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Cinnamon Improves Glucose and Lipids of People With Type 2 Diabetes

Authors:
  • The University of Agricultural , Peshawar

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine whether cinnamon improves blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes. A total of 60 people with type 2 diabetes, 30 men and 30 women aged 52.2 +/- 6.32 years, were divided randomly into six groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 consumed 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon daily, respectively, and groups 4, 5, and 6 were given placebo capsules corresponding to the number of capsules consumed for the three levels of cinnamon. The cinnamon was consumed for 40 days followed by a 20-day washout period. After 40 days, all three levels of cinnamon reduced the mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), triglyceride (23-30%), LDL cholesterol (7-27%), and total cholesterol (12-26%) levels; no significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. Changes in HDL cholesterol were not significant. The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Cinnamon Improves Glucose and Lipids
of People With Type 2 Diabetes
ALAM KHAN,
MS, PHD
1,2,3
MAHPARA SAFDAR,
MS
1,2
MOHAMMAD MUZAFFAR ALI KHAN,
MS, PHD
1,2
KHAN NAWAZ KHATTAK,
MS
1,2
RICHARD A. ANDERSON,
PHD
3
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether cinnamon improves
blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in
people with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 60 people with type 2 diabetes, 30
men and 30 women aged 52.2 6.32 years, were divided randomly into six groups. Groups 1,
2, and 3 consumed 1, 3, or 6 g of cinnamon daily, respectively, and groups 4, 5, and 6 were given
placebo capsules corresponding to the number of capsules consumed for the three levels of
cinnamon. The cinnamon was consumed for 40 days followed by a 20-day washout period.
RESULTS After 40 days, all three levels of cinnamon reduced the mean fasting serum
glucose (18 –29%), triglyceride (23–30%), LDL cholesterol (7–27%), and total cholesterol (12–
26%) levels; no significant changes were noted in the placebo groups. Changes in HDL choles-
terol were not significant.
CONCLUSIONS The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1, 3, or6gof
cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in
people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with
type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Diabetes Care 26:3215–3218, 2003
T
he incidence of cardiovascular dis-
eases is increased two- to fourfold in
people with type 2 diabetes (1). Al-
though the causes of type 2 diabetes and
cardiovascular diseases are multifactorial,
diet definitely plays a role in the incidence
and severity of these diseases. The dietary
components beneficial in the prevention
and treatment of these diseases have not
been clearly defined, but it is postulated
that spices may play a role. Spices such as
cinnamon, cloves, bay leaves, and tur-
meric display insulin-enhancing activity
in vitro (2,3). Botanical products can im-
prove glucose metabolism and the overall
condition of individuals with diabetes not
only by hypoglycemic effects but also by
improving lipid metabolism, antioxidant
status, and capillary function (4). A num-
ber of medicinal/culinary herbs have been
reported to yield hypoglycemic effects in
patients with diabetes. Examples of these
include bitter melon, Gymnema, Korean
ginseng, onions, garlic, flaxseed meal, and
specific nutrients including -lipoic acid,
biotin, carnitine, vanadium, chromium,
magnesium, zinc, and vitamins B
3
,E,and
K (5).
Rashwan (6) reported that supple-
mentation of the diet of rabbits with
fenugreek decreased total serum lipid
level. In rats, curry leaf and mustard seeds
decreased total serum cholesterol, LDL
cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol and in-
creased HDL cholesterol levels (7) and re-
duced cholesterol, triglycerides, and
phospholipids in aorta, liver, and heart
(8). The LDL and VLDL fractions were
also decreased and the HDL fraction was
increased. Coriander seeds fed to rats con-
suming a high-fat diet led to decreased
LDL, VLDL, and total cholesterol and in-
creased HDL cholesterol (9). Zhang et al.
(10) reported that turmeric may also have
a role in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis.
Aqueous extracts from cinnamon
have been shown to increase in vitro glu-
cose uptake and glycogen synthesis and to
increase phosphorylation of the insulin
receptor; in addition, these cinnamon ex-
tracts are likely to aid in triggering the
insulin cascade system (11,12). Because
insulin also plays a key role in lipid me-
tabolism, we postulated that consump-
tion of cinnamon would lead to improved
glucose and blood lipids in vivo. There-
fore, this study was designed to determine
whether there is a dose response of cinna-
mon on clinical variables associated with
diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in
people with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND
METHODS This study was con-
ducted in the Department of Human Nu-
trition, NWFP Agricultural University,
Peshawar, Pakistan and was approved by
the Ethics Committee and Human Studies
Review Board of the University of Pesha-
war. Selection criteria for the study in-
cluded the following for people with type
2 diabetes: age 40 years, not on insulin
therapy, not taking medicine for other
health conditions, and fasting blood glu-
cose levels between 7.8 and 22.2 mmol/l
(140400 mg/dl). A total of 60 individu-
als with type 2 diabetes, 30 men and 30
women, were selected for the study. The
mean age of the subjects was 52.0 6.87
years in the placebo groups and 52.0
5.85 years in the groups consuming cin-
namon. The duration of diabetes was also
similar: 6.73 2.32 years for the placebo
group and 7.10 3.29 years for the cin-
namon groups. There was also an equal
number of men and women in the pla-
●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●●
From the
1
Department of Human Nutrition, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan; the
2
Post
Graduate Medical Institute, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, Pakistan; and the
3
Nutrients Require
-
ments and Functions Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Richard A. Anderson, Nutrient Requirements and
Functions Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Bldg. 307, Rm. 224, Beltsville, MD
20705. E-mail: Anderson@307.bhnrc.usda.gov.
Received for publication 30 June 2003 and accepted in revised form 22 August 2003.
A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Syste`me International (SI) units and conversion
factors for many substances.
© 2003 by the American Diabetes Association.
Clinical Care/Education/Nutrition
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
DIABETES CARE, VOLUME 26, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 2003 3215
cebo and cinnamon groups. All subjects
were taking sulfonylurea drugs, i.e., glib-
enclamide; medications did not change
during the study.
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) cer-
tied by the Ofce of the Director, Re-
search and Development/Non-Timber
Forest Products, NWFP Forest Depart-
ment, Peshawar, Pakistan, was used in
this study. Cinnamon and wheat our
were ground nely and put into capsules
(Mehran Traders Pharmaceutical Suppli-
ers, Peshawar, Pakistan). Each capsule
contained either 500 mg of cinnamon or
wheat our. Both the cinnamon and pla-
cebo capsules were packaged in plastic
bags containing 40 capsules (1 g or two
capsules per day for 20 days), 120 cap-
sules (3 g or six capsules per day for 20
days), or 240 capsules (6 g or 12 capsules
per day for 20 days) and prepared for dis-
tribution to the subjects. When subjects
nished testing after the rst 20 days, they
were given the second package of cap-
sules. Compliance was monitored by cap-
sule count and contact with the subjects.
Compliance was considered excellent and
all capsules were consumed.
The study was conducted for 60 days
with 60 individuals with type 2 diabetes
divided randomly into six equal groups.
Group 1 consumed two 500-mg capsules
of cinnamon per day, group 2 consumed
six capsules of cinnamon per day, and
group 3 consumed 12 capsules of cinna-
mon per day. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were
assigned to respective placebo groups,
which consumed a corresponding num-
ber of capsules containing wheat our.
Subjects consumed their normal diets and
continued their medications throughout
the study. From days 41 to 60, no cinna-
mon or placebo was given. The 1-g dose
of cinnamon and placebo was spread over
the day as 0.5 g (one capsule) after lunch
and 0.5 g after dinner. The 3-g and 6-g
doses of cinnamon and placebo were
spread over the day as 1 g (two capsules)
and 2 g (four capsules) after breakfast,
lunch, and dinner, respectively. The sub-
jects were instructed to take the capsules
immediately after meals.
On days 0, 20, 40, and 60, 5mlof
fasting blood was collected from each
subject. Blood samples were transferred
to sterilized centrifuge tubes and allowed
to clot at room temperature. The blood
samples were centrifuged for 10 min in a
tabletop clinical centrifuge at 4,000 rpm
for serum separation. Serum samples
were stored in a freezer at 0°C for later
analyses.
Glucose level was determined using
an autoanalyzer (Express Plus; Ciba
Corning Diagnostics, Palo Alto, CA). Tri-
glyceride levels were determined by the
enzymatic colorimetric method of
Werner et al. (13) using an autoanalyzer
(Express Plus; Ciba Corning) and an
Elitech kit (Meditek Instrument, Pesha-
war, Pakistan). Cholesterol levels were
determined by enzymatic colorimetric
method of Allain et al. (14) using the same
autoanalyzer. Chylomicrons, VLDL, and
LDL were precipitated by adding phos-
photungstic acid and magnesium ions to
the sample. Centrifugation left only the
HDL in the supernatant (15). LDL choles-
terol was calculated by dividing the trig-
lycerides by 5 and subtracting the HDL
cholesterol (16).
Two-way ANOVA and randomized
complete block design were used for sta-
tistical analysis (17). Values are means
SD.
RESULTS The addition of 1, 3, or
6 g of cinnamon to the diet led to signi-
cant decreases in serum glucose levels af-
ter 40 days. Values after 20 days were
signicantly lower only in the group re-
ceiving6gofcinnamon (Table 1). At the
levels tested, there was no evidence of a
dose response because the response to all
three levels of cinnamon was similar. De-
creases ranged from 18 to 29%. After the
subjects no longer consumed the cinna-
mon for 20 days, glucose levels were sig-
nicantly lower only in the group
consuming the lowest level of cinnamon.
Glucose values in the three placebo
groups were not signicantly different at
any of the time points.
The consumption of cinnamon also
led to a time-dependent decrease in se-
rum triglyceride levels at all amounts of
cinnamon tested after 40 days (Table 2).
Values after 20 days were signicantly
Table 1Effects of cinnamon on glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes
Group*
Doses of
cinnamon
(g/day)
Fasting serum glucose level (mmol/l)
Before
cinnamon
intake During cinnamon intake
After
cinnamon
intake
Day 0 Day 20 Day 40 Day 60
1 1 11.6 1.7
a
10.5 1.8
ab
8.7 1.6
c
9.7 1.4
bc
2 3 11.4 1.2
a
9.9 1.1
ab
9.4 1.1
b
9.9 1.6
ab
3 6 13.0 1.4
a
10.2 1.3
bc
9.2 1.5
c
11.4 1.8
ab
4 Placebo 1 12.2 1.0
a
12.7 0.8
a
12.4 1.1
a
12.6 1.0
a
5 Placebo 2 12.4 1.0
a
11.8 0.9
a
12.7 1.0
a
12.6 1.3
a
6 Placebo 3 16.7 1.4
a
16.7 1.6
a
16.8 1.7
a
17.0 1.3
a
Data are means SD. *Ten individuals in each group; means followed by different superscript letters in the
same row are signicantly different at P 0.05.
Table 2Effects of cinnamon on triglyceride levels in people with type 2 diabetes
Group*
Doses of
cinnamon
(g/day)
Fasting serum triglyceride level (mmol/l)
Before
cinnamon
intake During cinnamon intake
After
cinnamon
intake
Day 0 Day 20 Day 40 Day 60
1 1 2.25 0.35
a
1.92 0.18
ab
1.57 0.21
b
1.67 0.21
b
2 3 2.75 0.30
a
2.74 0.49
a
2.01 0.36
b
2.16 0.52
b
3 6 2.48 0.39
a
1.81 0.28
b
1.91 0.30
b
2.07 0.32
ab
4 Placebo 1 2.31 0.32
a
2.38 0.34
a
2.50 0.30
a
2.45 0.32
a
5 Placebo 2 2.38 0.29
a
2.42 0.31
a
2.39 0.28
a
2.21 0.29
a
6 Placebo 3 2.55 0.34
a
2.66 0.38
a
2.52 0.40
a
2.65 0.35
a
Data are means SD. *Ten individuals in each group; means followed by different superscript letters in the
same row are signicantly different at P 0.05.
Cinnamon decreases glucose and lipids
3216 DIABETES CARE, VOLUME 26, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 2003
lower only in the group consuming6gof
cinnamon per day. Decreases after 40
days of cinnamon consumption ranged
from 23 to 30%. These data indicate that
consumption of cinnamon for 20 days
was more benecial than shorter use for
reduction of triglyceride levels in people
with type 2 diabetes. The mean fasting
serum triglyceride levels of the subjects
who consumed1gor3gofcinnamon per
day for 40 days followed by 20 days of not
consuming cinnamon were still signi-
cantly lower than the mean fasting serum
triglyceride levels of the same groups at
the beginning of the study. Decreases in
the 6-g group were no longer signicant.
There were no changes in triglyceride lev-
els in any of the three placebo groups
(Table 2).
There were also signicant decreases
in serum cholesterol levels in all three
groups consuming cinnamon, and no
changes were noted in the respective pla-
cebo groups (Table 3). Decreases were
signicant after 20 days, and values were
similar after 40 days, except in the group
consuming 3 g per day, which continued
to decrease. These decreases in serum
cholesterol level ranging from 13 to 26%
were maintained even after not consum-
ing additional cinnamon for 20 days (Ta-
ble 3, last column).
Decreases in LDL were signicant in
the 3- and 6-g groups after 40 days with
decreases of 10 and 24% (Table 4). De-
creases in the 1-g group were not signi-
cant after 40 days but continued to
decline during the washout period and
were signicant after 60 days (Table 4,
last column).
There were nonsignicant changes in
HDL in the subjects consuming 1 or6gof
cinnamon for 40 days. Decreases in the
3-g group were signicant after 20 days.
These values remained relatively un-
changed after the 20-day washout period.
CONCLUSIONS This study dem-
onstrates effects of low levels (1 6 g per
day) of cinnamon on the reduction of glu-
cose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and
total cholesterol levels in subjects with
type 2 diabetes. The study design serves
to replicate the results because there were
similar effects at the three doses tested. It
is not clear whether even less than1gof
cinnamon per day would also be bene-
cial. The data are also reinforced by the
observation that there were no signicant
changes in any of the placebo groups.
There were also no problems with com-
pliance or problems associated with the
consumption of 6 g of cinnamon per
day.
The mechanism of the effects of cin-
namon on glucose and blood lipids must
be determined. Symptoms of insulin re-
sistance include decreased stimulation of
muscle glycogen synthesis as well as de-
fects in glycogen synthase activity and
glucose uptake (18). In addition, altered
enzymatic activities, such as an increased
phosphatase activity and/or seryl phos-
phorylation of the insulin receptor sub-
strate by glycogen synthase kinase-3
(GSK-3), have also been shown to be in-
volved in some cases of type 2 diabetes
(19,20). Dephosphorylation of the recep-
tor -subunit is associated with the deac-
tivation of its kinase activity and,
therefore, is associated with insulin signal
downregulation (21). Maximal phos-
phorylation of the insulin receptor is as-
sociated with increased insulin
sensitivity, which is associated with im-
proved glucose and lipid levels. Extracts
of cinnamon activated glycogen synthase,
increased glucose uptake, and inhibited
glycogen synthase kinase-3 (11,12). Ex-
tracts of cinnamon also activated insulin
receptor kinase and inhibited dephos-
phorylation of the insulin receptor, lead-
ing to maximal phosphorylation of the
insulin receptor (12). All of these effects
would lead to increased insulin sensitiv-
ity. We have shown that extracts of cin-
namon also function as potent
antioxidants, which would lead to addi-
tional health benets of this substance
(unpublished data). Dhuley (22) showed
that cinnamon displays antioxidant activ-
ity in rats fed a high-fat diet.
The maintenance of lower serum glu-
cose and lipid levels, even when the indi-
viduals were not consuming cinnamon
for 20 days, denotes sustained effects of
cinnamon, indicating that cinnamon
would not need to be consumed every
Table 3Effects of cinnamon on cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes
Group*
Doses of
cinnamon
(g/day)
Fasting serum cholesterol level (mmol/l)
Before
cinnamon
intake During cinnamon intake
After
cinnamon
intake
Day 0 Day 20 Day 40 Day 60
1 1 4.91 0.23
a
4.32 0.21
b
4.32 0.27
b
4.09 0.30
b
2 3 5.51 0.29
a
4.76 0.32
b
4.09 0.26
c
4.03 0.34
c
3 6 5.30 0.22
a
4.63 0.21
b
4.65 0.24
b
4.86 0.19
b
4 Placebo 1 4.58 0.28
b
4.67 0.35
b
4.58 0.31
b
4.78 0.31
a
5 Placebo 2 4.81 0.30
a
4.71 0.30
a
5.04 0.31
a
4.94 0.35
a
6 Placebo 3 5.51 0.41
c
5.69 0.44
ab
5.66 0.43
bc
5.84 0.42
a
Data are means SD. *Ten individuals in each group; means followed by different superscript letters in the
same row are signicantly different at P 0.05.
Table 4Effects of cinnamon on LDL levels in people with type 2 diabetes
Group*
Doses of
cinnamon
(g/day)
Fasting serum LDL level (mmol/l)
Before
cinnamon
intake During cinnamon intake
After
cinnamon
intake
Day 0 Day 20 Day 40 Day 60
1 1 2.66 0.12
a
2.28 0.15
b
2.48 0.10
ab
2.35 0.13
b
2 3 2.77 0.18
a
2.43 0.28
ab
2.04 0.19
bc
1.97 0.18
c
3 6 2.87 0.18
a
2.56 0.13
b
2.59 0.16
b
2.72 0.11
ab
4 Placebo 1 2.30 0.22
a
2.30 0.31
a
2.20 0.22
a
2.40 0.22
a
5 Placebo 2 2.56 0.25
a
2.40 0.22
a
2.66 0.27
a
2.79 0.27
a
6 Placebo 3 3.03 0.31
b
3.15 0.33
ab
3.28 0.34
a
3.36 0.37
a
Data are means SD. *Ten individuals in each group; means followed by different superscript letters in the
same row are signicantly different at P 0.05.
Khan and Associates
DIABETES CARE, VOLUME 26, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 2003 3217
day. The levels of cinnamon tested in this
study, 16 g per day, suggest that there is
a wide range of cinnamon intake that may
be benecial and that intake of 1 g daily
is likely to be benecial in controlling
blood glucose and lipid levels.
In conclusion, cinnamon reduced se-
rum glucose, triglyceride, total choles-
terol, and LDL cholesterol levels in people
with type 2 diabetes. Because cinnamon
would not contribute to caloric intake,
those who have type 2 diabetes or those
who have elevated glucose, triglyceride,
LDL cholesterol, or total cholesterol levels
may benet from the regular inclusion of
cinnamon in their daily diet. In addition,
cinnamon may be benecial for the re-
mainder of the population to prevent and
control elevated glucose and blood lipid
levels.
Acknowledgments This project was
funded, in part, by the University Grants
Commission/NWFP Agricultural University,
Peshawar, Pakistan.
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Cinnamon decreases glucose and lipids
3218 DIABETES CARE, VOLUME 26, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 2003
... Only two studies explored the intervention with cinnamon in different dosages, Khan, et al. have looked into three different quantities of cinnamon powder in their study, the patients showed similar reductions in FBS regardless of which dose was used (Khan et al., 2003). Conversely, Lu, et al. who have used cinnamon extract in their intervention, found that a greater reduction in FBS was observed when a higher dose of cinnamon was used (Lu, et al., 2012). ...
... Total score (Khan, et al., 2003) 1 0 0 0 0 1 (Mang, et al., 2006) 1 0 1 1 1 4 (Blevins, et al., 2007) 1 (Lu, et al., 2012). Zare, et al. have found that baseline BMI value of the subjects influenced the reduction in HbA1c levels by cinnamon, subjects with BMI higher than 27 had better HbA1c reductions as compared to lower BMI subjects (Zare, et al., 2019). ...
... The vast majority of studies failed to show significant changes in lipid profile values for cinnamon intervention. Merely in the studies of Khan, et al. and Zare, et al., cinnamon had a significant effect on lipid profile (Khan, et al., 2003;Zare, et al., 2019). Similar to HbA1c status, Zare, et al. have noticed that the efficacy of cinnamon in decreasing lipid parameters was also influenced by baseline BMI of the subjects, subjects with a BMI of 27 or more had greater reductions in lipid profile as compared to subjects with BMI lower than 27 (Zare, et al., 2019). ...
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Type II diabetes has been on the rise for the past few decades and the current management plan of diabetes is challenging to individuals in keeping their blood glucose levels within normal limits. There is a constant search of new ways to tackle these challenges. Cinnamon is suggested to have antihyperglycemic and lipid lowering effect and has been proposed to be utilized in type II diabetes. The aim behind this review is to explore the role of cinnamon in improving the glycemic status, lipid profile, and weight status of patients with type II diabetes. PubMed and ScienceDirect databases have been searched for eligible studies conducted until February 2022, the outcomes measured were glycemic markers as primary outcome and lipid profile and weight status as secondary outcomes. A total of ten trials involving 861 patients were included in the study. Five studies have demonstrated reductions in glycemic markers (ranging between −0.56 and −1.9 mmol/L for fasting blood sugar and between −0.21% and −0.93% for glycated hemoglobin) whereas the remaining four did not show any significant reduction. The most improvements in glycemic markers are seen in patients with poorly controlled diabetes and patients with higher body mass index (BMI) values. The majority of the studies did not record improvement in lipid profile. Changes in weight status are only observed in overweight patient category (BMI between 25 and 30). Overall, there is no coherent evidence to decide about antihyperglycemic, lipid lowering, and weight reducing effects of cinnamon in type II diabetes.
... In one human study, Cinnamon (3g) did not affect total cholesterol, HDL and LDL values in nine healthy subjects [42]. However, in the present study, the effect on hyperlipidemia has been observed in ischemic heart diseases individuals, without diabetes; while most of the other studies primarily selected type 2 diabetic patients [43][44][45]. In all of the above studies, the control of sugar by Cinnamon will automatically modify the lipid levels; ...
... Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic response have also been observed in type 2 diabetics when administered Cinnamon at 1,3 and 6 g doses daily for a period of 40 days. With the reduction of fasting blood glucose (18-29%), there was also a reduction in total cholesterol (12-26%), triglycerides (23-30%) and LDL-C (7-27%) with no significant change in HDL-C at all the three doses of Cinnamon [45]. ...
... Cinnamaldehyde (CN), an activator of Nrf2 [8], is a major compound found in the bark and leaves of some cinnamon varieties [9]. Cinnamon is commonly used as a spice in desserts, drinks, flavoring and traditional medicine [10][11][12][13]. Importantly, cinnamon has antioxidant [14], anti-inflammatory [15][16][17] and anti-diabetic [18] properties that are attributed to the cellular effects of CN. ...
... This lipid-lowering effect was reported for higher concentrations of CN [21,40] and in other models of chronic disease [13,41]. Indeed, it was previously reported that CN significantly decreased triglycerides and total cholesterol, and increased in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in both STZ-induced diabetic rats, db/db transgenic mice [42] and patients with diabetes [10]. Using structure-activity relationship studies (α-β-unsaturated aldehyde functional group in CN binds covalently with thiol groups of Keap1, releasing and stabilizing Nrf2), the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of CN were previously proved [43]. ...
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... Based on the literatures, cinnamon has the potential to reduce the lipid level in the rats' blood [16,17]. Khan et al. [18] indicated that using controlled doses of cinnamon per day can reduce the levels of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood serum. In recent years, researchers have shown increasing interest in studying the influences of cinnamon on various diseases [19][20][21][22]. ...
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