Article

Difference in end-tidal CO2 between asphyxia cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia cardiac arrest in the prehospital setting. Crit Care 7:R139-R144

Center of Emergency Medicine, Prehospital Unit Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.
Critical Care (Impact Factor: 4.48). 01/2004; 7(6):R139-44. DOI: 10.1186/cc2369
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

There has been increased interest in the use of capnometry in recent years. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) correlates with cardiac output and, consequently, it has a prognostic value in CPR. This study was undertaken to compare the initial PetCO2 and the PetCO2 after 1 min during CPR in asphyxial cardiac arrest versus primary cardiac arrest.
The prospective observational study included two groups of patients: cardiac arrest due to asphyxia with initial rhythm asystole or pulseless electrical activity, and cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction or malignant arrhythmias with initial rhythm ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT). The PetCO2 was measured for both groups immediately after intubation and then repeatedly every minute, both for patients with and without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).
We analyzed 44 patients with asphyxial cardiac arrest and 141 patients with primary cardiac arrest. The first group showed no significant difference in the initial value of the PetCO2, even when we compared those with and without ROSC. There was a significant difference in the PetCO2 after 1 min of CPR between those patients with ROSC and those without ROSC. The mean value for all patients was significantly higher in the group with asphyxial arrest. In the group with VF/VT arrest there was a significant difference in the initial PetCO2 between patients without and with ROSC. In all patients with ROSC the initial PetCO2 was higher than 10 mmHg.
The initial PetCO2 is significantly higher in asphyxial arrest than in VT/VF cardiac arrest. Regarding asphyxial arrest there is also no difference in values of initial PetCO2 between patients with and without ROSC. On the contrary, there is a significant difference in values of the initial PetCO2 in the VF/VT cardiac arrest between patients with and without ROSC. This difference could prove to be useful as one of the methods in prehospital diagnostic procedures and attendance of cardiac arrest. For this reason we should always include other clinical and laboratory tests.

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    • "It also has been used to predict the likelihood of successful resuscitation and thus used to help invoke termination of resuscitative e orts [10,23-26]. However, Grmec and colleagues [27] also demonstrated a significant difference in initial ETCO2 between asphyxial cardiac arrest and arrest secondary to VF/VT. In this case, the initial ETCO2 was not a valid predictor of ROSC [27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In 2011, numerous studies were published in Critical Care focusing on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, trauma, and some related airway, respiratory, and response time factors. In this review, we summarize several of these studies, including those that brought forth advances in therapies for the post-resuscitative period. These advances involved hypothesis-generating concepts in therapeutic hypothermia as well as the impact of early percutaneous coronary artery interventions and the potential utility of extracorporeal life support after cardiac arrest. There were also articles pertaining to the importance of timing in prehospital airway management, the outcome impact of hyperoxia, and the timing of end-tidal carbon dioxide measurements to predict futility in cardiac arrest resuscitation. In other articles, additional perspectives were provided on the classic correlations between emergency medical service response intervals and outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Critical care (London, England)
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    • "They can be used as a detector for correct endotracheal tube placement, to monitor the adequacy of ventilation, ensure a proper nasogastric tube placement, recognize changes in alveolar dead space, help describe a proper emptying pattern of alveoli, help estimate the deepness of sedation and relaxation in critically ill, help in diagnostics of severe pulmonary embolism, and can be used in cardiac arrest patients as a prognostic determinant of outcome and in monitoring the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) [6-11]. In our previous study [12], we found that initial values of partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) in asphyxial arrest were significantly higher than in ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) arrest. In asphyxial arrest there was also no significant difference in initial values of PetCO2 in patients with and without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). "
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    ABSTRACT: Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) correlates with cardiac output and consequently has a prognostic value in CPR. In our previous study we confirmed that initial PetCO2 value was significantly higher in asphyxial arrest than in ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT) cardiac arrest. In this study we sought to evaluate the pattern of PetCO2 changes in cardiac arrest caused by VF/VT and asphyxial cardiac arrest in patients who were resuscitated according to new 2005 guidelines. The study included two cohorts of patients: cardiac arrest due to asphyxia with initial rhythm asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA), and cardiac arrest due to arrhythmia with initial rhythm VF or pulseless VT. PetCO2 was measured for both groups immediately after intubation and repeatedly every minute, both for patients with or without return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). We compared the dynamic pattern of PetCO2 between groups. Between June 2006 and June 2009 resuscitation was attempted in 325 patients and in this study we included 51 patients with asphyxial cardiac arrest and 63 patients with VF/VT cardiac arrest. The initial values of PetCO2 were significantly higher in the group with asphyxial cardiac arrest (6.74 ± 4.22 kilopascals (kPa) versus 4.51 ± 2.47 kPa; P = 0.004). In the group with asphyxial cardiac arrest, the initial values of PetCO2 did not show a significant difference when we compared patients with and without ROSC (6.96 ± 3.63 kPa versus 5.77 ± 4.64 kPa; P = 0.313). We confirmed significantly higher initial PetCO2 values for those with ROSC in the group with primary cardiac arrest (4.62 ± 2.46 kPa versus 3.29 ± 1.76 kPa; P = 0.041). A significant difference in PetCO2 values for those with and without ROSC was achieved after five minutes of CPR in both groups. In all patients with ROSC the initial PetCO2 was again higher than 1.33 kPa. The dynamic pattern of PetCO2 values during out-of-hospital CPR showed higher values of PetCO2 in the first two minutes of CPR in asphyxia, and a prognostic value of initial PetCO2 only in primary VF/VT cardiac arrest. A prognostic value of PetCO2 for ROSC was achieved after the fifth minute of CPR in both groups and remained present until final values. This difference seems to be a useful criterion in pre-hospital diagnostic procedures and attendance of cardiac arrest.
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    • "It is still not clear whether NDEs occur before, during, or after the period of cardiac arrest [3]. During cardiac arrest, the petCO2 falls to very low levels, reflecting the very low cardiac output achieved with cardiopulmonary resuscitation [31]. Higher levels of petCO2 therefore indicate better cardiac output and higher coronary perfusion pressure [32]. "
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