Article

Early Intrauterine Exposure to Tobacco-inhaled Products and Obesity

Division of Pediatric Epidemiology, Institute for Social Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 01/2004; 158(11):1068-74. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwg258
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

An association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring obesity has been reported. This study assessed the impact of maternal smoking during the first trimester. Data on 4,974 German children aged 5-6 years were obtained at school entry health examinations in 2001-2002 in Bavaria. Obesity was defined by body mass index using International Obesity Task Force cutpoints. Prevalence of obesity was 1.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.4) in offspring of never smokers, 4.5% (95% CI: 2.9, 6.7) for maternal smoking during the first trimester only, and 5.9% (95% CI: 3.8, 8.7) for maternal smoking throughout pregnancy. Unadjusted odds ratios were higher for maternal smoking throughout pregnancy (odds ratio = 3.23, 95% CI: 2.00, 5.21) compared with the first trimester only (odds ratio = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.49, 3.91). Adjusted odds ratios were similar: 1.70 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.87) for maternal smoking throughout pregnancy and 2.22 (95% CI: 1.33, 3.69) for maternal smoking in the first trimester only. When modeled together, no statistically significant difference in obesity risk was found between maternal smoking in the first trimester compared with throughout pregnancy. The effect of intrauterine tobacco exposure on childhood obesity may depend largely on cigarette smoking during the first trimester, whereas the additional impact of smoking throughout pregnancy might be due to confounding by sociodemographics. Women should be encouraged to quit smoking prior to conception.

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    • "There is speculation that the effect of intrauterine tobacco exposure on childhood obesity may depend largely on cigarette smoking during the first trimester, whereas the additional impact of smoking throughout pregnancy might be due to confounding by sociodemographics [8] or residual confounding by genetic and family environmental factors [7, 10]. However, a systematic review of studies reporting on the association between maternal prenatal cigarette smoking and elevated risk for childhood overweight suggested that sociodemographic and behavioral differences between smokers and nonsmokers did not explain the observed association [26]. "
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    • "The smoke increases such risks as the overall mortality, sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory infections, asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, obesity, hyper-tension, diabetes (e.g. Kabir et al., 2011; Linnet et al., 2005; Montgomery et al., 2002; Oken et al., 2005; Toschke et al., 2003; Williams et al., 1998; Yolton et al., 2005). According to a report of the Surgeon General (2006), in the U.S., almost 60% of children between 3 years old and 11 years old are exposed to secondhand smoke. "
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    ABSTRACT: The exposure of children to secondhand smoke at home and elsewhere has been a largely overlooked problem in Japan, regardless of well spread knowledge about the health risks of secondhand smoke exposure to children. Furthermore, evidence and studies are limited and little is known about the relationship between smoking behavior and socioeconomic factors in Japan. In this research, our broad perspective is to identify the important risk factors of women's smoking. We first focus on the mother, who has the greatest impact on her children's health. Thus, our main interest here is to demonstrate the mothers' behavior during the first year after the birth of a child. We also address the association between women's smoking behavior from several different points of view including their characteristic, family or social environments. Using various years of the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions, and multivariate logistic regressions, we show that mothers cessation of smoking after delivery is unstable in Japan, depending on the age and the parity of a child. For a first child, more than two-thirds of women who used to smoke abstain from smoking at least for one year. For a second child, compared with a first child, only half of the mothers quit temporarily in the 
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    • "Nicotine, in fact, causes higher placental vascular resistance, decreases blood flow in the uterus, and increases the concentration of carboxyhaemoglobin, all factors responsible for chronic hypoxia and reduced fetal development [80]. In addition, children of smoking mothers have a higher risk (RR = 1.5) of being overweight or obese [81,82] because nicotine withdrawal promotes overeating and weight gain, and on the other, children born from smoking mother tend to get less exercise and have a lower quality diet [74]. "
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    ABSTRACT: According to the Barker hypothesis, the period of pregnancy and the intrauterine environment are crucial to the tendency to develop diseases like hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, metabolic disorders, pulmonary, renal and mental illnesses. The external environment affects the development of a particular phenotype suitable for an environment with characteristics that closely resemble intrauterine conditions. If the extra-uterine environment differs greatly from the intra-uterine one, the fetus is more prone to develop disease. Subsequent studies have shown that maternal diseases like depression and anxiety, epilepsy, asthma, anemia and metabolic disorders, like diabetes, are able to determine alterations in growth and fetal development. Similarly, the maternal lifestyle, particularly diet, exercise and smoking during pregnancy, have an important role in determining the risk to develop diseases that manifest themselves both during childhood and particularly in adulthood. Finally, there are abundant potential sources of pollutants, both indoor and outdoor, in the environment in which the child lives, which can contribute to an increased probability to the development of several diseases and that in some cases could be easily avoided.
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