention accuracy, delayed recognition, and multitasking/task-shifting ability were found to be involved in time-based PM functioning. These findings further suggest the importance of ecological validity in the study of PM, which may be achieved using immersive VR paradigms.
... This theory has been extensively tested and operationalized in health-related studies (Eppright, Tanner, & Hunt, 1994;Milne, Orbell, & Sheeran, 2002;Grindley, Zizzi, & Nasypany, 2008) and very early on in a marketing context (Tunner, Day, & Crask, 1989). ...
Article
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Location based mobile applications (LBMA) are developing rapidly with the increasing adoption of smartphones. These applications advantage userś location to provide products or services based on information obtained from their smart devices. However, implementation and execution of these services may raise userś privacy concerns related to sensitive information being handled. In this context, this paper examines the factors that motivate users and lead them to protect their privacy while using LBMA. It also considers potential benefits they could encounter and thus enable their privacy trade. The model proposed is based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and tested through a variance-based Structural Equations Modelling approach. Data were obtained through an online survey with 820 participants. Findings reveal that perceived severity, perceived vulnerability and self-efficacy exert a positive effect on the intention of privacy protection, which in turn is found to be positively related to the behavior of protecting privacy.
... In other words, intention has been often determined by other variables. Hence, in describing protection intention (PI), it could be understood as a protection motive that sustains, guides, and initiates the intentions of individuals to perform the precautionary behavior proposed (Milne et al., 2002). Therefore, the present study hypothesized that: ...
Article
The determinants of bring-your-own-device (BYOD) use protection intentions affecting BYOD usage protection behaviors were examined in this study. The determinants of employees’ behavioral intention to use and their actual protection behavior in protecting their devices BYOD environment were identified. Jordanian residents aged 18 and above, with mobile learning behavioral usage awareness, made up the study population. A survey questionnaire was used to obtain the data, while the proposed research model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show positive impact of BYOD usage protection intention on mobile learning behavioral usage, while attitude showed insignificant impact on BODY usage protection intention. Subjective norms significantly affected BYOD usage protection intention, while information security awareness showed insignificant impact on BYOD usage protection intention.
... Peters and Templin (2010) found that self-care motivation had a strong load on perceived behavioral control. Milne et al. (2002) demonstrated that motivational interventions based on protection motivation theory variables had a significant effect on changing beliefs. When appearance is highly motivated to exercise, it may inspire a belief in fitness control. ...
Purpose This study aims to explore the influence of appearance comparison on fitness intention. Specifically, it analyzes the mediating effect of appearance-based exercise motivation and perceived behavioral control between appearance comparison and fitness intention. Design/methodology/approach 434 samples were obtained by the network survey in China. Hierarchical regression analysis and the Hayes' SPSS PROCESS macro were used to verify the hypotheses. Findings Appearance comparison has a positive influence on fitness intention. Appearance-based exercise motivation mediates appearance comparison and fitness intention. Appearance comparison can produce a positive effect on fitness intention via appearance-based exercise motivation and perceived behavioral control in sequence. Practical implications The findings have some practical implications for both individuals and fitness center managers. First, people can view appearance comparison rationally, understand the process of its transformation into fitness intention and enhance fitness intention. Second, fitness center managers can make some reasonable marketing plans according to this study. Originality/value This study explores the positive effects of appearance comparison combining social comparison theory, social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior. It contributes to extant literatures about appearance comparison and fitness intention by promoting the understanding of the influence mechanism of fitness intention.
... Because such goals comprise no specific link between a situation and a behavior, they are conducive to more deliberative, top-down ways of self-regulation than if-then planning, which facilitates automatic, bottom-up ways of self-regulation. Importantly, research shows that when it comes to staying on track, even when performing the goal-directed behavior is perceived as aversive, if-then planning is a more effective self-regulation strategy than goal setting [39]. Moreover, if-then plans are effective for counteracting impulsive reactions [40], which can be helpful for example when an athlete has to control the impulse to follow every acceleration of her opponents (because not controlling this impulse would eventually wear out the athlete, reducing the chance to win the race). ...
Article
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Endurance sports pose a plethora of mental demands that exercisers have to deal with. Unfortunately, investigations of exercise-specific demands and strategies to deal with them are insufficiently researched, leading to a gap in knowledge about athletic requirements and strategies used to deal with them. Here, we investigated which obstacles exercisers experience during an anaerobic (Wingate test) and an aerobic cycling test (incremental exercise test), as well as the strategies they considered helpful for dealing with these obstacles (qualitative analysis). In addition, we examined whether thinking of these obstacles and strategies in terms of if-then plans (or implementation intentions; i.e., “If I encounter obstacle O, then I will apply strategy S!”) improves performance over merely setting performance goals (i.e., goal intentions; quantitative analysis). N = 59 participants (age: M = 23.9 ± 6.5 years) performed both tests twice in a 2-within (Experimental session: 1 vs. 2) × 2-between (Condition: goal vs. implementation intention) design. Exercisers’ obstacles and strategies were assessed using structured interviews in Session 1 and subjected to thematic analysis. In both tests, feelings of exertion were the most frequently stated obstacle. Motivation to do well, self-encouragement, and focus on the body and on cycling were frequently stated strategies in both tests. There were also test-specific obstacles, such as boredom reported in the aerobic test. For session 2, the obstacles and strategies elicited in Session 1 were used to specify if-then plans. Bayesian mixed-factor ANOVA suggests, however, that if-then plans did not help exercisers to improve their performance. These findings shed novel light into the mental processes accompanying endurance exercise and the limits they pose on performance.
... The technique has proved to be helpful in the goal pursuit studies, in which it involved specifying exactly when and how the goal would be achieved (e.g., when I am back from church on a Christmas day, then I will sit at my father's desk and start writing a report), in contrast to having just a goal intention (e.g., I intend to write a report over Christmas holiday) (e.g., [11][12][13]). II has been found to facilitate the initiation of goal-directed actions [11] and help when those actions require considerable effort, delaying gratification or cause discomfort, e.g., ensuring that you engage in a 20-minute session of intense exercise once a week [14,15]. ...
Article
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Prospective memory (PM), which is the ability to remember to do something in the future, is vitally important for successful everyday functioning. Although young adults demonstrate high PM abilities in laboratory settings, their abilities to complete intended actions in naturalistic settings are surprisingly low. The present study tested the effectiveness of various encoding techniques in improving young adults’ performance in everyday life. Ninety-two participants were asked to remember to take photographs of receipts for a duration of seven days. The task instructions were either given alone or followed by: (a) the if-then statement, (b) visualising the task, or (c) the combination of the if-then statement plus visualisation. The if-then statement alone significantly speeded up responses to the prospective memory targets, i.e., less time elapsed between getting a receipt and taking a photograph of it. With no effect of the if-then statement on the proportion of correct PM responses, the results may suggest that the if-then statement strengthened the PM cue-intention association but did not influence the PM cue saliency.
... Implementation intentions seem to be efficient strategic vehicles to promote repeated behavior by mentally anticipating a habit architecture. Although attitudes may play an important role in initiating the formation of an implementation intention (Milne et al. 2002), the translation of action into habit will ultimately depend upon repetition in stable cue contexts over prolonged time periods. ...
Article
Efforts to guide peoples’ behavior toward environmental sustainability, good health, or new products have emphasized informational and attitude change strategies. There is evidence that changing attitudes leads to changes in behavior, yet this approach takes insufficient account of the nature and operation of habits, which form boundary conditions for attitude-directed interventions. Integration of research on attitudes and habits might enable investigators to identify when and how behavior change strategies will be most effective. How might attitudinally driven behavior change be consolidated into lasting habits? How do habits protect the individual against the vicissitudes of attitudes and temptations and promote goal achievement? How might attitudinal approaches aiming to change habits be improved by capitalizing on habit discontinuities and strategic planning? When and how might changing or creating habit architecture shape habits directly? A systematic approach to these questions might help move behavior change efforts from attitude change strategies to habit change strategies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... PMT is widely used to analyze people's performance in disease prevention and health promotion. The main factors involved in PMT are threat and coping appraisals [37]. Individuals evaluate the risk or threat before making appropriate behavioral decisions. ...
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Background Although middle-aged and elderly users are the main group targeted by health maintenance-oriented WeChat official accounts (HM-WOAs), few studies have explored the relationship of these accounts and their users. Exploring the factors that influence the continuous adoption of WOAs is helpful to strengthen the health education of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Objective We developed a new theoretical model and explored the factors that influence middle-aged and elderly individuals' continuous usage intention for HM-WOA. Performance expectancy mediated the effects of the model in explaining continuous usage intention and introduced health literacy into the model. Methods We established a hybrid theoretical model on the basis of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 model (UTAUT2), the health belief model (BHM), protection motivation theory (PMT), and health literacy. We collected valid responses from 396 middle-aged and elderly users aged ≥ 45 years in China. To verify our hypotheses, we analyzed the data using structural equation modeling. Results Performance expectancy (β = 0.383, P < 0.001), hedonic motivation (β = 0.502, P < 0.001), social influence (β = 0.134, P = 0.049), and threat appraisal (β = 0.136, P < 0.001) positively influenced middle-aged and elderly users' continuous usage intention. Perceived health threat (β = − 0.065, P = 0.053) did not have a significant effect on continuous usage intention. Both threat appraisal (β = 0.579, P < 0.001) and health literacy (β = 0.579, P < 0.001) positively affected performance expectancy. Threat appraisal indirectly affected continuous usage intention through performance expectancy mediation. Conclusions Our new theoretical model is useful for understanding middle-aged and elderly users' continuous usage intention for HM-WOA. Performance expectancy plays a mediation role between threat appraisal and continuous usage intention, and health literacy positively affects performance expectancy.
... For example, an exerciser might use the following if-then statement to address derailed exercise plans: "If the rain prevents me from exercising outside as originally intended, then I will watch an exercise video and exercise indoors instead." The use of implementation intentions in interventions has improved activity behavior (e.g., Milne, Orbell, & Sheeran, 2002;Robinson, Bisson, Hughes, Ebert, & Lachman, 2019). ...
... In fact, volition in action and motivation has been adopted jointly to guide in health behavior research. 50 For example, in one of the studies analyzed, which was examining a physical activity intervention targeting breast cancer survivors, an integrative Motivation-Volition (MoVo) concept was used to provide a theoretical model to guide the intervention design. 15 Another related concept observed is self-efficacy, which is defined as the self-judgment of one's capability to attain the desired outcome. ...
Article
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Motivation for health promotion is an essential concept in health care research, as it pertains to an individual's ability to adapt to the adversity of chronic illnesses, including cancer. Adopting Rodgers' evolutionary method of concept analysis, the objective of this article is to clarify the concept based on its existing operationalization noted in cancer survivorship literature. Through a close examination of the construction of the concept, this article facilitates the understanding of concept as it relates to the field of cancer survivorship care, which in turn helps provide guidance for developing health promotion intervention targeted at cancer survivors.
... In response to RQ2, items measuring the five PMT factors were adapted from other studies employing PMT, such as Milne et al. (2002), Workman et al. (2008), Zhang and McDowell (2009), Johnston and Warkentin (2010), Liang and Xue (2010) and Posey et al. (2015). ...
... To better understand what causes behaviour alteration, more profound examination and investigation needs to be made regarding posting on purpose to get predefined desired results (Abraham et al., 1998). Being conscious of the mentioned aspect, later studies on implementation intentions and attention control (Kuhl and Fuhrmann, 1998;Milne et al., 2002;Orbell, 2003;Orbell et al., 1997;Orbell and Sheeran, 1998) added the volitional construct to motivational prediction models, for instance TPB, TRA and PMT or other suggestions such as changed model phases (e.g., the transtheoretical model by Prochaska and DiClemente, 1983). ...
Article
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When interacting with each other virtually on social media sites, users may potentially encounter their own "self-presence". To improve their physical self-presence on social media, users might resolve to curate themselves to match their ideal perceptions of themselves and others. This study examines the intention to alter one's factual self in real life whilst contemplating the on-line self on social media. Data were derived from a social survey of Vietnamese adults. The results indicate the remarkable mediating relationship from the level of editing self-images to three choices of intention to change the body image in real life. Nevertheless, this paper does not provide enough evidence to confirm any link connecting distal intentions (D-intentions), proximal intentions (P-intentions) and motor intentions (M-intentions) with private self-consciousness, with the latter as the moderator variable. This study, therefore, might provide an exclusive idea of how online behaviour can be related to one's offline behaviour in terms of body image. With an understanding of this aspect, many implications can be found in regard to applications/programmes in research, development and marketing.
... The PMT nudge was designed to motivate participants to use Tor Browser, the action planning nudge to help participants identify opportunities to use Tor Browser, and the coping planning nudge to help participants overcome challenges associated with using Tor Browser ( § 2.3). The literature suggests that implementation intention plans are most effective when people are strongly motivated [41,58], so we tested our implementation intentions together with our PMT nudge. We administered our coping planning nudge one week after the initial interventions, to give participants time to encounter challenges using Tor Browser. ...
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Browsing privacy tools can help people protect their digital privacy. However, tools which provide the strongest protections—such as Tor Browser—have struggled to achieve widespread adoption. This may be due to usability challenges, misconceptions, behavioral biases, or mere lack of awareness. In this study, we test the effectiveness of nudging interventions that encourage the adoption of Tor Browser. First, we test an informational nudge based on protection motivation theory (PMT), designed to raise awareness of Tor Browser and help participants form accurate perceptions of it. Next, we add an action planning implementation intention, designed to help participants identify opportunities for using Tor Browser. Finally, we add a coping planning implementation intention, designed to help participants overcome challenges to using Tor Browser, such as extreme website slowness. We test these nudges in a longitudinal field experiment with 537 participants. We find that our PMT-based intervention increased use of Tor Browser in both the short- and long-term. Our coping planning nudge also increased use of Tor Browser, but only in the week following our intervention. We did not find statistically significant evidence of our action planning nudge increasing use of Tor Browser. Our study contributes to a greater understanding of factors influencing the adoption of Tor Browser, and how nudges might be used to encourage the adoption of Tor Browser and similar privacy enhancing technologies.
... En este caso, la autoeficacia se volvería el predictor principal de la intención, lo que explicaría el efecto más fuerte de una intervención enfocada en aumentar la autoeficacia. Algunos estudios han mostrado los efectos benéficos de la planeación de la acción en varios dominios del comportamiento y la salud (ingesta reducida de alimentos ricos en grasas, Armitage, 2004; y aumento de ejercicio físico, Milne et al., 2002;; sin embargo, investigaciones recientes no han corroborado esta relación. Por ejemplo, Hattar et al. (2016), en un estudio con participantes con sobrepeso, no encontraron efectos de la planeación de la acción sobre la actividad física. ...
Article
El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el impacto de la estrategia de autorregulación de Contraste Mental e Intenciones de Implementación (MCII) como complemento de una intervención con base en el Enfoque del Proceso de Acción en Salud (HAPA) para realizar ejercicio. Fueron reclutados 76 participantes con sobrepeso (índice de masa corporal [IMC]≥25) que querían perder peso (Medad =40 años; MIMC=29). Los participantes fueron asignados al azar a dos condiciones: HAPA (n=36) y HAPA+MCII (n=40). Las variables de interés (horas de ejercicio auto reportadas, medidas corporales y salud psicológica con DASS-21 e IWQOL-Lite) se midieron al inicio, en la semana 6 y en la 12. Encontramos un aumento significativo en las horas de ejercicio y disminución significativa del IMC y IWQOL-Lite Estado Físico y Autoestima al comparar las ocasiones de medición para la muestra total. Se observaron mayores efectos del protocolo HAPA+MCII que del HAPA en las variables de estudio, con excepción de las variables Ansiedad del DASS-21 y Vida sexual del IWQOL-Lite. Sin embargo, en ningún caso las diferencias resultaron estadísticamente significativas. El estudio indica el papel fundamental que desempeñan la autoeficacia y su operacionalización en el logro de una intervención exitosa. Al combinar dos protocolos, se recomienda considerar el efecto de techo que se puede obtener con un solo protocolo.
... The Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) is a breakthrough explanatory model for anticipating individuals' desire to engage in protective acts [100]. The protection intention is described as a protection motive that motivates, sustains, directs, and activates an individual's intentions to perform the recommended precautionary behavior [101]. PMT was incorporated by [54] and [51] in their studies to investigate individuals' intentions to protect organization resources and data through antivirus applications, general PC-security operations and adhere to their organization's information security policies. ...
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Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) allows employees to access the organizational network via their devices/technology. This trend is beneficial to the employees in terms of greater flexibility, apart from productivity and cost savings for the company. Enabling employees to use their own devices at the workplace may lead the company to become vulnerable to information security threats as employees do not possess the right understanding of protecting their devices. This study analyzed the factors that determine employees' behavioral intention and their actual protection behavior in protecting their devices in BYOD environment. A self-administered questionnaire was conducted with 383 government employees in Oman. The results indicated that perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response cost, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and knowledge influenced employees' BYOD intention protection behavior while perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy, response cost, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were found to influence BYOD protection behavior. Contrarily, response efficacy, security self-efficacy, attitude, and information security awareness were found to be nonsignificant on protection intention. The findings also revealed that the mediator (protection intention) has a considerable beneficial impact on the dependent variable (protection behavior). Hence, employers should develop an all-encompassing approach to improve their employees' BYOD usage protection behavior to secure the organization's assets.
... Implementation intentions focus on the intention-behaviour gap (Ajzen & Manstead, 2007), and consist of plans of action which specify when, where, and how a particular behavioural intention will be enacted (Gollwitzer, 1999). Milne, Orbell, and Sheeran (2002) found that supplementing a motivational intervention based on the Protection Motivation Theory, with implementation intentions, increased exercise participation behaviour beyond the effects produced by the motivational intervention alone. However, within the TPB written intervention studies, implementation intentions did not influence behaviour or produce effects beyond those of comparison leaflet interventions (Hill et aI., 2007;Murgraff et aI.,2007). ...
Thesis
p>A qualitative study (N = 21) was conducted to examine health professionals’ views regarding the implementation of the NICE guidelines for heart failure management and the communication of the management plan. Health professionals felt that they had insufficient time to deliver adequate information to patients and were uncertain about what information patients wanted or could cope with. The findings from this study indicated that a written patient intervention might be a suitable way of implementing these guidelines within the context of current service provision. A theory-based booklet intervention, entitled ‘Improving Heart Function’ (IHF) was developed. This booklet provided patients with information about their illness and its management. A qualitative study (N = 14) was conducted to elicit patients’ salient beliefs about key self-management behaviours, and to pilot the booklet on intended users. Patients’ feedback was then used to improve the booklet and patients’ beliefs were targeted to promote a more positive attitude and to increase perceived behavioural control (PBC). Strategies selected from other leading theories of behaviour and behaviour change were also incorporated into the booklet. A pilot randomised controlled trial (N = 94) assessed the effectiveness of the IHF booklet in increasing heart failure patients’ knowledge and self-management. This theory-based booklet was found to be more effective in improving knowledge, and initiating change in the mediators of behaviour compared to an atheoretical booklet and no-booklet control. Results showed that the IHF booklet promoted more favourable attitudes and increased PBC for regular physical activity, and produced greater improvements in attitude and intention for regular weighing. Future research should continue to explore and evaluate the utility of social cognitive theories in the development of patient education materials. Written health information that is rigorously developed and evaluated has the potential to be a valuable resource in helping heart failure patients to understand and cope with their illness, and its self-management.</p
... If-then plans are so-named because they have the format, If [opportunity/obstacle] occurs, then I will [respond in this way]! If-then planning has proven effective in promoting medication adherence [89], physical activity [90], teen pregnancy prevention [91], and cancer screening [92] among many other health behaviors. In a meta-analysis of meta-analyses of implementation intention interventions, d + was .54 ...
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Background and Purpose Interventions are effective in promoting health behavior change to the extent that (a) intervention strategies modify targets (i.e., mechanisms of action), and (b) modifying targets leads to changes in behavior. To complement taxonomies that characterize the variety of strategies used in behavioral interventions, we outline a new principle that specifies how strategies modify targets and thereby promote behavior change. We distinguish two dimensions of targets—value (positive vs. negative) and accessibility (activation level)—and show that intervention strategies operate either by altering the value of what people think, feel, or want (target change) or by heightening the accessibility of behavior-related thoughts, feelings, and goals (target activation). Methods and Results We review strategies designed to promote target activation and find that nudges, cue-reminders, goal priming, the question-behavior effect, and if-then planning are each effective in generating health behavior change, and that their effectiveness accrues from heightened accessibility of relevant targets. We also identify several other strategies that may operate, at least in part, via target activation (e.g., self-monitoring, message framing, anticipated regret inductions, and habits). Conclusions The Activation Vs. Change Principle (AVCP) offers a theoretically grounded and parsimonious means of distinguishing among intervention strategies. By focusing on how strategies modify targets, the AVCP can aid interventionists in deciding which intervention strategies to deploy and how to combine different strategies in behavioral trials. We outline a research agenda that could serve to further enhance the design and delivery of interventions to promote target activation.
... Since there were not validated PMT measures applicable to COVID-19, measures were developed in line with current guidelines (Norman et al., 2015) and adapted from previous studies on health protection behaviours (Milne et al., 2002;Powell et al., 2016;Sheeran & Conner, 2017;Workman et al., 2008) and previous respiratory infections (Bults et al., 2011;Ling et al., 2019). PMT items used in the study are reported in the Supplemental Material file. ...
Article
Objective: The study investigated whether Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) constructs predicted recommended protective behaviours soon after the Italian lockdown and 1-year later. Design: A three-wave longitudinal design was used. Three-hundred-fifty-two adults completed online questionnaires with PMT and intention measures assessed during the Italian lockdown (T1), and behaviour measures assessed after 1-month (T2) and 1-year (T3). Outcome measures: Intentions to adopt behaviours (T1) and behaviour adherence at T2 and T3. Results: From T2 to T3, participants reported less adoption of distance behaviours, but higher face masks use. In SEM models, self-efficacy and perceived severity were the strongest predictors of intentions to engage in protective behaviours. Intentions (β = 0.490, p < 0.001) and fear arousal (β = 0.134 p = 0.035) predicted protective behaviours at T2. Intentions (β = 0.302, p = 0.001) and perceived severity (β = 0.431, p < 0.001) predicted protective behaviours at T3. Conclusion: To increase intentions, intervention should highlight the severity of getting infected and target perceptions of one's ability to perform the protective behaviours. In addition, interventions should consider that at the beginning of the pandemic, fear predicted the adoption of preventive behaviours while perceived severity of the disease had a greater impact over time.
... The study will be based on participant demographics and measuring initial characteristics of respondents.In part II of this study, we collected data related to protection motivation theory and its sources of antecedents, as well as employees' fear appeals.In addition to threat appraisals, coping appraisals and seven items for work-related harassment intention and behavior, PMT scales have been adapted from existing literature. Perceived Vulnerability (PV) (Sinclair et al., 2002;Wright & Fitzgerald, 2007;Wurtele & Maddux, 1987), Perceived Severity (PS) (Hodgkins & Orbell, 1998;Milne et al., 2002), Response Efficacy (RE) (Marijnissen et al., 2020;Witte, 1996), and Self-Efficacy (SE) (Block & Keller, 1998;Johnston & Warkentin, 2010;Zhang et al., 2017). Items were tested for factor structure and composition (Hair et al., 2016;Ramayah et al., 2018). ...
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The use of fear appeals in persuasive messages has long been used to motivate people to act in adaptive ways. Nevertheless, workplace harassment leads to many unintended consequences. The question of identifying and systematically evaluating relevant research findings has never been explored in a comprehensive, interdisciplinary way despite the demonstrated interest from researchers across a range of disciplines. The study examines the effects of a fear appeal message regarding workplace harassment. While scholars and practitioners recognize that workplace harassment occurs in various forms in organizations, there is little knowledge regarding how these different forms of harassment influence employees' outcomes. In this study, the goal was to determine whether protection motivation theory (PMT) can be used to explain the intentions of employees to quit their jobs. A random sample of 290 participants was selected from different service sector organizations in Pakistan and studied over two different periods. A sample of respondents without fear appeal was obtained at time1, and a sample of respondents with fear massage was collected at time2. By using composite confirmatory analysis (CCA) and partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), we were able to determine the validity and reliability of each PMT construct. Higher perceived vulnerabilities, self-efficacy, and response efficacy were significantly correlated with higher quitting intentions, but intrinsic rewards were inversely related. A higher threat and coping appraisal were significantly associated with a higher quitting intention but was negatively associated with response cost.PMT has been found effective at predicting the quitting intentions of employees in Pakistani organizations. According to the study, it appears that the fear-inducing message can interact with the message to influence access to maladaptive behavior. The results are discussed concerning models of fear appeals.
... Various persuasive games or BCGs from different fields are informed by the theories of behaviour change in the process of game design, such as health games [5] and exergames [34]. There is a relationship between the theories of behaviour change and the choice of game elements that should be embedded in BCGs. ...
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Over the years, there has been a significant increase in the adoption of game-based interventions for behaviour change associated with many fields such as health, education, and psychology. This is due to the significance of the players’ intrinsic motivation that is naturally generated to play games and the substantial impact they can have on players. Many review papers measure the effectiveness of the use of gaming on changing behaviours; however, these studies neglect the game features involved in the game design process, which have an impact of stimulating behaviour change. Therefore, this paper aimed to identify game design mechanics and features that are reported to commonly influence behaviour change during and/or after the interventions. This paper identified key theories of behaviour change that inform the game design process, providing insights that can be adopted by game designers for informing considerations on the use of game features for moderating behaviour in their own games.
... In order to facilitate the integration of exercise into daily life routines during the current or future pandemics, motivational and volitional skills need to be identified and encouraged (Milne et al., 2002;Zhang et al., 2019). The integration of behavioral change techniques (BCTs) into exercise programs might be an effective method to remove or work around the above-mentioned barriers and to strengthen specific affect regulation skills regarding exercise. ...
Article
Background: COVID-19-related confinements pose a threat to mental health. We investigated prevalence rates of symptoms of depression, generalized anxiety and insomnia in German adults. Furthermore, we explored associations of exercise behavior with disorder-specific symptoms and assessed whether specific affect regulation skills enhance the effect of exercise on symptom alleviation. Methods: Cross-sectional survey-based data collected during the first lockdown is presented: 4268 adults completed questionnaires on mental health, exercise behavior and Covid-related lifestyle factors. Primary outcome was depression (PHQ-9), secondary outcomes generalized anxiety (PHQ-D) and sleep quality (PSQI). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the association of exercise behavior with the outcomes. Results: Analyses resulted in elevated symptoms of psychological distress (probable cases of depressive disorder: 31.2%, anxiety disorder: 7.5%, sleeping disorder: 43.0%). A change towards less exercise during the lockdown was significantly associated with higher levels of depression (t=5.269; β=0.077, p<.001), anxiety (t=3.397; β=0.055, p<.001) and insomnia (t=3.466; β=0.058; p<.001). Physical activity (PA)-related affect regulation enhanced the effect of exercise on mental health. Conclusions: Results suggest a demand for measures which promote the maintenance of exercise during a pandemic and improve PA-related affect regulation to optimize effects of exercise on mental health.
... Although earlier studies have shown beneficial effects of action planning in various health-behavior domains (cervical cancer diagnostic screening (Sheeran & Orbell, 2000), breast self-examination (Luszczynska & Schwarzer, 2003), reduced intake of high-fat foods (Armitage, 2004), and increased physical exercise (Milne, Orbell & Sheeran, 2002;Sniehotta, Schwarzer, Scholz & Schüz, 2005), various more recent studies have not corroborated this relationship. Hattar et al. (2016) in a study with overweight Australians, did not corroborate the effect of change in action planning on change in physical activity. ...
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Se realizó una prueba del modelo Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) para predecir el ejercicio físico y sus efectos sobre los resultados corporales, cardiometabólicos y psicológicos en una muestra de adultos mexicanos con riesgo cardiometabólico que deseaban adelgazar. Se hicieron medidas al inicio del estudio, en la semana 6 y en la semana 12 después de la intervención de las variables HAPA (autoeficacia, expectativas de resultados, percepción de riesgo, intención, autoeficacia de mantenimiento, planificación de acciones); las variables de resultado como la salud corporal (el peso y la grasa), la salud cardiometabólica (colesterol LDL y triglicéridos), la salud psicológica percibida (calidad de vida y estrés psicológico); el IMC y la relación cintura/altura. Un total de 82 adultos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión: IMC ≥ 25 y/o relación peso/talla ≥ .5 cm, de estos, 50 finalizaron el programa. El modelo probado mediante ecuaciones estructurales no mostró un ajuste adecuado: CFI = .782, GFI = .858, SRMR = .111. Sin embargo, la variable expectativas tuvo un efecto significativo sobre las intenciones y la autoeficacia de la acción sobre la autoeficacia de mantenimiento, representando el 24% y el 17% de la varianza, respectivamente, sin encontrar otra relación. Además, los cambios en el ejercicio tuvieron un efecto positivo en la salud corporal explicando el 11% de la varianza. Se necesitan más estudios para comprender otros predictores cruciales de la actividad física en muestras fuera de los países occidentales, educados, industrializados, ricos y democráticos.
... Planning appears to be central to Gollwitzer's term implementation intention, which is an encoding technique for future actions by associating a cue with the intended action (i.e., "if I encounter X then I will do Y"; Gollwitzer, 1999). This encoding technique has been found to significantly ameliorate PM performance (Liu & Park, 2004;Milne, Orbell, & Sheeran, 2002). In focal tasks, the cue is highly associated with the intended action; however, in non-focal tasks, the cue is not strongly associated with the intended action. ...
Thesis
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In cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, the collection of cognitive and behavioural data is predominantly achieved by implementing paper-and-pencil and computerized (i.e., 2D and 3D applications) assessments. However, these psychometric tools in clinics and/or laboratories display several limitations and discrepancies between the observed performance in the laboratory/clinic and the actual performance of individuals in everyday life. The functional and predictive association between an individual's performance on a set of neuropsychological tests and the individual's performance in various everyday life settings is called ecological validity. Ecological validity is considered an important issue that cannot be resolved by the currently available assessment tools. Virtual reality head-mounted displays (HMD) appear to be effective research tools, which may address the problem of ecological validity in neuropsychological testing. However, their widespread implementation is hindered by virtual reality induced symptoms and effects (VRISE) and the lack of skills in virtual reality software development. In this PhD, a technological systematic literature review of the reasons for adverse symptomatology was conducted and suggestions and technological knowledge for the implementation of virtual reality HMD systems in cognitive neuroscience provided. The review indicated features pertinent to display, sound, motion tracking, navigation, ergonomic interactions, user experience, and computer hardware that should be considered by researchers. Subsequently, a meta-analysis of 44 neuroscientific or neuropsychological studies involving virtual reality HMD systems was performed. The meta-analysis of the virtual reality studies demonstrated that new generation HMDs induce significantly less VRISE and marginally fewer dropouts. Importantly, the commercial versions of the new generation HMDs with ergonomic interactions had zero incidents of adverse symptomatology and dropouts. HMDs equivalent to or greater than the commercial versions of contemporary HMDs accompanied with ergonomic interactions are suitable for implementation in cognitive neuroscience. Another aim of this PhD was to devise a brief tool to appraise and report both the quality of software features and VRISE intensity quantitatively; such a tool does not currently exist. The Virtual Reality Neuroscience Questionnaire (VRNQ; Kourtesis et al., 2019) was developed to assess the quality of virtual reality software in terms of user experience, game mechanics, in-game assistance, and VRISE. Forty participants aged between 28 and 43 years were recruited (18 gamers and 22 non-gamers) for the study. They participated in 3 different virtual reality sessions until they felt weary or discomfort and subsequently filled in the VRNQ. The results demonstrated that VRNQ is a valid tool for assessing virtual reality software as it has good convergent, discriminant, and construct validity. The maximum duration of virtual reality sessions should be between 55 and 70 min when the virtual reality software meets or exceeds the parsimonious cut-offs of the VRNQ, and the users are familiarized with the virtual reality system. Also, gaming experience does not affect how long virtual reality sessions should last. Furthermore, while the quality of virtual reality software substantially modulates the maximum duration of virtual reality sessions, age and education do not. Finally, deeper immersion, better quality of graphics and sound, and more helpful in-game instructions and prompts were found to reduce VRISE intensity. The VRNQ facilitates the brief assessment and reporting of the quality of virtual reality software features and/or the intensity of VRISE, while its minimum and parsimonious cut-offs may appraise the suitability of virtual reality software for implementation in research and clinical settings. However, the development of virtual reality software is predominantly dependent on third parties (e.g., freelancers or companies) with programming and software development skills. A solution that will promote the adoption of immersive virtual reality as a research and clinical tool might be the in-house development of virtual reality research/clinical software by computer science literate cognitive scientists or research software engineers. In Chapter 4, guidelines are offered for the development of virtual reality software in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, by describing and discussing the stages of the development of Virtual Reality Everyday Assessment Lab (VR-EAL), the first neuropsychological battery in immersive virtual reality. Techniques for evaluating cognitive functions within a realistic storyline are discussed. The utility of various assets in Unity, software development kits, and other software are described so that cognitive scientists can overcome challenges pertinent to VRISE and the quality of the virtual reality software. In addition, VR-EAL is evaluated in accordance with the necessary criteria for virtual reality software for research purposes. The virtual reality neuroscience questionnaire (VRNQ) was implemented to appraise the quality of the three versions of VR-EAL in terms of user experience, game mechanics, in-game assistance, and VRISE. Twenty-five participants aged between 20 and 45 years with 12-16 years of full-time education evaluated various versions of VR-EAL. The final version of VR-EAL achieved high scores in every sub-score of the VRNQ and exceeded its parsimonious cut-offs. It also appeared to have better in-game assistance and game mechanics, while its improved graphics substantially increased the quality of the user experience and almost eradicated VRISE. The results substantially support the feasibility of the development of effective virtual reality research and clinical software without the presence of VRISE during a 60-min virtual reality session. In Chapter 5, validation of VR-EAL as an assessment of prospective memory, episodic memory, attention, and executive functions using an ecologically valid approach is examined. Performance on the VR-EAL, an immersive virtual reality neuropsychological battery, is examined against an extensive paper-and-pencil neuropsychological battery. Forty-one participants (21 females) were recruited: 18 gamers and 23 non-gamers who attended both an immersive virtual reality and a paper-and-pencil testing session. Bayesian Pearson correlation analyses were conducted to assess construct and convergent validity of the VR-EAL. Bayesian t-tests were performed to compare virtual reality and paper-and-pencil testing in terms of administration time, similarity to real life tasks (i.e., ecological validity), and pleasantness. VR-EAL scores were significantly correlated with their equivalent scores on the paper-and-pencil tests. The participants' reports indicated that the VR-EAL tasks were considered significantly more ecologically valid and pleasant than the paper-and-pencil neuropsychological battery. The VR-EAL battery also had a shorter administration time. The VR-EAL appears to be an effective neuropsychological tool for the assessment of everyday cognitive functions, and has enhanced ecological validity, a highly pleasant testing experience, and does not induce cybersickness. In the final part of this thesis, the preparatory attentional and memory (PAM) and the multiprocess theories of prospective memory are examined by attempting to identify the cognitive functions which may predict the individual's performance on ecologically valid prospective memory tasks in the same group of participants described in Chapter 5. Bayesian t-tests were conducted to explore the differences among different prospective memory tasks (e.g., event-based and time-based) and prospective memory tasks with varying delays between encoding and the recall of the intended action (e.g., short-delay versus long-delay). Bayesian linear regression analyses were performed to examine the predictors of VR-EAL scores. The results revealed that the type of prospective memory task does not play a significant role in everyday prospective memory functioning, but instead the length of delay between encoding and retrieving the prospective memory intention plays a central role. Support for the PAM and MP frameworks was found in non-focal and focal event-based tasks respectively. However, the findings, inferring a dynamic interplay between automatic and intentional monitoring and retrieval processes, agree with the inclusive approach of the multiprocess framework. Also, the role of executive functions appears crucial in everyday PM. Finally, everyday PM is predominantly facilitated by episodic memory, visuospatial attention, auditory attention, and executive functions. In conclusion, this PhD thesis attempted to show how immersive virtual reality research methods may be implemented efficiently without the confounding effect of cybersickness symptomatology in order to enhance the ecological validity of neuropsychological testing and contribute to our understanding of everyday cognitive ability.
... Implementation intentions are proposed to promote better intention enactment by facilitating the accessibility of the mental representation of the intended behavior when the situational cue specified in the plan is presented or becomes salient [16,24,26]. The act of planning, therefore, enables rapid and efficient execution of the intended behavior in response to the presentation of the linked cue, similar to habits [5,27,28]. It is also important to note that implementation intentions promote more efficient initiation of a specific goal-directed response to the critical situation, rather than facilitating motivation and intentions to pursue the goal. ...
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While there is good evidence supporting the positive effect of planning strategies like implementation intentions on the relationship between intention and behavior, there is less evidence on the moderating role of individual differences in planning capacity on this effect. This study aimed to examine the role of individual differences in planfulness on the effect of planning strategies on the intention–behavior gap. Specifically, this study investigated the influence of planfulness on the effectiveness of implementation intentions on goal-directed behavior using an experimental design. Undergraduate university students (N = 142) with high and low levels of planfulness based on a priori scores on a planfulness measure were randomized to either a planning (implementation intention) or familiarization (control) condition prior to completing a computerized go no-go task. We predicted that individuals reporting low levels of planfulness would be more effective in executing goal-directed behavior when prompted to form an implementation intention compared to individuals who do not receive a prompt. Additionally, we predicted that individuals reporting high planfulness would be equally effective in enacting goal-directed behaviour regardless of whether they formed an implementation intention. The results revealed no main or interaction effects of implementation intention manipulation and planfulness on task reaction times. The current results do not provide support for the moderating effect of planfulness on the implementation effect. The findings of this study were inconsistent with previous literature. This research has implications for the effectiveness of implementation intentions, as well as opportunities for further replication in a novel research area.
Article
To systematically investigate factors affecting consumers’ restaurant patronage decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study drew on the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to (1) evaluate how threat and coping appraisal (i.e., PMT factors) may vary based on socio-demographics and COVID-19 situational characteristics, and (2) determine if PMT factors influence actual restaurant patronage behaviors. Furthermore, the current study examined consumers’ perceptions of health-protective actions that restaurateurs could take to minimize consumer risk of contracting COVID-19. Data were collected from U.S. adults (N = 627) using an online crowdsourcing platform in early May 2020. Findings showed significant relationships between socio-demograhic factors and perceived severity and/or vulnerability to COVID-19, along with concerns of coping with the virus for in-restaurant dining. For take-out/delivery patronage, coping concerns were greater for those with lower education levels and those with more health concerns than their counterparts. Furthermore, consumers’ higher levels of coping appraisal predicted their higher take-out/delivery frequency. Results also suggested actions that restaurateurs could take that would influence consumers’ restaurant patronage decisions. This study provides new insights related to PMT in the context of restaurants in a pandemic situation and practical information for restaurateurs to recover and prepare for future pandemics or similar crises.
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The COVID-19 outbreak in Serbia was followed by strict restrictions that negatively affected the economy, particularly small size companies. The complete lockdown and the prohibition of certain services have led to an unstable employment situation. Only several studies investigated the job insecurity and its consequences during COVID-19 pandemic, and some of them highlight the fear of COVID-19 as a significant moderator of mental health. Other studies emphasize the huge effect that intolerance of uncertainty could have in explaining distress, especially during pandemic. In addition, intolerance of uncertainty was considered as a possible moderator of the relationship between the objective and subjective job threat, as well their consequences for mental health. This study aimed to examine the presence of job insecurity and work related distress in Serbia during the first wave of COVID-19. We wanted to measure the effect of the job insecurity on experienced work distress, as well the moderation potential of the intolerance of uncertainty as an individual-level and the fear of coronavirus as a situationdependent variable. Five hundred and twenty five employed participants took part in an online study during the first wave of coronavirus infection in Serbia. To measure job insecurity, we used Perception of job insecurity scale (PJIS), while distress was assessed with Distress scale from 4DSQ. Fear of COVID-19 was measured on three items. The intolerance of uncertainty was measured by the IUS-11 scale. The results showed that 30.4% of the participants consider their employment as moderately or highly insecure, and 15.1% thought they can lose their jobs. 63.4% of participants expressed increased levels of distress. The moderation analysis revealed that the effect of job insecurity on distress can be moderated by interaction of intolerance of uncertainty and COVIDrelated fear. In general, distress scores were increasing with increasing job insecurity, intolerance of uncertainty and fear of COVID-19. This pattern is not observed only when fear and intolerance of uncertainty were both low, when job instability could not influence distress. This study also showed that emotional appraisal of the job threat had higher impact on distress than the perceived threat, that shed the light on the importance of considering general resilience capabilities as a protective factor in the work environment in the time of crisis.
Article
Digital technologies are ubiquitous, and the proliferation of attacks on information assets is a corollary of their ubiquity. Thus, information security (IS) appears to be a crucial issue for individuals and managers. While attempts to identify the factors that guide the information security behavior (ISB) of actors are not new, such identification remains more necessary and topical than ever. From this perspective, this empirical study contributes to a better understanding of the cognitive and socialization factors that influence ISB. Using a second-order hierarchical model with partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), we test for the first time the applicability of protection motivation theory (PMT) and social bond theory (SBT) to the information security technology awareness (ISTA) and malware protection behavior (MPB) of 430 students. First, our results demonstrate that combining PMT and SBT produces a more robust model for analyzing ISTA and MPB compared to considering each of these theories separately. Secondly, ISTA partially mediates social bonds and protection motivation and thus, could be a root security behavior. If we underline the preponderant role of involvement, the significant difference observed in the ISB of both genders is related to the strongest influence of females’ social connections on ISTA. In particular, this result is explained by more homogeneous effects of socialization factors for females than for males. We suggest that the design of ISTA programs and education should be better adapted to the different cognitive and socialization factors of individuals, notably with an emphasis on social bonds and, more specifically, on involvement. We also provide detailed recommendations on how practitioners can improve individuals’ ISB.
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According to coping theory, individuals cope with information system threats by adopting either problem-focused coping (PFC) or emotion-focused coping (EFC). However, little is known about EFC in the information security (ISec) literature. Moreover, there is potential confusion regarding the meaning of some EFC strategies. Hence, ISec scholars and practitioners may (i) have a narrow view of EFC or (ii) confuse it with other concepts. In this study, we offer one response to this issue. We first address the ambiguity regarding EFC before differentiating five inward EFC strategies and assessing them empirically in the mobile malware context. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to compare several inward EFC strategies in the ISec field.We contribute two new findings on EFC: 1) response efficacy is a crucial factor that impedes users from implementing EFC strategies; 2) avoidance and fatalism significantly impede PFC. Our study also contributes to the ISec literature by categorising EFC into active and passive forms. We showed that individuals’ use of passive inward EFC strategies was positively associated with threat vulnerability. Finally, we provide interesting insights into the complicated responses of individuals to mobile malware threats, presenting implications for ISec research and practice.
Thesis
While the effectiveness and benefits of statin medications have been demonstrated in numerous studies, adherence to statin therapy is still less than optimal. Psychosocial factors are attributed to a variety of health behaviors, but the study of their impact on statin medication adherence is limited. This study aimed to (1) investigate the effect of self-regulatory mechanisms impacting patients’ adherence to statin medications, (2) assess the effect of a regulatory fit intervention on the behavior, and (3) investigate how optimism may play a role in adhering to statin medications. Adults taking a statin medication were recruited from a Midwestern University health system and were randomized into two study groups. Each study group was primed with messages that were framed either as promotion or prevention; another randomization followed into three groups for each. Patients were primed with implementation intentions framed as promotion or prevention and one group served as the control receiving no implementation intentions. The Regulatory Focus and Fit Theories were used to design the intervention. The behavior of statin medication adherence and patient psychosocial factors were assessed via a series of questions delivered in two questionnaires two weeks apart. Conditional indirect processing models were designed to test the relationships between the psychosocial factors and the behavior of statin medication adherence. A total of 326 patients completed both surveys. Patients’ prevention compared to promotion orientation positively and significantly impacted the behavior of statin medication adherence directly and indirectly via behavioral intentions and motivational intensity. At weak patient psychosocial factors, the Fit intervention resulted in higher statin medication adherence levels compared to the non-fit or control groups. Patients’ optimism levels positively impacted the behavior of statin medication adherence by significantly influencing behavioral intentions and motivational intensity, when levels of self-efficacy and outcome expectations were low or moderate. Patient psychosocial factors present an area of opportunity to explain the behavior of medication adherence and design interventions that will motivate patients to successfully engage in medication adherence. Future studies are needed to further investigate the effect of these and other psychosocial factors in a variety of medications and populations.
Article
Mobile phones have evolved to allow individuals to easily access and disclose the private information of others to a seemingly infinite network. Notably, the permanent nature of mobile data has aided its path between individuals and the police, storing integral evidence for criminal investigations in the palms of peoples' hands. Understanding cognitive factors that predict when an individual would choose to report mobile data to the police is integral, particularly in a time of heightened controversy over data access limits and ubiquitous surveillance. This study extends Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) through incorporating the watchful eye effect and the theory of contextual integrity to analyze predictors of intention to share data with the police. The results of a 2 (Situational severity: high or low) x 2 (Surveillance: present or absent) between-subjects factorial vignette methodology (N = 222) revealed that participants behaved independently of feeling watched, but that such sharing can be causally attributed to situational severity. Further, we found PMT variables—including perceived severity, response-efficacy, self-efficacy, and response cost—as well as perception of the police to serve as predictors of intentions to share with the police, with some of these factors mediating the effects of situational severity and surveillance. This study not only provides a theoretical contribution to PMT but also practical recommendations for mobile design that considers surveillance normalization and prioritizes data autonomy.
Article
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If-then planning (implementation intentions) describes a self-regulatory strategy that helps people to attain their goals across a variety of domains, such as achieving physical activity goals. Based on such beneficial effects, if-then plans are anecdotally discussed as a strategy to enhance sports-related performance as well. However, this discussion currently lacks an empirical basis. We therefore conducted a scoping review to identify experimental research on if-then planning effects on sports-related performance, potential moderators of these effects, the methodological approaches used, and the suitability of the available evidence for assessing the effectiveness of if-then planning in sports. Based on a search of four online databases, we identified a set of eleven studies that investigated if-then planning in experimental research with sports-related performance as outcome measure. Six of these studies focused on if-then planning in endurance tasks, the remaining studies investigated sports performance beyond endurance. The samples were often small and comprised university students, and conclusions regarding the effectiveness of if-then planning for improving sports-related performance were rather heterogeneous. Still, the majority of studies shed light on tentative mechanisms (e.g., perceptions of effort and pain, arousal) and moderators (e.g., athletes’ beliefs about their performance limits, feasibility of the behavior) of if-then planning in sports, guiding future research regarding the question of when and for whom if-then-planning might be a beneficial strategy. Based on these findings, we identify potentials and pitfalls when using if-then plans to enhance sports-related performance, discuss promising routes for future research, and derive practical implications for athletes and coaches.
Article
Many factors likely influence decisions for in-restaurant dining during a highly contagious respiratory pandemic. Applying the Protection Motivation Theory, this study examined the relationships between consumers' threat and coping appraisals and their in-restaurant patronage intentions during the COVID-19 pandemic and the moderating roles of conflicting information (CI) about COVID-19 and trust-in-science and scientists (TISS). Specifically, the moderators were categorized into CI-past, CI-present, TISS-optimism, and TISS-skepticism based on time- and viewpoints. Results revealed that consumers' perceived severity of threat appraisal negatively impacted in-restaurant dining intentions, while consumers' coping appraisal (i.e., self-efficacy, response efficacy, and response cost) had the opposite effects. Furthermore, high CI (past and present) and low TISS (skepticism) perceptions further diminished in-restaurant dining intentions for consumers who perceived the virus as highly threatening. The findings have theoretical implications and practical ramifications for restaurateurs and public health organizations for industry recovery and post-crisis planning.
Article
In recent years, executives and their employees have faced a wide range of threats to, and within, their organization. We put forward a framework that organizational scholars can use to position their ideas within the literature on threats and responses. We delineate different types of threats that firms often face. We also develop a set of constructs that, taken together, can be useful for describing how managers assess threats and how they might react to them. In addition, we identify several theories that explain organizational threats and responses, including two (protection motivation theory and integrated threat theory) that have proven useful in other disciplines but have yet to take hold in management studies. Lastly, we offer examples of how to expand extant theories to the domain of organizational threats and conclude with a call for research on threats and responses in organizational research.
Preprint
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Background Urban marginalized people are most vulnerable to the Covid-19 pandemic because of their poor water and hygiene conditions and high-density populated environment. However, there lack WASH facilities and theory-guided behavioural health intervention programs towards the Covid-19 pandemic in these fragile communities. Methods This study used the combined Knowledge- Practice -Theory (KAP) and Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to predict the protective motivation behaviours of urban marginalized people against Covid-19. The phenomenological approach was applied to examine the slum communities' lived experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data was collected through 105 semi-structured interviews and 453 questionnaires in two slum communities in Bangkok, Thailand. Results Results showed that most Thai slum people tended to have better access WASH and healthcare services and protection behaviours towards Covid-19 than other foreign migrant slum people. Structural Equation Modelling results illustrated that knowledge directly drove marginalized peoples’ perceived vulnerability and practices, while practices influenced their perceived severity, self, and response efficacy which directly associated with their behavioural intentions. Conclusions Future pandemic prevention intervention programs should focus on vulnerability and severity through providing adequate WASH facilities and self-efficacy and response efficacy of protection motivation through enhancing community sensitization and awareness of COVID-19 protection.
Article
The article presents the results of a review of publications on the problem of will in foreign psychology over the past 40-50 years. The main reasons for fluctuations in research interest in the problem of will in the 20th century are analyzed, as well as the main directions of research of volitional regulation in modern foreign psychology and related phenomena, methodological approaches and theoretical concepts. The main approaches to the definition of will in modern foreign psychology are described: will as control of impulses, will as a mechanism for the realization of intention in action, will as control of action’s determination. The results of the analysis made it possible to substantiate the need to refer to the concept of will in modern psychology, as well as to formulate the main criteria that distinguish the will from other mental phenomena. The main prospects for the further development of will are outlined, associated with the transition to the study of will in the process of transformation of the system of relations between a person and the surrounding worlds in real life situations.
Poster
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Ziel: leisten eines fachdidaktischen Beitrags, die Konstruktionen von Privatsphäre und schützenswerten Daten, Bedrohungen, Coping- sowie Datenschutzstrategien in typischen vier Anwendungsszenarien der Internetnutzung bei Jugendlichen besser zu verstehen. Theoretischer Rahmen: im Rahmen einer erweiterten Protection-Motivation-Theory (Adhikari & Panda, 2018; Maddux & Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1975; Salleh et al., 2013; Tsai et al., 2016) und des Contextual Integrity Frameworks (Nissenbaum, 2010) wird erklärt, welche Faktoren (Threats vs. Coping) hauptsächlich dazu beitragen, dass Jugendliche Schutzstrategien anwenden. Entsprechend können für den praktischen Schulunterricht thematische Schwerpunkte gesetzt, auf Basis der Conceptual Change Theorie (Jonen et al., 2003; Posner et al., 1982; Strike & Posner, 1992) sowie Shulman (1986, 2004) die Lebenswelt der Jugendlichen aufgegriffen und mittels didaktischer Rekonstruktion (Duit et al., 2012; Kattmann et al., 1997; Reinfried et al., 2009) darauf aufgebaut werden. Design: Mit einem explorativ-sequentielles Mixed-Method-Design konnten mittels qualita- tiver Experten-Interviews vier typische Internetnutzungssituationen, zahlreiche Threats, Coping- und sechs Typen von Schutzstrategien exploriert und mittels Onlinebefragung quantisiert werden (Skalen Threats, Rewards, Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, Data Protection Behavior, eigene Skalen aus den qualitativen Findings). Ergebnis: Die klassische PMT bestätigt sich bei Jugendlichen. Wir differenzieren diese über die vier Nutzungsszenarien aus. Wir zeigen eine Vielfalt an Datenschutzverhalten, Bedrohungskonzepten und weiteren subjektiven Sichtweisen zum Thema Privatsphäre und Datenschutz, die die bestehende Literatur bestätigen und teilweise erweitern. Wir präsentieren konkrete Prädiktoren für Datenschutzverhalten aus der Lebenswelt von Jugendlichen.
Article
Although increasing evidence has supported the efficacy of masks to prevent the spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19), inconsistent and noncompliant mask-wearing behavior has been observed among members of the society. Because mask-wearing is often considered a social contract, it is important to understand the psychosocial factors that influence people’s mask-wearing behavior in order to implement the necessary steps to respond to the pandemic. Based on the protection motivation theory (PMT), this study examined the cognitive factors (threat and coping appraisals) that contribute to mask-wearing behavior and the intention to engage in health protective behavior until the end of the pandemic. Furthermore, we examined the roles of social (perceived social norm) and affective (fear) factors in mask-wearing behavior and intention. The sample included 981 voluntary adults in the United States who completed an online survey for this study between 15 October 2020 and 28 November 2020. The results of hierarchical multiple regressions showed that all PMT variables (severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, and self-efficacy) were associated with mask-wearing behavior and intention to engage in health protective behavior until the end of the pandemic. Perceived social norm and fear provided unique, additive contributions to the predictability of mask-wearing behavior and intention. Overall findings suggest the importance of considering cognitive, social, and affective factors altogether in order to better understand an individual’ intention and behavior toward mask wearing during the pandemic.
Article
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Appropriate physical training enables older adults to reduce their risk of suffering fall-related accidents. A representative survey of the 60- to 79-year-old Swiss population explored how widespread fall prevention training already is in the target group and which promoting and inhibiting factors influence this spread. A distinction was made between participation in fall prevention training (weekly sessions including balance training) and the more stringent requirements of implementation-oriented training (three sessions per week, one of which is supervised, totalling at least 90 minutes per week). The survey led to the following principal findings:  Just over half of the target group (56 %) perform fall prevention training (participants). Two thirds of those not engaging in fall prevention training are either inactive or do not train weekly. One third do not engage in specific balance training.  Just over one in five people (22 %) in the target group performed the training as intended (implemen-tation fidelity). Participants most often fail to achieve implementation fidelity because they are not training under supervision. This applies to 74 % of participants who do not achieve implementation fidelity.  There is potential for mobilisation: Convincing those with an intention to engage in fall prevention training or those who are already physically active to take part can boost the share of participants to four-fifths of the target group.  Language region and personal history of physical activity have a strong impact on training behav-iour. In German-speaking Switzerland, twice as many people engage in fall prevention training as in Italian-speaking Switzerland (61 % vs 31 %). French-speaking Switzerland falls roughly between the two (47 %). Individuals who have engaged in life-long physical activities are much more likely to practise fall prevention training than those who have only been intermittently physically active or not at all (76 % vs 43 %). The mobilisation potential is high among the population of German-speaking Switzerland and among those who have engaged in life-long physical exercise, whereas mobilisation is likely to be more difficult in French- and Italian-speaking Switzerland and among those who have not contin-uously done sports or been physically active.  Promoting factors for participation: Social support from trusted individuals promotes participation to a considerable extent. Other promoting factors are the expectation/experience that physical activity boosts wellbeing, as well as strategies whereby people make a commitment to themselves or others to stick to a training regimen (strategies to overcome barriers). These factors can be specifically raised when addressing the target group.  Promoting factors for implementation fidelity: Individuals who are committed to implementation distinguish themselves from the other participants notably by the use of such barrier strategies. Along-side self-commitment and social commitment, this also includes ensuring as easy and convenient access to training as possible.
Article
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A popular information security-related motivation theory is the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) that has been studied extensively in many information security contexts with promising results. However, prior studies have found inconsistent findings regarding the relationships within PMT. To shed light on these inconsistent findings, we introduce the attitudinal ambivalence theory to open the black box within PMT. We tested our model on data collect ed from 1,383 individuals facing potential cyberattacks of their emails in a field experiment. The results of polynomial regression with response surface analysis showed that attitudinal ambivalence is generated from the opposition between an individual’s evaluations of maladaptive rewards and social norms (i.e., descriptive norm and subjective norm). This attitudinal ambivalence, in turn, affects individuals’ evaluations of their coping appraisal process and protection motivation, and ultimately protection behavior. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of identifying the determinants and outcomes of attitudinal ambivalence in the information security context. From a theoretical standpoint, our work contributes to the information security literature by incorporating attitudinal ambivalence, which arises from the intrapersonal and interpersonal appraisal processes, into PMT. From a practical standpoint, our work provides insights into designing effective fear appeals to avoid triggering attitudinal ambivalence and thus encouraging adoption of security protection behavior.
Article
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The intention-to-behavior process is analyzed with respect to implementation intentions. These intentions link an intended goal-directed behavior to an anticipated situational context. The reported experimental evidence suggests that implementation intentions create a heightened accessibility of the mental representation of the specified situational cues and induce direct (automatic) control of the intended behavior through these cues. The formation of implementation intentions promotes goal achievement through both of these processes because they eliminate classic problems associated with the control of goal-directed action. Similarities and differences to other theoretical approaches on intentions, planning, and action control are discussed.
Article
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A field experiment with 102 undergraduate students demonstrated that forming implementation intentions was effective in changing complex everyday behavior, in this case establishing a healthier diet. Ss were administered a questionnaire that assessed their current eating habits. The Ss in the experimental condition were then asked to form implementation intentions, i.e., they were asked to pick out a day from the 5 days following the completion of the questionnaire during which they would eat healthily. All Ss were then asked to keep a diary for the 5 days following the completion of the questionnaire detailing their eating patterns. Results show that the effect of implementation intentions was additive to the prediction of healthy eating by behavioral intentions to eat healthily. Implementation intentions were pitted against individual differences in counterintentional (unhealthy) habits. The effects of implementation intentions and counterintentional habits were independent, suggesting that implementation intentions did not break the negative influence of unhealthy habits, and yet managed to make those with unhealthy habits eat healthier in habit-unrelated respects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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OBJECTIVE--To encourage increased participation in physical activity among Americans of all ages by issuing a public health recommendation on the types and amounts of physical activity needed for health promotion and disease prevention. PARTICIPANTS--A planning committee of five scientists was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine to organize a workshop. This committee selected 15 other workshop discussants on the basis of their research expertise in issues related to the health implications of physical activity. Several relevant professional or scientific organizations and federal agencies also were represented. EVIDENCE--The panel of experts reviewed the pertinent physiological, epidemiologic, and clinical evidence, including primary research articles and recent review articles. CONSENSUS PROCESS--Major issues related to physical activity and health were outlined, and selected members of the expert panel drafted sections of the paper from this outline. A draft manuscript was prepared by the planning committee and circulated to the full panel in advance of the 2-day workshop. During the workshop, each section of the manuscript was reviewed by the expert panel. Primary attention was given to achieving group consensus concerning the recommended types and amounts of physical activity. A concise \"public health message was developed to express the recommendations of the panel. During the ensuing months, the consensus statement was further reviewed and revised and was formally endorsed by both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. CONCLUSION--Every US adult should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the weekType: CONSENSUS DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCEType: JOURNAL ARTICLEType: REVIEWLanguage: Eng
Article
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The effects of fear appeals on persuasion were investigated in a factorial experiment that was designed to test a combined model of protection motivation theory and self-efficacy theory. As predicted, the probability of a threat's occurrence and the effectiveness of a coping response both had positive main effects on intentions to adopt a recommended preventive health behavior. More importantly, the findings provided support for self-efficacy expectancy as a fourth component of protection motivation theory: Self-efficacy had a direct influence on intentions and interacted with two other variables of protection motivation theory. The interaction effect was interpreted in terms of two new decision-making strategies that people use when confronted with a fear appeal: a precaution strategy and a hyperdefensiveness strategy. In addition, the results replicated previous findings on the relationship between self-efficacy expectancy and outcome expectancy. A model incorporating protection motivation theory and self-efficacy theory is presented as a possible general model of attitude change.
Article
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Study 1 established either deliberative mind-set by having Ss contemplate personal change decision or implemental mind-set by having Ss plan execution of intended personal project. Ss were subsequently requested to continue beginnings of 3 fairy tales, each describing a main character with a decisional conflict. Analysis revealed that deliberative mind-set Ss ascribed more deliberative and less implementational efforts to main characters than implemental mind-set Ss. In Study 2, Ss were asked to choose between different test materials. Either before or after making their decision, Ss were given information on deliberative and implementational thoughts unrelated to their task at hand. When asked to recall these thoughts, predecisional Ss recalled more deliberative and less implementational thoughts, whereas for postdecisional Ss the reverse was true. These findings suggest that deliberative and implemental mind-sets tune thought production and information processing.
Article
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The theoretical distinction between goal intentions ("I intend to achieve -c") and implementation intentions ("I intend to perform goal-directed behavior y when I encounter situation z"; P. M. Gollwitzer, 1993) is explored by assessing the completion rate of various goal projects. In correlational Study 1, difficult goal intentions were completed about 3 times more often when participants had furnished them with implementation intentions. In experimental Study 2, all participants were assigned the same difficult goal intention, and half were instructed to form implementation intentions. The beneficial effects of implementation intentions paralleled diose of Study 1. In experimental Study 3, implementation intentions were observed to facilitate the immediate initiation of goaldirected action when the intended opportunity was encountered. Implementation intentions are interpreted to be powerful self-regulatory tools for overcoming the typical obstacles associated with the initiation of goal-directed actions.
Article
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A factorial design was employed to test the relative effectiveness of the four cognitive appraisal processes (severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy) contained in the revised protection motivation theory (PMT). One hundred sixty undergraduate women read persuasive appeals for increasing exercise, which varied on these four dimensions. As predicted, both the vulnerability and self-efficacy variables enhanced intentions to exercise along with similar effects on self-reported exercising. Intentions were predictive of self-reported changes in behavior. The obtained interaction between vulnerability, self-efficacy, and response efficacy suggests that individuals employed a "precaution strategy": They intended to adopt the recommended behavior even though they held weak beliefs about its effectiveness and were not convinced of their at-risk status. These findings are compared to others obtained using the PMT, and the issue of main and interactive effects produced by the model is also addressed.
Article
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Theories of health psychology developed to explain adults' rational decision making were applied to 10-year-old children (n = 112), who had not reached the stage of formal operational thought; 15-year-olds (n = 67); and 20-year-olds (n = 93), extending the protection motivation theory developed by R. W. Rogers (1983). Among the adolescents and young adults, the threat appeals worked only if people believed they could cope effectively with the danger; if they believed they could not cope, higher levels of the threat resulted in decreased intentions to refrain from tobacco use. Although children elaborated and integrated the information about threat severity, personal vulnerability, and response efficacy, the fragility and malleability of the children's beliefs in self-efficacy demonstrated the importance of adding a developmental perspective to theories of preventive health psychology.
Article
Two experiments based upon Gollwitzer's (1993) concept of implementation intentions are described. In both experiments, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions from Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behaviour were used to measure participants' motivation prior to an intervention in which participants made implementation intentions specifying where and when they would take a vitamin C pill each day. Behaviours were assessed by self-report and pill count at both 10 days and 3 weeks in Experiment 1, and at 2 weeks and 5 weeks in Experiment 2. Results supported the view that participants who formed implementation intentions were less likely to miss taking a pill every day compared to controls. Evidence suggested that implementation intentions were effective because they allowed participants to pass control of behaviour to the environmental cues contained in the implementation intention. Implications of the study and some suggestions for future research are outlined. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The usefulness of a combined protection motivation and self-efficacy theory as a model of health enhancement was investigated via a persuasive communications paradigm. Self-efficacy expectancy, outcome expectany (i.e., perceived response efficacy) and outcome value (i.e., perceived social value) of a healthenhancing behavior were manipulated. As predicted, both self-efficacy expectancy and response efficacy had significant main effects on subjects' intentions to perform the health-enhancing behavior. Outcome value had no significant effect on behavioral intentions. Correlational data indicated that response efficacy was the best single predictor of intentions and that self-efficacy expectancy was also a significant predictor of intentions. Outcome value added no predictability. These results support the utility of the combined protection motivation and self-efficacy theory as a model of health enhancement.
Article
This article reports the first meta-analysis of the literature on protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1975, 1983; Rogers & Prentice-Dunn, 1997), a model of disease prevention and health promotion that has generated research for over two decades. The literature review included 65 relevant studies (N= approximately 30,000) that represented over 20 health issues. The mean overall effect size (d+= 0.52) was of moderate magnitude. In general, increases in threat severity, threat vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy facilitated adaptive intentions or behaviors. Conversely, decreases in maladaptive response rewards and adaptive response costs increased adaptive intentions or behaviors. This held true whether the measures were based on intentions or behaviors, and suggests that PMT components may be useful for individual and community interventions.
Article
Recent theoretical and empirical research has challenged the assumption of health psychologists employing social cognitive models that beliefs can confidently be inferred on the basis of questionnaire responses. It is charged that responses to questionnaires are a function of the intelligibility of the items, constructs and theoretical framework to survey participants. To investigate this contention, cognitions specified by Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) were measured with respect to intentions to use a condom and intentions to use dental floss. Three alternative formats of a questionnaire which varied the order of presentation of PMT items were distributed to student samples. Analyses showed that while questionnaire format did not affect the reliability of cognition measures, there was some variation in the significance and strength of correlations between PMT cognitions across formats. Individual differences in social desirability and salience of the target behaviour had small and predictable effects upon reliabilities and intercorrelations. Implications for the measurement of health beliefs and the status of questionnaire responses are outlined and suggestions are made for controlling bias associated with respondents' capacity to “read” a questionnaire.
Article
Health education often attempts to influence or persuade through risk-appraisal of impending danger or harm. Risk: appraisal implies cognitive processes concerning the severity of the threatening event and the probability of its occurrence. In two studies we investigated whether risk factors could adequately predict preventive behaviour with respect to cancer. The tint study concerned the health belief model. the second study the protection motivation theory. Protection motivation theory includes the health belief factors but also self-efficacy expectancy. The most important finding is that risk-appraisal does not predict preventive behaviour adequately: outcome expectancy and self-efficacy expectancy should be included in the prediction of preventive behaviour. In general, our findings suggest the superiority of the protection motivation theory to the health belief model in predicting preventive behaviour with respect to cancer.
Article
Two experiments based upon Gollwitzer's (1993) concept of implementation intentions are described. In both experiments, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions from Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behaviour were used to measure participants' motivation prior to an intervention in which participants made implementation intentions specifying where and when they would take a vitamin C pill each day. Behaviours were assessed by self-report and pill count at both 10 days and 3 weeks in Experiment 1, and at 2 weeks and 5 weeks in Experiment 2. Results supported the view that participants who formed implementation intentions were less likely to miss taking a pill every day compared to controls. Evidence suggested that implementation intentions were effective because they allowed participants to pass control of behaviour to the environmental cues contained in the implementation intention. Implications of the study and some suggestions for future research are outlined. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study concerns the implications of Peter Gollwitzer's concept of implementation intentions for Icek Ajzen's theory of planned behavior. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intentions were assessed before an intervention that required subjects to make implementation intentions concerning when and where they would perform breast self-examination during the next month. Behavior was assessed by self-report 1 month later. Results supported Gollwitzer's contention that goal intentions that have been supplemented by implementation intentions concerning where and when the behavior is to be performed are more likely to be enacted. Evidence suggested that implementation intentions were effective because they provided a mechanism that facilitated the retrieval of intentions in memory. Implementation intentions also reduced the capacity of past behavior to predict future behavior, suggesting that implementation intentions mimic the effect of habit in human action. Implications for applications of models of attitude-behavior relations are outlined.
Book
With scientific evidence showing an unprecedented rate of climate change – a rate much faster than anticipated a few years ago – more active climate protection engagement is needed around the globe. In this context individuals and the community level play a vital role, and there are also considerable expectations by citizens that national governments will take the lead. Yet engagement is slow, and this raises questions regarding the motivation for action and how to get widespread engagement, particularly at the local level. Some issues that have motivated action include experiencing the local impact of climate change and a realisation that it has a security impact (from many different perspectives – from climate migration to socio-economic impacts). Studies that address the cost of action and inaction have placed climate change on the political map, and community leaders that have engaged from various angles such as improving air quality have gained multiple benefits for the community and the environment, as an indirect approach to local climate action. This chapter explores why the local level urgently needs to engage, and what its representatives – political leaders, staff and citizens – need to know about what they are dealing with, and why they should deal with it.
Article
Proposes a protection motivation theory that postulates the 3 crucial components of a fear appeal to be (a) the magnitude of noxiousness of a depicted event, (b) the probability of that event's occurrence, and (c) the efficacy of a protective response. Each of these communication variables initiates corresponding cognitive appraisal processes that mediate attitude change. The proposed conceptualization is a special case of a more comprehensive theoretical schema: expectancy-value theories. Several suggestions are offered for reinterpreting existing data, designing new types of empirical research, and making future studies more comparable. The principal advantages of protection motivation theory over the rival formulations of I. L. Janis and of H. Leventhal are discussed. (81 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
consider work that has attempted to compare [social cognition] models, on an empirical and a conceptual level [in predicting health behaviours] / present a number of new directions for research with social cognition models which are currently engaging researchers in this area / outline some of the basic requirements for an integrative social cognition model of health behaviour (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Undergraduate women who varied in how much they valued health were exposed to written communications persuading them of their vulnerability to osteoporosis and of the effectiveness of a recommended action in preventing this disease. Vulnerability had a significant main effect on intentions and subsequent behavior. This effect was obtained regardless of how much the subjects valued their health or whether the coping response was effective. Intentions to perform the recommended behaviors proved to be the best predictors of self-reported and actual behavior change, in support of the Ajzen-Fishbein (1980) model. Intentions, in turn, were predicted from recipients' beliefs regarding their ability to perform the behavior, their vulnerability to the health threat, and the effectiveness of the recommended threat-reducing response. Implications of these findings for health promotion campaigns are discussed.
Article
Coping strategies endorsed by adolescents in dealing with a potential threat to their health were assessed in a study which investigated components of protection motivation theory. Year 9 and 10 high school students were presented with information about cardiovascular disease risk and the role of exercise in maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness. Three components specified by the theory were manipulated: response efficacy (effectiveness of exercise in preventing cardiovascular disease), response costs (costs associated with taking up a regular program of exercise) and self-efficacy (belief in ability to carry out a program of exercise) in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with two levels (high vs. low) of each variable. It was hypothesized that such information would affect participants' perceptions of response efficacy, response costs, self-efficacy, and their selection of coping strategies. Six dependent variables were investigated: two adaptive coping strategies (behavioral intention to exercise, rational problem solving) and four maladaptive strategies (avoidance, wishful thinking, hopelessness, arid fatalism). Manipulation checks found significant differences between the high and low conditions of each independent variable. Adaptive strategies were strongly endorsed, whereas endorsement of the maladaptive strategies ranged from minimal to complete disagreement. Participants in the high self-efficacy condition indicated stronger intentions to exercise. Students in the low response efficacy condition demonstrated more endorsement of hopelessness and fatalism than did students in the high response efficacy condition. When exercising status was included as a fourth independent variable, it was found that active adolescents endorsed the adaptive coping strategies more strongly than did inactive adolescents. The cognitive coping strategies adopted by adolescents when dealing with perceived threats to their health may be influenced by information on the efficacy of relevant behavior, by perceptions of their ability to perform such behavior, and by their actual involvement with the behavior of concern.
Article
Protection motivation theory (PMT) was introduced by Rogers in 1975 and has since been widely adopted as a framework for the prediction of and intervention in health-related behavior. However. PMT remains the only major cognitive model of behavior not to have been the subject of a meta-analytic review. A quantitative review of PMT is important to assess its overall utility as a predictive model and to establish which of its variables would be most useful to address health-education interventions. The present paper provides a comprehensive introduction to PMT and its application to health-related behavior, together with a quantitative review of the applications of PMT to health-related intentions and behavior. The associations between threat- and coping-appraisal variables and intentions, and all components of the model and behavior were assessed both by meta-analysis and by vote-count procedures. Threat- and coping-appraisal components of PMT were found to be useful in the prediction of health-related intentions. The model was found to be useful in predicting concurrent behavior, but of less utility in predicting future behavior. The coping-appraisal component of the model was found to have greater predictive validity than was the threat-appraisal component. The main findings are discussed in relation to theory and research on social cognition models. The importance of the main findings to health education is also discussed, and future research directions are suggested.
Article
College men reported their attitude and intention to perform the testicle self-exam (TSE) and they rated the likelihood of various consequences of performing the TSE, as well as the likelihood that several other people approved of this behavior. Half of these men had read a brochure about the TSE before completing the questionnaire, and half had not. Also, about half had heard about the TSE prior to the experiment and the others had not. Men's beliefs about the consequences of doing the TSE clustered into two factors: Beliefs about practical consequences and beliefs about health consequences. Men with (vs. without) prior knowledge about the exam and men who read (vs. did not read) the brochure endorsed more positive beliefs about practical and health consequences and more positive TSE attitude and intention. However, the effect of the brochure was far stronger for men without than with prior knowledge. In addition, factors influencing TSE attitude and intention differed for men without versus with prior TSE knowledge. Although the findings were generally consistent with the theory of reasoned action, some findings supported elements of protection motivation theory. Implications for promoting the TSE are discussed.
Article
A field study tested Gollwitzer's (1993) proposition that the formation of implementation intentions specifying action opportunities accounts for the speed with which intentions are translated into action. Motivation to resume functional activity was assessed among a general population sample of patients prior to joint replacement surgery. At 3 months following surgery. people who had formed implementation intentions were found to have initiated 18 out of 32 activities sooner than people who had not formed implementation intentions. This difference could not be attributed to differences in motivation between the 2 groups. Evidence also showed that the formation of implementation intentions mediated the effects of behavioral expectation on speed of action initiation.
Article
The purpose of this article is to review the beneficial effects of regular exercise in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Epidemiologic studies indicate that a physically inactive life-style is associated with twice the risk of developing CAD. The magnitude of risk is similar to that of other modifiable risk factors. Meta-analysis of studies of cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction demonstrate that cardiac rehabilitation participants lower their risk of death by 20% to 25% compared to controls. Exercise training results in several beneficial physiological changes including an increase in exercise endurance, higher resting and exercise stroke volumes, lower resting and submaximal exercise heart rates, and increased capillary density and oxidative enzyme capacity in skeletal muscle. In patients with established CAD, exercise training improves symptoms of angina and congestive heart failure and attenuates the severity of exercise-induced ischemia. Regular exercise can favorably modify other risk factors, but the benefits are modest. Reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings average 6 to 9 mm Hg; decreases in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol approximate 5 to 10 mg/dL; and increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol approximate 2 mg/dL. Exercise training as a sole intervention does not appear to enhance smoking cessation. Regular exercise does improve psychosocial well-being. Most studies of physical activity have enrolled predominantly middle-aged men; however, available evidence suggests similar cardiovascular benefits for women, the elderly, and children and youth. Physical activity levels decrease substantially during the school-age-adolescent transition in both males and females. More than half of the adult population is sedentary or inactive. Collectively, accumulated data suggest the need for both individualized/high-risk and population-based approaches to increasing physical activity across the life span. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A00FV011 00005
Article
A general formula (α) of which a special case is the Kuder-Richardson coefficient of equivalence is shown to be the mean of all split-half coefficients resulting from different splittings of a test. α is therefore an estimate of the correlation between two random samples of items from a universe of items like those in the test. α is found to be an appropriate index of equivalence and, except for very short tests, of the first-factor concentration in the test. Tests divisible into distinct subtests should be so divided before using the formula. The index [`(r)]ij\bar r_{ij} , derived from α, is shown to be an index of inter-item homogeneity. Comparison is made to the Guttman and Loevinger approaches. Parallel split coefficients are shown to be unnecessary for tests of common types. In designing tests, maximum interpretability of scores is obtained by increasing the first-factor concentration in any separately-scored subtest and avoiding substantial group-factor clusters within a subtest. Scalability is not a requisite.
Article
Protection motivation (PM) theory concerns how individuals process threats and select responses to cope with the danger brought about by those threats. Fear appeals, one type of communication involving a threat, have been studied in marketing. But PM theory suggests adding coping response information to fear appeals, which effectively influences adoption of appropriate coping behaviors. This article reports the results of tests of several aspects of PM theory in a marketing context. The results indicate that traditional threat-oriented fear appeals are less effective than appeals that also contain information concerning the coping response.
Article
Reviews the book, The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior edited by P. M. Gollwitzer and J. A. Bargh (see record 1996-98326-000). The theme of this book is one of linking cognition and motivation to action, stressing the interdependency of cognition and motivation. The book represents an excellent introduction and overview of this field of social psychology. The book begins with an integrative introduction that outlines the common themes and issues: the initiation, maintenance, and disruption of social behaviors, the cognitive bases of goals, and the inter-relationship of goals, actions, and emotions. The first section addresses, from differing viewpoints, the issues of the origin of the particular goals and how goals come to have specific contents. The chapters in Part II explore and discuss the nature of the relation between affect and motivation. The core of the book is represented by the two sections entitled "Preparing to Act" and "Effortful Control of Action." Sections discussing the influences of goals on social interaction and the unconscious control of action complete the book. This is a well-written book that contains clearly written and interesting chapters concisely summarizing each individual's program of research. The editors have done an exceptional job linking the chapters together, summarizing and developing important themes. This will make the book particularly attractive to teachers or to those new to the field who wish to gain an overview. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Although sentiments about the positive health benefits of regular exercise have been expressed for many centuries, it is only in the past three decades that epidemiologic evidence has provided scientific support for the health benefits of being physically active. The evidence for the protective effect of physical activity is particularly strong with reference to cardiovascular disease, with the relative risk of being "inactive" compared to 'active' estimated to typically lie between 1.5 and 2.0. Despite the popular view that exercise participation has increased in recent years, estimates of trends in physical activity in Australian (and other) populations have been difficult to interpret because of the different measurements and surveys used. We examined data from population surveys using well validated, standardised methods to assess exercise participation, through National surveys between 1984 and 1987 conducted by the Commonwealth Department of the Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism and Territories (DASETT). Over the period in which the surveys were conducted, there appears to have been a slight increase in the proportion of Australians who participated in regular physical activity. There was a significant decline in the proportion who reported being totally sedentary--from 32.9 per cent in 1984 to 25.4 per cent in 1987. The data from all of the surveys were then pooled to give an overall sample size of 17053, and socio-demographic variables were examined in relation to exercise participation. Women, older people, the less well educated, and those on lower incomes were less likely to perform regular physical activity. Inequalities in the social distribution of exercise participation parallel those found for other health risk factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
How do people cope with a threat when they do not plan to adopt an adaptive, protective response? We explored this question by examining the effects of information about a health threat and two aspects of coping ability, self-efficacy and response efficacy, on two adaptive and five maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., avoidance, wishful thinking). The results disclosed that the high-threat condition energized all forms of coping; it did not differentially cue specific coping strategies. The critical factor in determining the specific strategies used was the coping information. The high-response-efficacy and high-self-efficacy conditions strengthened adaptive coping and did not foster any maladaptive coping. A supplementary path analysis revealed an intriguing pattern of relations, including the finding that the most maladaptive strategy was avoidant thinking, which simultaneously reduced fear of the threat and weakened intentions to adopt the adaptive response.
Article
Eight national surveys conducted in the United States and Canada between 1972 and 1983 are reviewed for evidence of leisure-time physical activity patterns in the population. The authors' major conclusion is that it is difficult to make reliable generalizations when definitions of exercise used in the surveys vary so widely. Nevertheless, the young and persons of relatively high socioeconomic status are definitely more active than average in their leisure time; this is probably also true of westerners and suburbanites. Males and females are about equally likely to be involved in conditioning activities, but males are more likely to participate in vigorous exercise and sport. It appears likely that exercise prevalence has increased in recent years, and a maximum of 20 percent of the population exercises at a level frequently recommended for cardiovascular benefit. Major areas of uncertainty and ignorance remain, and the authors identify 15 such areas. Secondary analysis is recommended to help resolve several questions currently impeding a complete description of the exercise patterns of the population. For future surveys, five recommendations are offered on definitions and essential data items. Existing time series studies are generally inadequate. The authors recommend that detailed surveys of exercise patterns be conducted every 5 years to supplement the continual monitoring that is also essential to detect shifts in this important health behavior.
Article
Studies applying social cognitive frameworks such as the health belief model and the theory of reasoned action to HIV-prevention are reviewed. These models suggest that appropriate beliefs, attitudes, social norms, intentions and perceived self-efficacy are sufficient psychological conditions for safer sexual behaviour. Limitations inherent in these accounts are identified and additional factors which need to be incorporated in psychological models and health education programmes are highlighted. These include, the motivational complexity of sexual behaviour, the emotional and arousal states in which it is enacted, the difficulties of planning what is regarded as spontaneous interaction and contextual factors which can undermine HIV-preventive intentions. Health education interventions aimed at individual, group and community levels are examined in light of this theoretical review and action-focused, empowering interventions grounded in youth culture are recommended.