Reduction of adverse citrate reactions during autologous large-volume PBPC apheresis by continuous infusion of calcium-gluconate

University of Vienna, Wien, Vienna, Austria
Transfusion (Impact Factor: 3.23). 12/2003; 43(11):1615-21. DOI: 10.1046/j.1537-2995.2003.00571.x
Source: PubMed


Citrate-related side effects are common adverse reactions during PBPC apheresis. To reduce the incidence of citrate-related reactions, the effect of a continuous calcium-gluconate infusion on the appearance of hypocalcemic symptoms and on the subjective tolerance toward large-volume leukapheresis (LVL) was tested.
A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in 50 patients undergoing standardized LVL at a median ACD-A ratio of 1.99 mg per kg and minute. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a continuous IV infusion of either saline or calcium-gluconate at a dose of 1.8 mmol calcium per hour. Subjective tolerance toward LVL was determined by standardized rating systems. Further, hormonal and electrolyte changes were monitored to assess the effect of continuous calcium infusion on calcium homeostasis.
Continuous IV administration of calcium-gluconate throughout LVL reduced the incidence of citrate-related effects by 65 percent. In patients who developed signs of hypocalcemia, the symptoms were weaker, and less medical intervention was needed to resolve clinical symptoms. The subjective tolerance toward LVL was superior in patients receiving calcium support compared to control patients. Continuous calcium infusion attenuated changes in serum phosphorus compared to patients receiving saline. No differences were observed in the variation of serum potassium and serum magnesium between the control group and the treatment group. The administration of calcium was not associated with technical problems related to the apheresis procedure, neither was any effect of calcium support on the total number of CD34+ cells collected observed.
These results indicate that continuous support of calcium-gluconate during LVL is an effective means of reducing the incidence of citrate-related symptoms and improving subjective tolerance toward LVL, without affecting the technical performance or the number of CD34+ cells collected.

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