Article

Comparative Study of the Thermal Properties of Mud and Peat Solutions Applied in Clinical Practice

Authors:
  • Katholisches Klinikum Bochum, Bochum, Germany
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Abstract

Different peloids as e.g. mud and peat have been traditionally used for therapeutic purposes successfully, especially of there thermal actions. It was the aim of the experimental study to compare the thermal properties of two peloids, mud and peat, with a view to assessing their thermal effects when they are applied in clinical practice. The studies were carried out using peat of the marsh type of peats (Hochmoor), and curative Pomorie (Bulgaria) mud. As important parameters were determined the specific thermal capacity at constant pressure (Cp), the density of solutions (rho), the cooling rate (m), the coefficient of temperature transfer (a) of solutions and the coefficient of thermal conductivity (lambda) of solutions of peat and curative mud, compared to water bath. The comparative studies of the thermal properties of water and water solutions of peat and curative mud show that the thermal effect of the water bath is substantially smaller than that of the peat and mud applications. This difference is due to a greater extent to the high values of the dynamic viscosity, not allowing cooling by convection and protecting the surface of the skin upon applications of peloid solutions with a higher temperature.

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... During last years a number of scientific studies on the thermophysical properties of peloids have been carried out (Cara et al., 2000;Beer et al., 2003;Legido et al., 2007), but still a systematic characterization is needed. In this note we present experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity (λ) at temperatures near 40°C of two different pastes, suitable to be used as peloids, prepared from clays mined in Spain. ...
... More relevant are thermal properties investigations of actual peloids (Cara et al., 2000;Beer et al., 2003;Legido et al., 2007). ...
... The cooling rate has to be considered a derived property, and it is precisely our final goal to predict cooling rates from more fundamental properties like thermal conductivity, heat capacity or density. Very few authors reported λ data of peloids (Beer et al., 2003) and in those cases they quoted values lower than that of water, what is a quite surprising result. ...
Article
We measured, using the multi-current hot-wire method, the thermal conductivity (λ) of two different clay pastes suitable to be used as peloids. The same wire and system was used to measure the λ of water, and the results were compared with literature data. Special attention was paid to statistical data analysis. The obtained λ values for the clay pastes are higher than the λ of water at the same temperature.
... The thermal behaviour of peloids and clays has been studied by several authors in different countries (Lewis, 1935;Berbenni, 1965;Skauge et al., 1983;Rambaud et al., 1986;Ferrand and Yvon, 1991;Cara et al., 2000;Beer et al., 2003b;Veniale et al., 2004;Rebelo et al., 2005). Lewis (1935) was the first author to study the thermal properties of peloids. ...
... The involved values can be also used to calculate the temperature of the peloid 20 min after application. Beer et al. (2003b) carried out a comparative study of the thermal behaviour of a mud, peat and water bath, and found considerable differences in the cooling rates of peat as compared to those of water and mud. An extensive study performed by Veniale et al. (2004) with several samples of muds matured with different types of thermal waters provided, among other conclusions, data on the thermal behaviour of muds. ...
Article
The thermal behaviour of muds and clays for pelotherapic purposes is a very important parameter because its directly relation with the therapeutic action of peloids. Usually common clays are used for maduration in pelotherapy but rarely are used pure clays as bentonites or sepiolite. Under study in this work are the thermal properties of almost pure samples of Al-bentonite (montmorillonite), Mg-bentonite (saponite) and sepiolite, and their comparison with three common clays composed of mixtures of kaolinite, illite and smectite with other silicates and carbonates. The samples have been characterized by means of mineralogical techniques (XRD) but also by chemical analysis (XRF, AA), microfabric studies (SEM) and physical and physico-chemical determinations (granulometry, BET surface area, plasticity index, water absorption and CEC). Results indicate noteworthy differences between common clays and pure clays, especially with Mg-bentonite. Besides water absorption capacity other physical and physico-chemical properties seem to play an important role in the cooling kinetic and therefore in the selection of candidate clays for pelotherapy.
... Typical peat pastes applications imply temperatures between 42 and 44°C for 15-30 min (Flaig, 1992). Peats have demonstrated adsorptive, estrogenic, astringency, antioxidant and revulsive actions (Beer et al., 2000(Beer et al., , 2001(Beer et al., , 2002(Beer et al., , 2003Suárez et al., 2011). Fungicidal, antibacterial and antiviral properties, UV absorption as well as influences on smooth muscles and prostaglandin synthesis are also been reported (Klöcking and Helbig, 2005;Fioravanti et al., 2007;Sławinska et al., 2007;Khil'ko et al., 2011;Gomes de Melo et al., 2015). ...
... Organic fraction comes from vegetable wastes transformed under anaerobic and waterlogged conditions for extended periods and includes humic acids, humin and fulvic acids as principal compounds. Organic compounds have demonstrated biologic activities, which make them potentially useful in topical health care and cosmetology (Summa and Tateo, 1999;Beer et al., 2003). Mineral fraction of peats is composed of clay minerals such as illite and chlorite as well as gypsum, muscovite and quartz (Summa and Tateo, 1999;Romão et al., 2007;Orru et al., 2011). ...
Article
Composition and properties of three different peat strata from "El Padul" peatbog have been studied and peat pastes have been formulated to prepare skin health care products. As for composition, the main phase of each stratum was constituted of smectites (outer stratum), organic matters (intermediate) or carbonates (inner). Pristine strata and their aqueous dispersed systems were characterized for such properties (pH, rheology and cooling kinetics) that are considered determinant in view of their topical application. Main phases of each stratum influenced pH and rheology but not cooling kinetics. Combination of the strata in different w/w ratios led to peat pastes with improved performance for skin administration.
... The thermophysical properties of peloids are important to predict their thermal behaviour and their possible use in thermotherapy [20]. Thermal properties have been studied in the last years [21][22][23][24][25]. ...
... The results obtained indicated values similar to those in the literature and with specific heat suitable for thermotherapeutic applications. Mass % Fig. 6 Specific heats of several peloids already used in thermotherapy: open circles this work, filled square Ref. [34], filled triangle Ref. [15], open diamonds Ref. [20], filled circle Ref. [28], open squares Ref. [26], open triangles Ref. [31], filled diamond Ref. [22], plus Ref. [25], cross Ref. [24], asterisk Ref. [23], minus Ref. [17] Specific heat of mixtures of kaolin with sea water or distilled water for their use… ...
Article
Mixtures of clays and waters of different mineralization have been used for thermotherapy therapies since ancient times. These mixtures are the basis of the most so-called thermal peloids, which are used for therapeutic purposes in the main thermal centres of the world. The thermal properties of peloids are very important to establish their applicability and determine whether they are appropriate for use in thermotherapy. This work focuses on the study of the behaviour of the specific heat capacity of different mixtures of kaolin with sea water or distilled water as a function of water concentration. Sea water is equivalent to high mineralized water, and distilled water corresponds to zero mineralization. Specific heat capacity was measured at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature interval from 293.15 to 317.15 K, using a commercial SETARAM BT 2.15 calorimeter. This device is based on the principle of Calvet calorimetry with temperature control. Furthermore, experimental results were compared to those obtained from mixtures with other clays.
... The thermal behaviour of peloids and clays has been studied by several authors in different countries (Lewis, 1935;Berbenni, 1965;Skauge et al., 1983;Rambaud et al., 1986;Ferrand and Yvon, 1991;Cara et al., 2000;Beer et al., 2003b;Veniale et al., 2004;Rebelo et al., 2005). Lewis (1935) was the first author to study the thermal properties of peloids. ...
... The involved values can be also used to calculate the temperature of the peloid 20 min after application. Beer et al. (2003b) carried out a comparative study of the thermal behaviour of a mud, peat and water bath, and found considerable differences in the cooling rates of peat as compared to those of water and mud. An extensive study performed by Veniale et al. (2004) with several samples of muds matured with different types of thermal waters provided, among other conclusions, data on the thermal behaviour of muds. ...
Article
The use of products with a suitable chemical and physical characterization in thermotherapy is more and more required. The applications of the muds in therapies depend on their rheological properties, on the plasticity and on the absorption capacity and swelling. If they are also required for therapeutics, where the capacity of the product to keep certain temperature is important, then, properties such as the calorific capacity, the thermal conductivity and the cooling kinetic should be also determined. On this essay, having the purpose of determining the potential that a natural mud from a clayey deposit as a thermotherapeutic product has, the thermal properties of several materials have also been analysed. Three clays, a kaolinite, an aluminium bentonite and a sepiolite have been analysed. The specific heat (cp) of the products has been determined through the differential scanning calorimeter (SDC). The chemical and mineralogical composition has been obtained through the elementary chemical analysis and by X-ray diffraction analysis. Mixtures of these substances with destilled water have been prepared in different proportions within the limit of plasticity, that is to say, with the quantity of water enough so that the mixture maintains the rheological suitable properties for its therapeutic application. The kinetic cooling curves have been determined from 60°C until 35°C. The results must be analysed taking into account the water contents and the kind of solid phase previously used. It has been observed that the cp increases when the water proportion increases. The same occurs in previous essays on similar mixtures (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). However, the cp values do not adjust to the lineal function proposed on previous essays, the variation of this magnitude with regard to the lineal behaviour is given by the following expression: ΔCp= Cpm - (% water Cpw+ %solid Cps) /100. where Cpm, Cpw, Cps are the specific heat of the moistured sample, of the water and of the dried sample respectively. This expression, obtained for a determined temperature, is valid for every kind of sample.
... The use of heat for therapeutic purposes is known as thermotherapy and this is one of the most important healing effects of peloids (Hattori, 1963;Beer et al., 2003;Maraver et al., 2015). Peloids are defined as a mixture solids and mineral water or seawater that acquire healing and/or cosmetic properties after maturation (Gomes et al., 2013, and references therein). ...
Article
To prepare peloids for thermotherapy, the thermal behaviour of their component clay pastes needs to be known. This study was designed to experimentally determine the specific heat capacity and cooling kinetics of pastes prepared by adding different proportions of water to eight commercially available clays of different composition. According to exponential equations fitted to the cooling curves for the pastes, a new parameter designated the relaxation time is proposed. Using this parameter, the clayey pastes could be classified on the basis of rate of heat release. According to its specific heat capacity and relaxation time, Na-activated magnesium bentonite emerged as the most suitable clay material to prepare peloids with applications in thermotherapy.
... Peat is viewed as a traditional preventive and therapeutic agent against gastric and digestive problems such as hyperacidity, diarrhoea, gastric ulcers, dysentery etc. (Kuhnert et al., 1989, 1991; Roost et al., 1990; Banaszkiewicz and Drobnik, 1994). Externally applied peat preparations are used for the treatment of dermatitis, haemorrhage , phlebitis, myorrhexis, muscular induration and contusion, joint luxation, vertebral affliction (cervical and lumbar vertebrae), rheumatoid diseases , ischalgia, arthrosis, arthritis, osteomyelitis etc. (Kotwica et al., 1976a,b; Callies and Kaiser, 1978; Lotosh, 1991; Eichelsdorfer, 1992; Riede et al., 1992; Praetzel, 1993; Banaszkiewicz and Drobnik, 1994; Siderov and Mamiliaeva, 1994; Bellometti et al., 1997; Olivera et al., 1997; Beer et al., 2003a,b). ...
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