Indolent Mantle Cell Lymphoma With Nodal Involvement and Mutated Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is typically considered an aggressive but incurable neoplasm composed of cyclin D1+ monoclonal B-cells with a t(11;14)(q13;q32) and usually unmutated immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Although it has been suggested that a more indolent leukemic disorder exists with the same phenotype and genotype but with mutated Ig genes, others have considered these cases to be variants of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We present a case of an indolent MCL that was documented with cyclin D1 expression in a lymph node biopsy performed more than 12 years ago. The patient has peripheral blood involvement with a lymphocyte count in the reference range, variable thrombocytopenia, and minimal adenopathy but is otherwise well, never having received any antineoplastic therapy. Study of peripheral blood samples from 2002 revealed a CD5-variable B-cell monoclonal proliferation with a t(11;14)(q13;q32) plus other karyotypic abnormalities, positive fluorescence in situ hybridization studies for the CCND1/IgH translocation, and clonal Ig gene rearrangement with mutated Ig genes (95.7% homology to VH 4-31). The subtle but diagnostic lymph node biopsy in this case helps to further support that an indolent t(11;14) monoclonal lymphocytosis with mutated Ig genes can represent an MCL variant rather than chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
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