Chronic Medical Conditions and Work Performance in the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire Calibration Surveys
Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.63). 01/2004; 45(12):1303-11. DOI: 10.1097/01.jom.0000100200.90573.df
Associations between chronic conditions and work performance (absenteeism, presenteeism, and critical incidents) were studied in reservation agents, customer service representatives, executives, and railroad engineers. Conditions and work performance were assessed with the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate associations. More work performance was lost from presenteeism than absenteeism. However, chronic conditions more consistently had negative impacts on absenteeism than presenteeism. Conditions with significant effects included arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-emphysema, depression, and chronic headaches. Arthritis had the largest aggregate effect on absenteeism-presenteeism. Only depression affected both absenteeism-presenteeism and critical incidents. Some chronic conditions have substantial workplace effects. Disease management programs for these conditions might have a positive return on investment (ROI). Health and productivity tracking surveys are needed to evaluate ROI and provide quality assurance.
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- "The burden of asthma is considerable in terms of its worldwide prevalenceand disease-related cost for patients, employers and social security systems[2,3]. Asthma may exert detrimental effects on numerous domains of life, including mental health and physical health[4,5], social relationships, employment[7,8]and academic performance. Traditionally, physician-assessed outcomes have been employed to assess efficacy of treatment and levels of disease control. "
ABSTRACT: Objective: We aimed to develop and tentatively validate an instrument assessing patients' needs related to asthma treatment. Methods: Patients were recruited through various approaches (e.g. physicians, pharmacies and patient organizations). Utilizing a mixed methods design, we first conducted five focus groups to explore needs among patients. Next, we devised an item pool which was revised, reduced and evaluated by patients. Finally, data from a survey (n = 362) were used to further reduce the item pool and to examine the questionnaire's psychometric properties and validity. Results: Four broad needs categories emerged from the focus groups: (1) information needs; (2) consideration of patient views in diagnosis; (3) consideration of patient views in treatment planning; and (4) addressing patients' fears. We devised 45 items, which were reduced to 22 items based on patient feedback. The survey data suggested a 13-item scale with four subscales ("patient expertise", "drug effects", "handling drugs" and "exacerbations"). Cronbach's alpha was acceptable for those subscales (>0.7) and for the total score (0.9). Increasing scores on subscales and the total score (implying more unmet needs) showed close and consistent associations with poor asthma control, reduced quality of life and low treatment satisfaction. Conclusions: The development process of the Needs in Asthma Treatment (NEAT) questionnaire ensured that needs of asthma patient are captured with high validity. The NEAT questionnaire has been shown to be valid, thereby representing a promising tool for research and delivery of patient-centered care.
- "Among the physical causes of presenteeism, the most common are musculoskeletal, such as lower back pain (Prasad et al., 2004) and arthritis (Allen et al., 2005), as well as lung infections (Martinez and Ferreira 2012). In the psychological field, they are anxiety and depression (Wang et al., 2003), stress (Ferreira and Martinez 2012; Goetzel et al., 2003), as well as attention deficit disorder (Kessler et al., 2005). The study of this topic in management has focussed on the measurement of the frequency of the practice of presenteeism, its consequences (especially on productivity) and also seeking to understand the factors that lead workers to choose to be " present " in workplace conditions that would normally lead to absenteeism. "
- "Regional variation in the 12-month prevalence of the major depressive episodes was also noted, ranging from 2.2% in Japan to 10.45% in Brazil with similar averages of 5.5% in developed and 5.9% in developing countries . In the USA, 59% of MDD patients experi‐ ence severe degree of functional impairment, making depression the largest contributor to work loss  . Furthermore, MDD was strongly associated to self-perceived stress, childhood adversity, working status and quality of life   . "
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