Analysis of Intrachannel Four-Wave Mixing in Differential Phase-Shift Keying Transmission with Large Dispersion

Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974, USA.
Optics Letters (Impact Factor: 3.29). 01/2004; 28(23):2300-2. DOI: 10.1364/OL.28.002300
Source: PubMed


Intrachannel four-wave mixing (IFWM) in highly dispersed differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) transmission systems is studied with a simple analytical model and numerical simulation. It is found that the IFWM effect in DPSK systems is smaller and less dependent on the bit pattern than in on-off-keying systems with the same average power. The reduced pulse energy in DPSK and correlation between the nonlinear phase shifts of two adjacent pulses contribute to the robustness of DPSK versus IFWM. (C) 2003 Optical Society of America.

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    • "But IFWM introduces pattern-dependent nonlinear phase shifts to the signals, which degrades the system performance [7]. Wei and Liu [8] showed that IFWM induced phase noise are correlated from symbol to symbol. The statistical properties have been studied theoretically and numerically [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Digital signal processing (DSP) based coherent detection attracts extensive studies recently. DSP technology simplifies coherent detection and brings it more advantages and channel impairments can be compensated electrically. The lumped dispersion compensation scheme makes the fiber link simple, flexible and potentially cost effective. However, such pseudo-linear long haul transmission systems are greatly degraded by intra-channel nonlinearities at high bit rates. The optical pulses are highly dispersed and overlap strongly during propagation, resulting serious intrachannel four-wave mixing (IFWM). IFWM introduces pattern dependent nonlinear phase shifts to the signals. It has been pointed out that IFWM induced phase noise are correlated from symbol to symbol. The autocorrelation function has been studied in detail. Here we extend the result to fiber link with single mode fiber (SMF) for transmission only. We studied the statistics of IFWM induced phase noise in Return to Zero-Differetnitally coded Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (RZDQPSK) transmission systems with identical fiber spans and SMF fiber spans numerically. The results show that the phase noise correlation of neighbouring bits is reduced for the latter one but the correlation length is increased with fiber span number and chromatic dispersion value.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    • "However, most of the studies in the literature focus on IFWM-induced amplitude noise in OOK systems. IFWM-induced phase noise for DPSK systems was first studied by Wei and Liu [20], who found from simulations that in DPSK systems, the IFWM-induced phase noise is correlated from symbol to symbol. In addition, Ho [21] presented semianalytical methods to characterize bit error ratio (BER) performance based on empirical probability distributions of IFWM. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have analytically derived the correlation functions of intrachannel four-wave mixing (IFWM)-induced phase and amplitude noises in phase-modulated optical communication systems. The phase and amplitude noises are correlated with each other for binary phase-shift keying (PSK) systems but uncorrelated for $M$ -ary PSK systems with $M>2$ . We have also derived analytical approximations to the probability distribution of IFWM-induced phase noise for PSK and differential PSK systems. Furthermore, we have studied the performance of an optimal linear phase-noise predictor derived from the IFWM-induced phase-noise autocorrelation function. This yields a performance improvement of 1.8 dB when IFWM-induced phase noise is the dominant impairment, and an improvement of 0.8 to 1.2 dB in the presence of amplified spontaneous emission noise and nonlinear phase noise in typical terrestrial links.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Lightwave Technology
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    • "We use a model similar to that in [14] to investigate the IFWM in the hybrid modulation format. In our study, we neglect nonlinear interactions between the signal and the amplified spontaneous emission noise [14]. A single dispersion manage span includes a piece of a dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) for precompensation , a standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) for transmission , and a DCF for postcompensation, where the nonlinearity of the DCF is neglected, and precompensation and postcompensation are exactly one half of the total dispersion of the SSMF. "
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a novel hybrid modulation format-differential phase shift keying with frequency shift keying labeling for optical label switching. A modulation technique based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and a label erasing scheme are presented. The tolerance of the new format to intrachannel four-wave mixing at high speeds is studied analytically and through simulations, which show robustness to nonlinear impairments.
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