Article

Immunohistochemical analysis of transforming growth factor β isoforms and their receptors in human cartilage from normal and osteoarthritic femoral heads

Centre François Baclesse, Caen, Lower Normandy, France
Rheumatology International (Impact Factor: 1.52). 04/2005; 25(2):118-24. DOI: 10.1007/s00296-003-0409-x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by erosion of cartilage and formation of osteophytes. Since transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is known to be involved in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, we studied by immunochemistry the expression of TGF-beta isoform types 1, 2, and 3 and their receptor types I and II in slightly and strongly altered areas of human OA cartilage and in osteophytes.
Specimens were collected from femoral heads at the time of hip arthroplasty, selecting osteophytic regions and areas of slight or severe degradation according to the Mankin score. Cryostat sections were prepared and submitted to immunohistochemistry using appropriate antibodies to TGF-beta(1-3) and TGF-beta receptors I and II.
TGF-beta1 expression was shown to be depressed in strongly degraded cartilage, compared to normal and slightly altered areas. TGF-beta2 was barely detectable in all samples studied. In osteophytes, a marked overexpression of TGF-beta1 and -beta3 was observed. An important decrease in TGF-beta receptor II was found in fibrillated cartilage areas.
The three major isoforms of TGF-beta are expressed in human OA cartilage, albeit the TGF-beta2 level is very low. Their expression patterns and the ratio of receptors I and II varies according to the degree of OA severity. The decrease in TGF-beta1 production and marked downregulation of receptor II in fibrillated cartilage may lead to reduced chondrocyte responsiveness to TGF-beta and contribute to the irreversibility of the disease. Overexpression of TGF-beta1 and -beta3 in osteophytes suggests that the two isoforms are involved in the formation of these structures.

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    • "It induces its signal through activation of type I (TßRI) and type II (TßRII) receptors. These receptors play a major role in osteoarthritis (OA) [2] [3]. Their expression as well as their membrane compartmentalization regulates TGFß1 signaling [4] [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a key-cytokine in osteoarthritis, impairs TGFβ signaling through TβRII down-regulation by increasing its degradation. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism that controls TßRII fate in IL-1ß treated cells. Chondrocytes were treated with IL-1ß in the presence of different inhibitors. TßRII and Cav-1 expression were assayed by Western blot and RT-PCR. We showed that IL-1ß-induced degradation of TßRII is dependent on proteasome and on its internalization in caveolae. In addition, IL-1ß enhances Cav-1 expression, a major constituent of lipid raft. In conclusion, we enlighten a new mechanism by which IL-1ß antagonizes TGFß pathway and propose a model of TßRII turnover regulation upon IL-1ß treatment.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research
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    • "It induces its signal through activation of type I (TßRI) and type II (TßRII) receptors. These receptors play a major role in osteoarthritis (OA) [2] [3]. Their expression as well as their membrane compartmentalization regulates TGFß1 signaling [4] [5] [6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a key-cytokine in osteoarthritis, impairs TGFβ signaling through TβRII down-regulation by increasing its degradation. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism that controls TßRII fate in IL-1ß treated cells. Chondrocytes were treated with IL-1ß in the presence of different inhibitors. TßRII and Cav-1 expression were assayed by Western blot and RT-PCR. We showed that IL-1ß-induced degradation of TßRII is dependent on proteasome and on its internalization in caveolae. In addition, IL-1ß enhances Cav-1 expression, a major constituent of lipid raft. In conclusion, we enlighten a new mechanism by which IL-1ß antagonizes TGFß pathway and propose a model of TßRII turnover regulation upon IL-1ß treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    • "The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily is known to play an important role in the skeletal system, especially in the development and maintenance of growth plate and articular cartilage [2,3]. Altered signaling and reduced expression of TGF-β ligands and receptors have been associated with OA in both mice and humans [4,5]. Previously, it was shown that mice expressing a dominant-negative mutation of the TGF-β type II receptor (DNIIR) in the cartilage have OA-like symptoms, including increased hypertrophy, chondrocyte clustering and osteophytes in the joint space [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have indicated that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling has a critical role in cartilage homeostasis and repair, yet the mechanisms of TGF-β's chondroprotective effects are not known. Our objective in this study was to identify downstream targets of TGF-β that could act to maintain biochemical and biomechanical properties of cartilage. Tibial joints from 20-week-old mice that express a dominant-negative mutation of the TGF-β type II receptor (DNIIR) were graded histologically for osteoarthritic changes and tested by indentation to evaluate their mechanical properties. To identify gene targets of TGF-β, microarray analysis was performed using bovine articular chondrocytes grown in micromass culture that were either treated with TGF-β or left untreated. Phosphoadenosine phosphosynthetase 2 (PAPSS2) was identified as a TGF-β-responsive gene. Papss2 expression is crucial for proper sulfation of cartilage matrix, and its deficiency causes skeletal defects in mice and humans that overlap with those seen in mice with mutations in TGF-β-signaling genes. Regulation of Papss2 was verified by real time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Alterations in sulfation of glycosaminoglycans were analyzed by critical electrolyte concentration and Alcian blue staining and immunofluorescence for chondroitin-4-sulfate, unsulfated chondroitin and the aggrecan core protein. DNIIR mutants showed reduced mechanical properties and osteoarthritis-like changes when compared to wild-type control mice. Microarray analysis identified a group of genes encoding matrix-modifying enzymes that were regulated by TGF-β. Papss2 was upregulated in bovine articular chondrocytes after treatment with TGF-β and downregulated in cartilage from DNIIR mice. Articular cartilage in DNIIR mice demonstrated reduced Alcian blue staining at critical electrolyte concentrations and reduced chondroitin-4-sulfate staining. Staining for unsulfated chondroitin sulfate was increased, whereas staining for the aggrecan core protein was comparable in DNIIR and wild-type mice. TGF-β maintains biomechanical properties and regulates expression of Papss2 and sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in mouse articular cartilage.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Arthritis research & therapy
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