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Racists or Tolerant Multiculturalists? How Do They Begin?

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The author discusses how negative racial attitudes originate. First, she looks globally at how various theories have attempted to explain the origins of racism. Second, she reviews some research on this topic that she and her colleagues have completed with very young children. Both the theories and the studies have ramifications for how psychologists might reduce the possibility of children becoming racist.
... In terms of providing direct teaching, most of the research subjects did not do it structured. They only taught when they remember, following Katz (2003), who stated that parents usually do not teach directly about the right way to have cultural identities. ...
... One example by Blee (2002) studied how racist organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan structurally taught hatred to groups different from them from an early age. In addition, Katz (2003) suggested that children learn a lot from indirect processes such as modeling and imitation. Children see many attitudes from their parents or adults and then imitate these attitudes. ...
... Moreover, parents exert influence on their children when choosing an environment for their children. Katz (2003) explained that parents choose the world to grow for their children as a child, such as their friends and environment, the people they meet, and the TV broadcasts they can watch. In this case, the majority of the research subjects performed at least four actions. ...
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Parents play an important role in their children’s identity development, especially at the age of 8 to 13. Failure to form this identity will cause a negative impact on their children and others. This study examined Chinese Indonesian parents in constructing national identity and Chinese identity for their children. The approach used was a qualitative method using thematic analysis to analyze the data. This research used 20 participants from Chinese Indonesian parents, aged 30 to 45 years old, who have children aged 8 to 13, living in Surabaya, Indonesia. The results showed that all participants had a national identity; none of them had a transnational identity. However, they did not structurally construct this identity because they felt their children would get that from school. The construction of national identity and Chinese identity could go conjointly without damaging either identity. None of them opposed their children having Chinese identities. They came from two groups: those allowing the construction to occur naturally and those carrying them deliberately. This study concludes emphasized the importance of parents’ active involvement in the process of identity development so that their children could successfully balance themselves between having a national identity and ethnic identity.
... Research has shown that racial socialization occurs less frequently in White families compared to families of color (e.g., Hughes et al., 2006) and White individuals are less likely to think about themselves in terms of race (e.g., Herman, 2004;Lewis, 2004). Some White parents may not believe race is an important topic to discuss with their children (Katz, 2003), whereas others consider it important but do not engage in such discussions (Vittrup, 2018). White parents' decision to not talk about race, racism, or their White identity is a form of racial socialization that undermines the role of race. ...
... A vast majority of parents in our sample reported that conversations about race are important for their child to learn about diversity and to make the world a "better place." Findings from previous research are mixed with earlier work showing that White parents do not believe that it is important to discuss topics related to race with their children (Katz, 2003), whereas recent work has shown that White parents consider these conversations as important (Vittrup, 2018). Our findings add to this literature by demonstrating not only that White parents consider conversations about race to be important, but also what specific benefits they perceive of engaging in these conversations. ...
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Research has examined racial socialization practices within families of color, but less is known regarding what White parents teach their children about race and/or racism. To explore White racial socialization processes, we interviewed 30 White parents of White children ages 7–17 years living in the Midwest. Using thematic analysis, we identified 22 themes organized into four domains: Content of conversations, factors to consider in socialization, developmental differences, and White identity/privilege. A majority of parents reported conversations about current or historic racial events, while relatively few also reported speaking specifically about systemic racism and microaggressions. Parents viewed adolescents as better able to handle difficult topics than children. Findings contribute to theoretical frameworks and may inform the development of educational resources.
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Current marketplace narratives demand a move from shareholder towards stakeholder primacy and responsible capitalism yielding social value creation. In parallel, the demand for entrepreneurial value creation at higher education institutions (including, but not limited to business schools) continues to grow. The intersection of these two demands, however, engenders critical tensions. While social value creation emphasizes stakeholder returns and a long-term perspective, entrepreneurial value creation revolves around investment returns and short-term agility. As a result, business schools have been grappling to find ways to incorporate a broader, holistic view on value creation into their activities. We bring together future studies and management scholars and scholarship to explore futures literacy as an instrumental capability for business schools. Our research suggests that an interdisciplinary approach is particularly promising since both management and futures studies investigate how to engage with uncertainty and chart more desirable futures. We illustrate the instrumental role of futures literacy and foresight with an educational program built at the intersection of entrepreneurial and social value creation and with anticipatory practices at its core. We suggest that anticipatory practices are currently underutilized in business schools’ curricula, outreach activities, and strategy making, and may be necessary to shape productive and constructive business schools of the future.
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This article will depict the necessity of exploring race with Black children in dramatherapy utilising a black ¹ empathic approach through which the effects of race can be recognised and safely explored. The concept was inspired by the Black Lives Matter protests during May 2020, triggered by the murder of George Floyd in police custody. During the video of the distressing incident, Floyd said he could not breathe on several occasions, yet the Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin continued to kneel on his neck for nearly 9 minutes. Chauvin’s actions are a vivid reflection of institutional racism affecting Black people. This article will present several issues concerning racial disparities in Britain, with succinct examples of my personal feelings and experiences. Through addressing systemic problems, the article will explore the negative impact of racism and prejudice for Black children, as immediate exposure to an oppressive system means that they are at greater risk of developing mental health issues and a challenged Black identity. Therefore, it is imperative that dramatherapists provide a space for Black children to explore race in order to improve resilience and develop a healthy racial identity.
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Although scholars are increasingly building empirical evidence that helps us understand racism, they have conducted surprisingly little research on White children’s prosocial behavior towards historically marginalized people. 190 White, non-Hispanic children (M = 7.09 years, 54.2% boys) participated in the study. We examined whether both parents’ reported values for racial diversity in their children’s friendships and parents’ and teachers’ reports of children’s cross-race friendships were related to children’s sharing behaviors toward Black or White peers. We found that parents’ valuing of diversity was positively related to older, but not younger, children’s sharing behavior toward Black peers but not White peers. Further, for children of all age, parental diversity values were positively related to teachers’ and parents’ report of children’s cross-race friendships. Our findings indicate that interventions to improve White children’s positive behavior toward Black peers should include a focus on contexts that promote equity (i.e., parents’ values and friendships).
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Ethnic prejudice is one of the most studied topics in social psychology. Empirical research on its development and intergenerational transmission is increasing but still scarce. This systematic review collected and analyzed psychosocial studies focused on the transmission of ethnic prejudice within families with adolescents. Specifically, it aimed at addressing the following research questions: (a) To what extent is there a vertical (between parents and children) and horizontal (between siblings) transmission of ethnic prejudice within the family? (b) Is this process unidirectional (from parents to children) or bidirectional (between parents and children)? (c) Which individual and/or relational variables influence this process? (d) Can adolescents’ intergroup contact experiences affect the family influence on adolescents’ ethnic prejudice? The literature search of four databases (Ebsco, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science), carried out from February 2021 to May 2021, following the PRISMA guidelines, yielded 22 articles that matched the eligibility criteria. The findings highlighted a moderate bidirectional transmission of ethnic prejudice between parents and adolescents, which was influenced by several individual and relational variables (e.g., the adolescents’ age and sex and the family relationship quality). Moreover, the adolescents’ frequent and positive contacts with peers of different ethnicities reduced the parents’ influence on the adolescents’ ethnic prejudice. The findings are discussed, and their limitations and implications for intervention and future research are considered.
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Anti‐racist efforts require talking with children about race. The present work tested the predictors of U.S. adults' (N = 441; 52% female; 32% BIPOC participants; Mage = 35 years) conversations about race with children across two timepoints in 2019. Approximately 60% of adult participants talked to their children (3–12 years) about race during the preceding week; only 29% talked to other adults about race during the same period. This paper describes the content and predictors of conversations about race, revealing how conversations differ depending on the participant's race, a child's age, and whether the conversation occurs with children or another adult. These data have important implications for theorizing about when, why, and how adults actually talk about race with children and adults.
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The prediction that increased perceptual differentiation of other-group faces could reduce prejudicial attitudes was tested. The Ss were 96 black and white second- and sixth-grade children who previously obtained high prejudice scores on 2 racial attitude measures. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 training conditions: (a) learning distinctive names for photographs of other-race faces; (b) making same-different judgments of facial pairs, or (c) observing the faces without labels. Race of E was varied within each group. Attitude tests were subsequently readministered, and findings confirmed the hypothesis. Post-test prejudice scores of the labeling and perceptual training groups were lower than those of the control Ss. Additionally, several interactions revealed that this treatment effect was influenced by both developmental level and race of E.
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It is as children that we are first taught to be consumers, and for young girls perhaps the most important influence is blonde and less than a foot tall, namely, Barbie. Dolls are an important part of introducing little girls to their future roles as consumers, and their importance lies not in the doll itself, but in the huge array of outfits and props that can be bought for her. This is also true for other toys directed at girls: infant dolls are marketed with diapers, clothes, and carriages; dollhouses are incomplete without elaborate miniature furniture and appliances; play kitchens must be equipped with pots, pans, and cake mixes. In fact, nearly every traditional play activity for little girls is packaged to include lessons in incipient household consumerism. Although boys are also encouraged toward consumerism, the carryover to adult life is not as broad: buying laser guns may only have later relevance for those who work for the Pentagon.
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The present research, involving three experiments, examined the existence of implicit attitudes of Whites toward Blacks, investigated the relationship between explicit measures of racial prejudice and implicit measures of racial attitudes, and explored the relationship of explicit and implicit attitudes to race-related responses and behavior. Experiment 1, which used a priming technique, demonstrated implicit negative racial attitudes (i.e., evaluative associations) among Whites that were largely disassociated from explicit, self-reported racial prejudice. Experiment 2 replicated the priming results of Experiment 1 and demonstrated, as hypothesized, that explicit measures predicted deliberative race-related responses (juridic decisions), whereas the implicit measure predicted spontaneous responses (racially primed word completions). Experiment 3 extended these findings to interracial interactions. Self-reported (explicit) racial attitudes primarily predicted the relative evaluations of Black and White interaction partners, whereas the response latency measure of implicit attitude primarily predicted differences in nonverbal behaviors (blinking and visual contact). The relation between these findings and general frameworks of contemporary racial attitudes is considered.
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A social-developmental psychologist and a social anthropologist describe what is known--and what needs to be investigated--concerning the development of race and color concepts in young children. The authors summarize the results of their fifteen-year research and integrate their findings with those of other investigators to provide, in a single source, a much-needed summary of the research literature and a more comprehensive theoretical analysis than has appeared previously.Originally published in 1976.A UNC Press Enduring Edition -- UNC Press Enduring Editions use the latest in digital technology to make available again books from our distinguished backlist that were previously out of print. These editions are published unaltered from the original, and are presented in affordable paperback formats, bringing readers both historical and cultural value.
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Reviews studies on prejudice and children focusing on how children learn prejudice and what can be done to prevent it. Offers three activity and discussion ideas which can be used to develop children's awareness of inappropriate prejudgments. Identifies a selection of related instructional resources and includes a 34-item bibliography. (JDH)