Continuous apomorphine infusion and neuropsychiatric disorders: A controlled study in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease

Department of Neuroscience, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, Messina, Italy.
Neurological Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.45). 11/2003; 24(3):174-5. DOI: 10.1007/s10072-003-0116-0
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to assess whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop cognitive and psychiatric complications more frequently during prolonged therapy with continuous apomorphine infusion compared with standard oral treatment. Thirty consecutive PD patients with severe motor fluctuations were included in the study. Twelve patients accepted the treatment with subcutaneous continuous apomorphine infusion, while the remaining 18 preferred to continue with oral dopaminergic therapy. The two groups were evaluated with neuropsychological, psychiatric, and motor tests at baseline and after 1 year. The off daily duration and the levodopa dosage were significantly reduced in infused patients. The neuropsychiatric assessment did not change in both groups compared with baseline, except for a significant improvement of mood in the apomorphine group.

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    • "Limited published data are available on the safety and tolerability of continuous SC apomorphine infusion. In general, available data are derived from case series and case reports [31] [33] [34] [37] [38] [41] [63] [64]. The rate and frequency of the most common complications are shown in Table 3. "
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    ABSTRACT: Navigate PD was an educational program established to supplement existing guidelines and provide recommendations on the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) refractory to oral/transdermal therapies. It involved 103 experts from 13 countries overseen by an International Steering Committee (ISC) of 13 movement disorder specialists. The ISC identified 71 clinical questions important for device-aided management of PD. Fifty-six experts responded to a web-based survey, rating 15 questions as 'critically important;' these were refined to 10 questions by the ISC to be addressed through available evidence and expert opinion. Draft guidance was presented at international/national meetings and revised based on feedback. Key take-home points are: • Patients requiring levodopa >5 times daily who have severe, troublesome 'off' periods (>1-2 h/day) despite optimal oral/transdermal levodopa or non-levodopa-based therapies should be referred for specialist assessment even if disease duration is <4 years. • Cognitive decline related to non-motor fluctuations is an indication for device-aided therapies. If cognitive impairment is mild, use deep brain stimulation (DBS) with caution. For patients who have cognitive impairment or dementia, intrajejunal levodopa infusion is considered as both therapeutic and palliative in some countries. Falls are linked to cognitive decline and are likely to become more frequent with device-aided therapies. • Insufficient control of motor complications (or drug-resistant tremor in the case of DBS) are indications for device-aided therapies. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusions or subcutaneous apomorphine pump may be considered for patients aged >70 years who have mild or moderate cognitive impairment, severe depression or other contraindications to DBS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
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    • "Despite these side-effects, the treatment has been demonstrated to give a lasting improvement of dyskinesias and to reduce off-time signifi cantly (Colzi et al 1998; Stocchi et al 2001; Kanovsky et al 2002). In studies evaluating long-term treatment, no worsening of neuropsychiatric parameters has been described (Di Rosa et al 2003). Dosage of levodopa can be considerably reduced without loss of symptom control but some levodopa usually must be maintained (Colzi et al 1998; Stocchi et al 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is characterized by the progression of the disease from the early stages where it still has little functional consequence for afflicted patients, to an advanced stage disease with large consequences in terms of function, quality of life and individual and societal costs. Motor fluctuations and symptoms of levodopa overdosage may occur in parallel with increasing Parkinsonian symptoms. This leads to a narrower therapeutic window which causes problems with traditional oral medication. Various ways of optimizing oral treatment should be tried but often have limited effects. In addition to the previous alternatives of neurosurgery (especially deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nuclei) and continuous apomorphine treatment there is now also the alternative of continuous enteral levodopa administration via a trans-abdominal tube. The effect of the treatment may be tested individually via naso-duodenal administration before a decision is made whether to continue with permanent treatment. In the present article, the challenges to treatment of Parkinson's disease in these phases are described as well as the various treatment alternatives available. Focus is mainly on the clinical studies of continuous levodopa infusion therapies, especially enteral administration of levodopa/carbidopa gel. The place of enteral levodopa/carbidopa gel treatment among the other treatment methods is also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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