Article

Cocoa Has More Phenolic Phytochemicals and a Higher Antioxidant Capacity than Teas and Red Wine

Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 12/2003; 51(25):7292-5. DOI: 10.1021/jf0344385
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Black tea, green tea, red wine, and cocoa are high in phenolic phytochemicals, among which theaflavin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, and procyanidin, respectively, have been extensively investigated due to their possible role as chemopreventive agents based on their antioxidant capacities. The present study compared the phenolic and flavonoid contents and total antioxidant capacities of cocoa, black tea, green tea, and red wine. Cocoa contained much higher levels of total phenolics (611 mg of gallic acid equivalents, GAE) and flavonoids (564 mg of epicatechin equivalents, ECE) per serving than black tea (124 mg of GAE and 34 mg of ECE, respectively), green tea (165 mg of GAE and 47 mg of ECE), and red wine (340 mg of GAE and 163 mg of ECE). Total antioxidant activities were measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays and are expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacities (VCEACs). Cocoa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among the samples in ABTS and DPPH assays, with VCEACs of 1128 and 836 mg/serving, respectively. The relative total antioxidant capacities of the samples in both assays were as follows in decreasing order: cocoa > red wine > green tea > black tea. The total antioxidant capacities from ABTS and DPPH assays were highly correlated with phenolic content (r2 = 0.981 and 0.967, respectively) and flavonoid content (r2 = 0.949 and 0.915). These results suggest that cocoa is more beneficial to health than teas and red wine in terms of its higher antioxidant capacity.

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    • "All of these modifications might provoke errors during DNA replication and genetic alterations, modulate transcription of redox-regulated proteins, etc., leading to enhanced cell proliferation and tumor promotion/progression[31]. Cocoa and its flavonoids are strong antioxidant substances. Cocoa retains a potent antioxidant capacity as compared to other foods, such as teas and red wine, and this property has been associated to its flavonoid content[11]. Remarkably, the structural characteristics of flavanols allow them to act as hydrogen donors (radical-scavenging) and metal-chelating antioxidants. "

    Preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "2.6. Total phenolic and flavonoid content Total phenolic content (TPC) was measured using FolineCiocalteu assay (Wollgast, 2004) while total flavonoid content (TFC) was performed according to the method described by Lee et al. (2003). Results were expressed as mg of catechin equivalents (CE) per kg of defatted samples. "
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    DESCRIPTION: Dark chocolate is a good source of dietary flavonoids, mainly comprised of (þ)-catechin, ()-epicatechin, and their oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins. Nevertheless, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity are affected during chocolate manufacturing. In this study, the influence of manufacturing process of dark chocolate, particularly, roasting of cocoa beans (115e135 C), conching (60e80 C), and alkalization treatment (pH 7e9) was studied and the process conditions were optimized via Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Validation of the model accomplished applying the conditions generated by RSM. Considering the data obtained from the model; chocolate manufacturing process, particularly increasing alkalization degree and roasting temperature significantly reduced phenolics and related antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, increasing conching temperature was insignificant (p > 0.05) since higher temperature leads to a shorter required processing time.
    Full-text · Research · Dec 2015
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    • "2.6. Total phenolic and flavonoid content Total phenolic content (TPC) was measured using FolineCiocalteu assay (Wollgast, 2004) while total flavonoid content (TFC) was performed according to the method described by Lee et al. (2003). Results were expressed as mg of catechin equivalents (CE) per kg of defatted samples. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dark chocolate is a good source of dietary flavonoids, mainly comprised of (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, and their oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins. Nevertheless, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity are affected during chocolate manufacturing. In this study, the influence of manufacturing process of dark chocolate, particularly, roasting of cocoa beans (115–135 °C), conching (60–80 °C), and alkalization treatment (pH 7–9) was studied and the process conditions were optimized via Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Validation of the model accomplished applying the conditions generated by RSM. Considering the data obtained from the model; chocolate manufacturing process, particularly increasing alkalization degree and roasting temperature significantly reduced phenolics and related antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, increasing conching temperature was insignificant (p > 0.05) since higher temperature leads to a shorter required processing time.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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