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Development of a psychosomatic complaints scale for adolescents

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Abstract

There have been only a few questionnaires that can be used to comprehend the psychosomatic complaints of adolescents. Therefore, the objective of the present investigation was to develop a scale for high school students in order to comprehend psychosomatic complaints deriving from psychologic problems. The collection of scale items was performed referring to the health actual situation survey carried out on Japanese school children in the past, and 30 items with a high incidence of psychosomatic complaints were selected out of them and were set as scale items. A survey to assess reliability and validity of the 30 items of the psychosomatic complaint scale was then conducted on the subjects of 759 high school students in total over 3 years. At assessment of validity of the scale, one-factor structure was confirmed by factor analysis and both the eigenvalue and factor loading were found to be at acceptable levels. Further, at assessment of the reliability of the scale, both Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicating internal consistency and the correlation coefficient indicating reproducibility were found to be high. It was concluded that the psychosomatic complaint scale developed in the present investigation was excellent in validity and reliability and was highly practical, having a reduced number of items.

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... A score between 30 and 45 indicated that psychosomatic complaints were moderate. A score of more than 45 indicated that psychosomatic complaints were high (18). ...
... General health status in nurses was moderate and had a relationship with psychosomatic symptoms. The score of psychosomatic symptoms was associated with the general health score (18). This finding was similar to the results of the present study. ...
... This finding was similar to the results of the present study. However, the population examined in another was comprised of adolescents (18). The general health score in the nurses had a significant relationship with musculoskeletal discomfort and the score of pain reported by nurses. ...
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Background: Workplace problems can lead to psychosomatic complaints. We aimed to assess the relationship between general health and occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders along with psychosomatic complaints. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. This research was conducted about the nurses who worked at the hospitals located in the northwest of Tehran, Iran (Valiasr, Farhikhtegan, and Khatam), and participated in this study from Aug 2019 to Feb 2020. The data were collected by the demographic and clinical information questionnaire. Goldberg's general health questionnaire and psychosomatic complaint scale were completed by nurses. Results: In total, 158 nurses participated in this study. There was a significant relationship between the score of the general health questionnaire (GHQ) and psychosomatic complaints in three categories (low, moderate, and high) (P≤0.0001). There was a significant relationship between the mean score of GHQ and musculoskeletal discomfort in the neck, shoulder, forearm, hand and wrist, upper/lower back, knee, and ankle (P≤0.0001). Conclusion: Continuity of psychosomatic complaints may be a risk factor for mental health in nurses and may affect the quality of care. Hence, health policymakers and hospital managers should consider it in service training for nurses.
... Our experimental study aims to test the effects of a music therapy on perceived pain for academic students. Our study used the variable pain intensity (Takata and Sakata, 2004;Dohrenwend, 1980). We also included perceived relaxation as an important relaxation-related outcome variable. ...
... For our sample of academic students with somatic symptom disorder, who have multiple and current somatic symptoms, we expect growing stresses during the everyday life. We used the variable stresses (Takata and Sakata, 2004;. ...
... Pain intensity was measured with a Japanese version of the Takata and Sakata's psychosomatic complaints scale (Takata and Sakata, 2004). The scale is short and detects somatic symptoms in a short time. ...
... 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. ...
... Psychosomatic complaints levels determined using the 30-item of the Persian version of the scale of the psychosomatic complaints developed by Takata & Sakata (30). Standardization and assurance of the validity and reliability of the Persian version of this scale was rst performed by Hajloo (22) Scoring in this scale is a 4-point Likert scale for the "Never", "Rare", "Sometimes" and "Frequently" options, with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. ...
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Background and aims: A significant amount of previous studies has confirmed the positive effect of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential interventions on psychosocial problems with different populations. However, research on the effectiveness and comparison of the effect of these three independent variables on the problem of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is novel. So, the purpose of this research is to study the comparison of the effectiveness of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential group psychotherapy on psychosomatic complaints among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The method of the research was semi-experimental, and its experimental design includes the pretest, post-test, and two-month follow-up tests with experimental and control parallel groups. Cases of this study included women with type 2 diabetes mellitus referring to the Specialist Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj in the first three months of 2019. The main criterion for entry participants to research was the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus by specialists of the Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj. 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. Data analyzed by the statistical test of repeated measures of the General Linear Model. Results: The results of repeated measures analysis showed that the effect of the interventions in experimental groups of psychosomatic complaints was significant and stable compared to the control group (computed using alpha = 0, 05). The effect of the group humanistic-existential psychotherapy on reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus is stable and significant compared to existential and cognitive-existential psychotherapy (The mean difference is significant at the 0,05 level). Conclusion: The findings show applying humanistic-existential psychotherapy more benefits than the other two method. So, humanistic-existential group psychotherapy could be a selective therapy for reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
... 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. ...
... Psychosomatic complaints levels determined using the 30-item of the Persian version of the scale of the psychosomatic complaints developed by Takata & Sakata (30). Standardization and assurance of the validity and reliability of the Persian version of this scale was rst performed by Hajloo (22) Scoring in this scale is a 4-point Likert scale for the "Never", "Rare", "Sometimes" and "Frequently" options, with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. ...
Full-text available
Preprint
Background and aims: A significant amount of previous studies has confirmed the positive effect of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential interventions on psychosocial problems with different populations. However, research on the effectiveness and comparison of the effect of these three independent variables on the problem of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is novel. So, the purpose of this research is to study the comparison of the effectiveness of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential group psychotherapy on psychosomatic complaints among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The method of the research was semi-experimental, and its experimental design includes the pretest, post-test, and two-month follow-up tests with experimental and control parallel groups. Cases of this study included women with type 2 diabetes mellitus referring to the Specialist Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj in the first three months of 2019. 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. Data analyzed by the statistical test of repeated measures of the General Linear Model. Results: The results of repeated measures analysis showed that the effect of the interventions in experimental groups of psychosomatic complaints was significant and stable compared to the control group (computed using alpha = 0, 05). The effect of the group humanistic-existential psychotherapy on reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus is stable and significant compared to existential and cognitive-existential psychotherapy (The mean difference is significant at the 0,05 level). Conclusion: The findings show applying humanistic-existential psychotherapy more benefits than the other two method. So, humanistic-existential group psychotherapy could be a selective therapy for reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
... 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. ...
... Psychosomatic complaints levels determined using the 30-item of the Persian version of the scale of the psychosomatic complaints developed by Takata & Sakata (30). Standardization and assurance of the validity and reliability of the Persian version of this scale was rst performed by Hajloo (22) Scoring in this scale is a 4-point Likert scale for the "Never", "Rare", "Sometimes" and "Frequently" options, with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. ...
Full-text available
Preprint
Background and aims: A significant amount of previous studies has confirmed the positive effect of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential interventions on psychosocial problems with different populations. However, research on the effectiveness and comparison of the effect of these three independent variables on the problem of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is novel. So, the purpose of this research is to study the comparison of the effectiveness of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential group psychotherapy on psychosomatic complaints among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The method of the research was semi-experimental, and its experimental design includes the pretest, post-test, and two-month follow-up tests with experimental and control parallel groups. Cases of this study included women with type 2 diabetes mellitus referring to the Specialist Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj in the first three months of 2019. 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. Data analyzed by the statistical test of repeated measures of the General Linear Model. Results: The results of repeated measures analysis showed that the effect of the interventions in experimental groups of psychosomatic complaints was significant and stable compared to the control group (computed using alpha = 0, 05). The effect of the group humanistic-existential psychotherapy on reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus is stable and significant compared to existential and cognitive-existential psychotherapy (The mean difference is significant at the 0,05 level). Conclusion: The findings show applying cognitive-existential more benefits than the other two method. So, existential-cognitive group therapy could be a selective therapy for reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
... The study design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Chiba University, Japan, and all subjects provided written informed consent. A self-assessment questionnaire concerning psychosomatic symptoms was developed in accordance with data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study of the WHO [15] and psychosomatic complaints scale for adolescents confirmed by factor analysis at assessment of validity and reliability of the scale [16]. The questionnaire for this study contained five items related to physical symptoms and five items pertaining to mental symptoms. ...
... However, a survey of Japanese high school students indicates that psychological items related to attentiveness, depressive state, and irritability are more often affected. For chronotypes in Japanese students, increases in psychological stresses [16] related to anxiety are likely to have multiple causes. It has been suggested that Japanese students suffering from psychosomatic disorders such as those involving mood and sleep may exhibit basic lifestyle problems, including deleterious changes in their living environment and dietary or lifestyle disturbances [2]. ...
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Article
ABSTRACT: In university health care settings, students with psychosomatic complaints often have chronotypic problems. For this reason, we investigated a potential connection between psychosomatic complaints and circadian rhythm irregularity assessed by salivary levels of melatonin and growth hormone. Fifteen healthy students between 21 and 22 years of age were examined for physiological parameters of chronotypes based on melatonin and growth hormone secretion patterns, using a fluorescence enzyme immunoassay. Salivary samples were collected from subjects at home five times each day (20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00, and 12:00 h). In addition, the subjects rated their psychosomatic symptoms twice (at 08:00 and 20:00 h). A group with irregular circadian rhythm of melatonin (ICR) showed more psychosomatic complaints than a group with the regular circadian rhythm (RCR), especially for anxiety. Psychosomatic symptoms, particularly anxiety, may be associated with irregularity in melatonin and growth hormone rhythms, which can be altered by basic lifestyle habits even in healthy students.
... In a study conducted in Iran, the validity of this tool using the concurrent validity of the Goldberg Mental Health Questionnaire was 0.68, and its reliability was 0.85. The face validity was confirmed, and both CVI and CVR were higher than 0.75 (37). ...
Article
Background and aims: Anxiety disorders and psychological manifestations play significant roles in the incidence of psychosomatic disorders. Moreover, personality traits are one of the psychological constructs associated with psychosomatic symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of integrative therapy on distress and psychosomatic symptoms in female patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction with type D personality. Methods: The present study was semi-experimental with a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up design with a control group. The statistical population in this study included all the patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders who referred to the Institute of Psychology Hamdam Hamrah in 2020, 24 patients were selected by targeted sampling method (patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction, apart from the gastrointestinal cancer patients, who had a high de-personality score) and were randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control with 12 patients in each group. Data were obtained using the type D personality scale (DS-14), ROME III questionnaire, psychological distress scale, and depression anxiety stress scale-21 (DASS-21). Data analysis was performed using repeated measure analysis of variance by SPSS version 22. Results: Descriptive findings of psychological distress variables were obtained in the experimental group in the pre-test (40.08±7.75), post-test (.25±7.59), and follow-up (28.33±6.45). Furthermore, descriptive findings psychosomatic symptoms were obtained in the pre-test (49.17±15.65), post-test (42.25±10.36), and follow-up sessions (40.33±9.28), showing a decrease in the values of these variables in post-test and follow-up sessions. The results indicated that integrative therapy was effective in decreasing distress (P
... Scores range between 90 and 90, with higher scores indicating greater psychosomatic complaints. Takata & Sakata (2004) obtained its concurrent validity in two separate studies, 0.64 and 0.65, by calculating its correlation with the Goldberg Mental Health Scale. In Hajloo's research (2012), the correlation coefficient between these two scales was 0.68. ...
... 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. ...
Full-text available
Preprint
Background and aims: A significant amount of previous studies has confirmed the positive effect of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential interventions on psychosocial problems with different populations. However, research on the effectiveness and comparison of the effect of these three independent variables on the problem of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is novel. So, the purpose of this research is to study the comparison of the effectiveness of existential, cognitive-existential, and humanistic-existential group psychotherapy on psychosomatic complaints among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The method of the research was semi-experimental, and its experimental design includes the pretest, post-test, and two-month follow-up tests with experimental and control parallel groups. Cases of this study included women with type 2 diabetes mellitus referring to the Specialist Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj in the first three months of 2019. The main criterion for entry participants to research was the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus by specialists of the Diabetes Clinic of Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj. 32 subjects selected by simple random sampling method of this society and were assigned to three experimental and one control group by substituting random method. The data collected based on the scale of psychosomatic complaints Takata & Sakata (2004). After the pre-test, the experimental groups participated in 120-minute sessions for 9 weeks. Data analyzed by the statistical test of repeated measures of the General Linear Model. Results: The results of repeated measures analysis showed that the effect of the interventions in experimental groups of psychosomatic complaints was significant and stable compared to the control group (computed using alpha = 0, 05). The effect of the group humanistic-existential psychotherapy on reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus is stable and significant compared to existential and cognitive-existential psychotherapy (The mean difference is significant at the 0,05 level). Conclusion: The findings show applying humanistic-existential psychotherapy more benefits than the other two method. So, humanistic-existential group psychotherapy could be a selective therapy for reducing psychosomatic complaints about women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
... Scores ranging from 0 to 30 indicate poor psychosomatic complaints, 31 to 60 moderate and scores ranging from 61 to 90 indicate severe psychosomatic complaints. 23 The Persian version of the Takata and Sakata's psychosomatic complaints has shown adequate psychometric properties in Iranian populations. 24 ...
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Article
Internet addiction has an important impact on individuals, families, and communities. The effects of internet addiction are cumulative, significantly contributing to costly physical, mental, social, and public health problems. Thus, this study sought to examine relationships between internet addiction and psychosomatic disorders in Iranian undergraduate nursing students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 undergraduate nursing students in the city of Hamadan in Iran, in 2018. Data collection tools included socio-demographic, the internet addiction test (IAT), and the psychosomatic complaints questionnaire. Data were analyzed by a Pearson’s and independent t-tests using SPSS-18.0. The mean age of the students were 22.3 ± 3.02. The findings showed that 78.7% of nursing students reported mild, 20% moderate and 1.3% severe internet addiction, and there was a significant positive correlation between internet addiction and psychosomatic disorders (P < 0.05, r = 0.132). Internet addiction and psychosomatic disorders in nursing students can jeopardize their mental and physical health, and affect their future academic and professional activities. Therefore, providing educational and counseling interventions and reducing the negative effects of the internet can help to improve student health.
... ble tre nye sp?rsm?l om hvor mye penger respondentene hadde brukt i forhold til dataspill siste 6 m?neder (som ikke inngikk Psykosomatiske symptomer. En rekke skalaer for psykosomatiske symptomer er utviklet (Eriksen, Ihlebaek, & Ursin, 1999; Hagquist, 2008; Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2002; Takata & Sakata, 2004; Thorndike, Hagen, & Kemper, 1952planmessighet, nevrotisisme og intellekt/?penhet). Hver dimensjon blir m?lt med 4 ledd. ...
... Andreassen et al., 2016; Festl, Scharkow, & Quandt, 2013). , Ihlebaek, & Ursin, 1999; Hagquist, 2008; Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2002; Takata & Sakata, 2004; Thorndike, Hagen, & Kemper, 1952 ...
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During autumn 2015 researchers at the University of Bergen conducted a survey concerning gambling and video game problems in the general adult population of Norway. The survey was conducted on behalf of the Norwegian Gaming Authority. In all, 14,000 persons (gross sample), aged 16–74 years, were randomly selected from the National Population Registry of Norway and invited to participate. All received a paper-based questionnaire. A total of 5,485 valid answers (net sample) were received. After removing persons with wrong addresses, or for reasons of illness, death or being abroad etc. at the time of the survey, a response rate of 40.8 percent was obtained. Up to two reminders were sent. A total of 57.9 percent had participated in gambling during the previous 12 months which did not reflect any significant change since the previous survey conducted in 2013. To assess the prevalence of gambling problems, the Canadian Problem Gambling Index was administered. Based on the total score obtained, the respondents were divided into the following four categories: non-problem gambler (score = 0), low risk gambler (score = 1-2), moderate risk gambler (score = 3-7), and problem gambler (score = 8-27). The results showed that 7.7 percent of the adult population could be categorized as low risk gamblers, 2.3 percent as moderate risk gamblers and 0.9 percent as problem gamblers, respectively. Compared to the previous population based survey about gambling and gaming problems in Norway (conducted during autumn 2013) no significant change in the prevalence of gambling problems was detected. The current prevalence of gambling related problems is somewhat lower compared to national surveys conducted between 2005 and 2010, albeit somewhat higher than the prevalence reported in national surveys conducted in 1997 and 2002. Compared to international surveys the prevalence of gambling related problems in Norway is overall relatively low. In terms of the Nordic context, the prevalence of gambling problems seems to somewhat higher or at the same level as found in our neighbouring countries. In the present study we found that the probability of being a moderate risk- or problem gambler was elevated in males, people with low education, confirmed unemployment/disability pension/rehabilitation/work assessment allowance, in subjects with place of birth outside Norway (Africa, Asia or South and Central-America) and among those who had participated in video games during the last 6 months. When it comes to participation in different gambling activities, the majority of gamblers reported having participated in scratch cards (non Internet-based) and numbers games. Males had participated more frequently than females in most types of games. Bingo in bingo premises was the only type of gambling where women participated more frequently than males. Younger gamblers participated overall more frequently than elderly in typically novel types of gambling activities (typically internet based) whereas older gamblers participated more frequently than younger gamblers in more “traditional games” such as horse betting, soccer pools (not odds games) and numbers games. Those who scored 3 or more on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index participated more frequently in all types of games compared to those with lower scores. Internet based casino gambling and internet based bingo (not Norsk Tipping) comprised the gambling categories with the highest proportion of gamblers reporting problems controlling/restricting their gambling behavior. In terms of overrepresentation of moderate risk gamblers and problem gamblers in games played by relatively many, this was especially pronounced for casino games, internet poker and odds-games. In all, 29.2 percent of the gamblers had gambled via the Internet during the last 12 months. This occurred most frequently among males, younger subjects and among those with a score of 3 or more on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Most of those who gambled via the Internet used a lap-top or a mobile phone for this purpose. A vast majority of all respondents had been exposed to gambling related advertising during the previous 12 months. Young people reported greater exposure than older subjects. Those who scored 3 or more on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index reported more gambling related advertising exposure than those with lower scores. Compared to the population based survey about gambling and gaming problems in Norway in 2013 the current survey showed a significant increase in exposure to gambling related advertising on TV and on the internet, and a decrease in exposure to gambling related advertising in newspapers and shops. It was found that gambling related advertising had a considerable effect in terms of informing about games and game operators. Gambling related advertising was reported to influence gambling behavior and gambler’s urge to gamble to a certain degree, but risky gambling was reported only to a small degree as having been triggered by gambling related advertising. Overall, men, younger persons and persons with gambling related problems reported having been more influenced by gambling related advertising than their respective counterparts. This brings up to date a discussion concerning regulation of gambling advertising. Attitudes towards structural regulation of gambling were overall relatively neutral. An upper loss limit, set either by the player him/herself or by the game and continuous feedback about losses comprised the three structural regulation proposals which were most favorably evaluated. Women, younger people and persons with a score of 3 or more on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index were more positive to structural regulation of gambling than were men, older persons and persons with lower scores on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Respondents born in Norway were less positive to structural regulation of gambling than persons born outside Norway (Africa, Asia, South or Central-America), especially related to feedback about duration of the gambling session and self-set limits related to maximal losses. Several potential gambling motives were listed in the questionnaire. About 60 percent of the gamblers reported “for fun” and “to win” as relevant gambling motives. Those with a score of 3 or more on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index reported more frequently all motives than those with lower scores except “for fun”, “don’t know” and “other motives. The motive “to support a good cause” was more frequently reported by those with a score of 0-2 on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index compared to those with higher scores. The frequency of different psychosomatic symptoms reported generally increased proportionately with gambling category (non-problem gambler, low risk gambler, moderate risk gambler, problem gambler). In all, 38.5 percent had played video games during the last six months. This proportion had not changed compared to the previous population based survey about gambling and gaming problems. More males than females and more younger than older respondents had played. Excessive video game playing was assessed with the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents. Based on the data from this scale, 96.7 percent were categorized as normal video game players (including those who had not played), 2.8 percent were categorized as video game problem players and 0.5 percent were categorized as video game addicts. These frequencies had not changed significantly since the previous population based survey about gambling and gaming problems. Being categorized as either a video game problem player or a video game addict was related to male gender, low age, and being born outside Norway (Africa, Asia, South or Central-America). Those of the gamers who were categorized as problem gamers or addicted had during the last 6 months spent more money on purchasing and upgrading video games and had staked more money on the outcome of video games they themselves participated in, compared to normal video game players. Those who were problem video game players/addicted reported overall more frequently psychosomatic symptoms compared to the normal video game players/non-players. A total of 42.8 percent of gamers had played via social media. This was most frequently reported by females and younger subjects. The later the wave (first wave, first and second reminder) the participants responded to, the higher was the reported prevalence of problems related to both gambling and gaming. Thus, based in extrapolation there is reason to assume that the real problem prevalences are somewhat higher that those reported in this report.
... An eight-item scale to assess psychosomatic health symptoms were constructed (headache, shoulder-/neck pain, stomach-/intestinal pain, sleep problems, feeling sad/depressed, feeling restless and nervous, feeling tired or sleepy during daytime, and heart palpitations) based on previous scales developed for psychosomatic symptoms (Eriksen et al. 1999;Hagquist 2008;Kroenke et al. 2002;Takata and Sakata 2004;Thorndike et al. 1952). Participants were asked to consider how often they had experienced these symptoms during the past 2 months choosing from the following options: Bnever^, Bless than once a month^, B1-3 times a month^, B1-2 times a week^, and B3 times a week or more often^. ...
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Video gaming has become a popular leisure activity in many parts of the world, and an increasing number of empirical studies examine the small minority that appears to develop problems as a result of excessive gaming. This study investigated prevalence rates and predictors of video game addiction in a sample of gamers, randomly selected from the National Population Registry of Norway (N=3389). Results showed there were 1.4 % addicted gamers, 7.3 % problem gamers, 3.9 % engaged gamers, and 87.4 % normal gamers. Gender (being male) and age group (being young) were positively associated with addicted-, problem-, and engaged gamers. Place of birth (Africa, Asia, South-and Middle America) were positively associated with addicted-and problem gamers. Video game addiction was negatively associated with conscientiousness and positively associated with neuroticism. Poor psychosomatic health was positively associated with problem-and engaged gaming. These factors provide insight into the field of video game addiction, and may help to provide guidance as to how individuals that are at risk of becoming addicted gamers can be identified.
... Psykosomatiske symptomer. En rekke skalaer for psykosomatiske symptomer er utviklet (Eriksen, Ihlebaek, & Ursin, 1999;Hagquist, 2008;Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2002;Takata & Sakata, 2004;Thorndike, Hagen, & Kemper, 1952 månedene. Svaralternativene var: "aldri", "sjeldnere enn en dag i måneden", "1-3 dager per måned", "1-2 dager per uke", og "3 dager per uke eller oftere". ...
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During autumn 2013 researchers at the University of Bergen conducted a survey concerning gambling and video game problems in the general adult population of Norway. The survey was conducted on behalf of the Norwegian Gaming and Foundation Authority. In all, 24,000 persons (gross sample), aged 16–74 years, were randomly selected from the National Population Registry of Norway and invited to participate. In all, 20,000 were given the opportunity to respond via either a paper-based or a web-based questionnaire, whereas 4,000 were given the opportunity to respond only via the paper-based questionnaire. A total of 10,081 valid answers (net sample) were received. After removing persons with wrong addresses, or for reasons of illness, death or being abroad at the time of the survey, a response rate of 43.6 percent was obtained. Up to two reminders were sent. A total of 59.1 percent had participated in gambling during the previous 12 months. To assess the prevalence of gambling problems, we administered the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Based on the total score obtained, the respondents were divided into the following four categories: non-problem gambler (score = 0), low risk gambler (score = 1-2), moderate risk gambler (score = 3-7), and problem gambler (score = 8-27). The results showed that 7.8 percent of the adult population could be categorized as low risk gamblers, 2.4 percent as moderate risk gamblers and 0.6% as problem gamblers, respectively. Compared to previous Norwegian studies based on the same instrument, the present study suggests a reduction in gambling problems, especially related to the low risk gambler and the problem gambler categories. We found that the probability of being a moderate risk gambler or problem gambler was enhanced in males, subjects being single, with low education, confirming unemployment/ disability pension/rehabilitation/work assessment allowance and in subjects with place of birth outside Norway. The prevalence of gambling problems in the present study is lower than the mean prevalence value derived from previous international population-based surveys and lower than what had been found in six previous Norwegian studies (conducted in 2005, 2007, 2008 and 2010), although somewhat higher than the prevalence reported in Norwegian studies conducted in 1997 and 2002. In terms of participation in different gambling activities, the majority of gamblers reported having participated most prevalently in scratch cards (non Internet-based) and numbers games. Males had participated more frequently than females in most types of games. The same was true for younger subjects, except for some types of bingo games, Belago (interactive video terminals located in bingo premises), horse betting, soccer pools (not odds games) and numbers games. Those who scored 3 or more on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index had participated more frequently in all types of games compared to those with lower scores. Data bingo in bingo halls, Internet bingo and Belago comprised the gambling activities with the highest proportion (> 6%) of gamblers reporting problems controlling/restricting their 6 gambling behavior. In terms of overrepresentation of moderate risk gamblers and problem gamblers this was especially pronounced for Internet bingo, data bingo in bingo premises, scratch cards on Internet, and Belago. In all, 26.7 percent of the gamblers had gambled via the Internet during the last 12 months. This occurred most frequently among males, younger subjects and among those with a score of 3 or more on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Most of those who gambled via the Internet used a laptop or a mobile phone for this purpose. A vast majority of the subjects had been exposed to gambling related advertising during the previous 12 months. Young people reported greater exposure than older subjects. Those who scored 3 or more on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index reported more gambling related advertising exposure than those with lower scores. Among gamblers it was reported that gambling related advertising had a considerable effect in terms of informing about games and game operators. Gambling related advertising was reported to influence gambling behavior and gambler’s urge to gamble to a certain degree, but risky gambling was reported only to a small degree as having been triggered by gambling related advertising. Overall, men, younger persons and persons with gambling related problems reported having been more influenced by gambling related advertising than their respective counterparts. A discussion concerning a ban/restrictions on gambling advertising seems warranted. Attitudes towards structural regulation of gambling were overall relatively neutral. An upper loss limit, set either by the player him/herself or by the game and continuous feedback about losses comprised the three structural regulation proposals which were most favorably evaluated. This should have implications for regulation of gambling in Norway. Women, younger people and persons with a score of 3 or more on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index were more positive to structural regulation of gambling than were men, older persons and persons with lower scores on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Respondents born in Norway were less positive to structural regulation of gambling than persons born outside Norway, especially related to relative strict regulations (e.g. gambling restrictions on money and playing time). Several potential gambling motives were listed in the questionnaire. The majority of players reported “for fun” and “to win” as relevant gambling motives. Those with a score of 3 or more on the Canadian Problem Gambling Index reported more frequently all motives than those with lower scores except “for fun”, “other motives” and “to support a good cause”. The frequency of different psychosomatic symptoms reported generally increased proportionately with gambling category (non-problem gambler, low risk gambler, moderate risk gambler, problem gambler). In all, 37.0 percent had played video games during the last six months. More males than females and more younger than older respondents had played. Excessive video game playing was assessed with the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents. Based on the data from this scale, 96.7 percent were categorized as normal video game players (including those who had not played), 3.0 percent were categorized as video game problem players and 0.3 percent were categorized as video game addicts. Being categorized as either a video game problem player or a video game addict was related to male gender, low age, having 3 or more children and certain categories of occupational status (part-time employed, student, unemployed/on disability pension/on rehabilitation/on work assessment allowance). Those who were video game problem players/addicted reported overall more frequently psychosomatic symptoms compared to the normal video game players/non-players. A total of 22.6 percent had played games via social media. This was most frequently reported by females and younger subjects. In all, 9.8 percent had purchased Facebook-credits or other virtual credits for use in games. This occurred more frequently among those who had played games via social media than those who had not played via social media. Furthermore, it was more common among younger than older respondents. Most of those who had won virtual credits had used these for playing or for purchasing something within a game.
... Different complaints do not appear in isolation from one another, but rather constitute specific clusters [13,37]. Existing results of factor analyses and structural equation models differ significantly (in terms of both the number and meaning of the dimensions found) according to the item and/or questionnaire selection that constitutes the basis of the analysis [20,33]. ...
Article
Chronic somatic complaint (CSC) can cause significant impairment of psychosocial functioning and therefore is of considerable interest in medicine, psychology, and related health sciences. To date, the type, distribution, and associated factors of CSC have been examined in only a limited number of studies. Main research questions of this investigation focused on the prevalence of CSC, the predictive validity of parent reports, and the associations with social class, health status, and psychosocial distress. Data were obtained from a population-based, German-wide representative Health Survey (N = 1,027 self-reports, and parent reports from 11- to 18-year-olds). In addition to study-specific items, the standardized Giessen Physical Complaints Inventory for Children and Adolescents was used (GPCI). The most frequent CSCs in self-report forms were skin impurities/pimples, cold hands, and fatigue; older adolescents, especially females, were at a higher risk for CSC. The sensitivity of parent reports in all complaints observed was very low (Med = 0.21) and specificity varied between 0.94 and 1.00. Parents significantly underestimated CSC that were not externally observable, as well as CSC in males. Across different predictors and CSC dimensions, psychosocial distress showed the highest predictive value. The results provide data regarding the subjective physical health of adolescents, as well as an empirical reference to evaluate the distribution of chronic symptoms in specific clinical populations (which is needed for prevention and treatment).
... Somatic and psychological symptoms, even in the absence of a defined diagnosis , show promise as indicators of poor adolescent health. These symptoms tend to cluster together within individuals Takata and Sakata, 2004) indicating that underlying dimensions of health rather than the actual reported symptoms are of importance. Self-reported symptoms are associated with frequent use of medical facilities for acute medical care (Starfield et al., 1984). ...
Article
Psychosomatic health symptoms are commonly experienced by young people and are associated with chronic health problems. This study examines reports of psychosomatic health symptoms during adolescence, and associations between adolescent risk-taking and the occurrence of these symptoms. A cross-sectional national health survey was performed in 2001/02 and involved 1746 young Canadians. Principal components analyses were used to derive a multiple risk-taking score. Multi-level regression models with individual participants (1st level) nested in schools (2nd level) were used to examine associations between individual then multiple risk-taking behaviors and psychosomatic symptoms. 37% of males and 48% of female students reported psychological health symptoms > once per week, while 30% of males and 41% of females reported somatic health symptoms. Strong associations were observed between individual risk-taking behaviors (cannabis use, other illicit drug use, drunkenness, smoking, unprotected sex) and psychosomatic health symptoms. A risk gradient was observed between multiple risk behaviors and these health symptoms. Youth who engaged in high levels of risk-taking behavior were two to four times more likely to report health symptoms. Adolescent lifestyles that include risk-taking behavior are strongly associated with the occurrence of psychosomatic health symptoms. Collectively, these measures are useful clinical indicators of adolescent health status.
... Recently, a growing number of studies are focused on detect- ing children's and adolescents' perceptions of health.lS. 19,20,24 Since adolescence is traditionally viewed as an age period of good somatic health, psychosocial health measurements should get priority in detecting adolescents' self-perceived health, 12 Therefore, the main goal of the present study has been to detect psychosocial he alth influences of self-perceived health in an early adolescent population. ...
Article
In adolescence, due to the ongoing biological-hormonal and psychosocial changes, the formation of psychosomatic symptoms becomes more frequent. The psychosomatic symptom formation has an influence on adolescents' self-perceived health as well as on their later health and illness related attitudes and behaviors. The main goal of the present study has been to detect the occurrence of psychosomatic symptoms among early adolescents, and to see the impact of psychosocial and psychological variables on the symptom formation. In the frame of the South Plain Youth Study, the survey was going on among middle school aged students (N = 548, classes 5-8, mean age of 12.2 years). Data were collected by means of self-completed questionnaires which contained items on sociodemographics (age, gender, parental schooling, socioeconomic status of the family), mapping psychosomatic symptoms, and certain psychosocial and psychological variables affecting psychosomatic symptom formation (such as academic achievement, health-compromising behaviors, the lack of aggression control and social comparison). Statistical analyses included chi2 test, student's t-test, ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analyses. Fatigue proved to be the most frequent psychosomatic symptoms in both sexes which was followed by headache and lower back pain. These latter symptoms were more common among girls (p < 0.001). Good academic achievement was a protective factor (p < 0.05), while the lack of aggression control increased the psychosomatic symptom formation (boys: beta = 0.37, p < 0.001, girls: beta = 0.21, p < 0.01). Smoking (beta = 0.24, p < 0.01) and social comparison (beta = 0.16, p < 0.05) were predictors only among girls. The results draw the attention to the importance of psychosomatic symptom formation in clinical practice. Beyond the difficulties in differential diagnosis, all efforts should be made to start a causal therapy of the latent psychosocial problems so as to prevent the onset of more serious ill health states.
... Recently, a growing number of studies are focused on detect- ing children's and adolescents' perceptions of health.lS. 19,20,24 Since adolescence is traditionally viewed as an age period of good somatic health, psychosocial health measurements should get priority in detecting adolescents' self-perceived health, 12 Therefore, the main goal of the present study has been to detect psychosocial he alth influences of self-perceived health in an early adolescent population. ...
Article
The authors examined self-perceived health and psychosocial health in 10-15 year old children and the relationship between children's self-perceived health and a set of psychosocial health status measurements. Data were collected from middle school students (n = 548; age range, 10-15 years of age; mean, 12.2 years; SD, 1.2 years) using randomly selected classes from four schools in different school districts in Szeged, Hungary. The self-administered questionnaires contained items on sociodemographics; school achievement; height and weight (body mass index); self-perceived health and fitness; health behaviors; and anger and psychosomatic health. The self-perceived health variable was dichotomized and expressed with poor/fair or good/excellent perceptions of one's own health. Most of the children evaluated their own health as excellent or good. Logistic regression analyses revealed that poor academic achievement, socioeconomic status self-assessment, smoking, alcohol use, sports activity, self-perceived fitness, and high levels of anger and psychosomatic symptoms were associated with an increased likelihood of reported poor/fair perceptions of health. Findings reflect that psychosocial factors are important influences of self-perceived health in an early adolescent population.
Article
In an effort to improve school performance, we have examined the effect of sleep–wake patterns, particularly time in bed, and morning psychosomatic conditions in adolescents. A psychosomatic disorder questionnaire was administered to 135 physically healthy students, who were divided into four groups according to time they went to bed: 23–24, 24–01, 01–02 and 02–03 h. (1) The 23–24 and 24–01 h groups had significantly higher grade point averages than the 02–03 h group. (2) Partial correlations, controlling for sleep quality, revealed significant associations between time to bed and psychosomatic disorder, with regard to whole-body fatigue, lack of motivation and the desire to rest. Our results suggest that the sleep–wake pattern, especially the time of retiring, may predict academic performance and psychosomatic disorder.
Article
The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of some psychic and somatic symptoms in a sample of Italians adolescents, and their association with the frequency of risk-taking. The work presented here forms part of a larger survey named «Health Behaviour in School Aged Children» (HBSC) that is a trans-national study promoted by the European Office of the World Health Organization. The survey is conducted using a questionnaire, finely tuned by an international research group, which investigates mainly the state of health and the related life styles. 92 high schools were selected randomly from the list of Italian public and private schools and the questionnaire was complied by a representative sample Of 1,229 representative Italian adolescents (44,6% males) in their second year at high school (average age = 15,89; SD = 0,30). The results highlighted a significant association between individual risk-taking behaviour (smoking tobacco, cannabis and taking other drugs, drunkenness, protected and unprotected sex and bullying) and the psychological and somatic symptoms which vary depending on gender. Moreover, a progressive increase in risk-taking was highlighted among multiple risk behaviour and these psychological and somatic symptoms. The possible implications in relation to prevention campaigns and future research developments are discussed based on these results.
Article
Students suffering from subjective psychosomatic disorder often have basic lifestyle problems. We examined 30 healthy students aged 21–22 years old. Salivary samples were collected from the subjects at home five times per day (20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00 and 12:00 h). We assessed melatonin secretion patterns by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay and cortisol secretion by ELISA. We assigned the subjects to regular, semi-regular and irregular circadian rhythm groups based on whether melatonin secretion was high until midnight. A self-assessment questionnaire addressing psychosomatic disorder was completed by the same students. The subjects rated their psychosomatic symptoms twice per day (08:00 and 20:00 h). The irregular group showed lower cortisol awakening response, but high cortisol concentrations at 12:00 h; this group also reported more subjective health complaints related to psychosomatic stress compared with the regular group. Our findings suggest that psychosomatic disorder is associated with circadian rhythms in Japanese students.
Article
The fluidity of wood remarkably increases during moisture changes. This phenomenon is termed mechano-sorptive creep. The mechanism of mechano-sorptive creep has been studied, including a previous report by our group. Here, creep tests in bending were carried out for wood during and immediately after adsorption of moisture and after a long moisture conditioning. The effects of the rate of moisture adsorption on creep were also examined. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) Greater creep occurred immediately after the adsorption process as compared with that after a long moisture conditioning, whereas much greater creep occurred during the same adsorption process, similar to the case of drying. Therefore, during the changes in moisture, not only destabilization but also stabilization should occur simultaneously, so that the wood during the changing process is in a remarkably unstable state. (II) Smaller creep occurred immediately after a slower adsorption as compared with that immediately after a more rapid adsorption. This suggests that wood is more stabilized during a slower versus a more rapid adsorption process. However, difference in creep between the final stages of the slower and the more rapid adsorption process was scarcely found. This is considered to result from the difference in degree of stabilization caused by the different duration of both adsorptions. In other words, this result is only an outward appearance. (III) Greater creeps were recognized during larger changes in moisture content (Deltau) during the adsorption processes corresponding to the drying process. Therefore, mechano-sorptive creep depends not only on Deltau but also on the range of relative humidity (RH). Larger stabilization was found during the changing process of larger Deltau.
Article
Zusammenfassung. Im Vergleich zu psychischen Auffälligkeiten liegen bislang nur wenige gesicherte empirische Erkenntnisse über Körperbeschwerden im Kindes- und Jugendalter vor. Im Rahmen des Hamburger Gesundheitssurveys wurden deshalb anhand einer bundesweit repräsentativen Stichprobe von N = 1950 4- bis 18-Jährigen mittels eines Eltern- und Kinderfragebogens Daten zu körperlichen Beschwerden, Biographie und Lebensumständen erhoben. Neben studienspezifischen Items wurde der Gießener Beschwerdebogen für Kinder und Jugendliche (GBB-KJ) verwendet. Mit Abstand am häufigsten zeigen sich bei allen Alters-, Geschlechts- und Urteilskombinationen Erkältungssymptome; Kreislaufbeschwerden treten am seltensten auf. Die verschiedenen Beschwerdekomplexe weisen insbesondere mit Eintritt in die Pubertät unterschiedliche alters- und geschlechtsspezifische Verläufe auf. Der Gesamt-Beschwerdedruck über alle Beschwerdekomplexe hinweg bleibt für Jungen mit zunehmendem Alter relativ gleich, für Mädchen erfolgt mit Beginn der Pubertät eine Zunahme. Die Übereinstimmung der Eltern- und Selbsturteile für 11- bis 18-Jährige fällt moderat aus. Die Ergebnisse stimmen gut mit bisherigen Arbeiten überein und weisen darauf hin, dass körperliche Beschwerden bei Kindern und Jugendlichen ein häufiges Phänomen darstellen.
Article
• This interview study investigated nonspecific psychological distress in the general population. A probability sample of 200 adults was drawn from heterogenous sex, class, and ethnic groups in New York City. Twenty-five scales were developed. Eight reflect a single dimension of nonspecific distress (eg, Poor Self-esteem, Sadness, and Perceived Physical Health) and 17 are distinct from these and from each other (eg, False Beliefs and Perceptions, Manic Characteristics, Insomnia, Antisocial History, and illness-linked Somatic Problems). Both sets of scales have become part of a new interview instrument, the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview (PERI). Questions are raised about the nature of nonspecific distress in relation to Frank's construct of "demoralization," the value of the measured dimensions of psychopathology that contrast with it, and the relation of PERI, which uses a self-report format, to diagnostic interviews developed here and abroad.
Article
• The reliability and validity of the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview (PERI) are examined using data from a triethnic (white, black, and Mexican-American) sample of community respondents. The PERI scales attempt to measure both nonspecific psychological distress and different dimensions of psychopathology. Internal consistency reliability is assessed using Cronbach's coefficient a. Concurrent and discriminant validity are evaluated by comparing the PERI scales with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Bradburn Negative Affect Scale. These scales show high internal consistency reliability in all three ethnic groups. The Demoralization Scale measures a separate dimension from the other psychopathology scales, and the latter scales are distinct from one another. While the criterion validity of the PERI in population samples remains unknown, it is possible to measure important dimensions of psychopathology in the general population. The PERI may constitute one such measure.
Article
Explains how social scientists can evaluate the reliability and validity of empirical measurements, discussing the three basic types of validity: criterion related, content, and construct. In addition, the paper shows how reliability is assessed by the retest method, alternative-forms procedure, split-halves approach, and internal consistency method.
Article
This interview study investigated nonspecific psychological distress in the general population. A probability sample of 200 adults was drawn from heterogenous sex, class, and ethnic groups in New York City. Twenty-five scales were developed. Eight reflect a single dimension of nonspecific distress (eg, Poor Self-esteem, Sadness, and Perceived Physical Health) and 17 are distinct from these and from each other (eg, False Beliefs and Perceptions, Manic Characteristics, Insomnia, Antisocial History, and illness-linked Somatic Problems). Both sets of scales have become part of a new interview instrument, the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview (PERI). Questions are raised about the nature of nonspecific distress in relation to Frank's construct of "demoralization," the value of the measured dimensions of psychopathology that contrast with it, and the relation of PERI, which uses a self-report format, to diagnostic interviews developed here and abroad.
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