Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan, China.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 01/2004; 10(1):37-41.
Source: PubMed


To study the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) containing 22-27% flavonoids (ginkgo-flavone glycosides) and 5-7% terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalides) on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
Human HCC cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B) were incubated with various concentrations (0-1 000 mg/L) of EGb 761 solution. After 24 h incubation, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, respectively. After 48 h incubation, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 protein was measured by Western blotting.
The results showed that EGb 761 (50-1 000 mg/L) significantly suppressed cell proliferation and increased LDH release (P<0.05) in HepG2 and Hep3B cells compared with the control group. The cell proliferation of HepG2 and Hep3B cells treated with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) was 45% and 39% of the control group (P<0.05), respectively. LDH release of HepG2 cells without and with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) treatment was 6.7% and 37.7%, respectively, and that of Hep3B cells without and with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) treatment was 7.2% and 40.3%, respectively. The expression of PCNA and p53 protein in HepG2 cells treated with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) was 85% and 174% of the control group, respectively.
Ginkgo biloba extract significantly can suppress proliferation and increase cytotoxicity in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Additionally, Ginkgo biloba extract can decrease PCNA and increase p53 expression in HepG2 cells.

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    • "Extracts from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba have been used in China and Western countries for centuries due to their antioxidant properties [22]. A standard G. biloba extract, EGb761 (commercial name), contains 22%–27% flavonoids and 5%–7% terpenoids, which are the most important active substances [23]. EGb761 can scavenge free radicals and neutralize ferry ion-induced peroxidants [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that protect proteins from damage. HSP27 expression is associated with cancer transformation and invasion. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761), the most widely sold herbal supplement, has antiangiogenic effects and induces tumor apoptosis. Data regarding the effect of EGb761 on HSP expression is limited, particularly in cancer. HSP27 expression in paired tumors and normal lung tissues of 64 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were detected by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. NSCLC cell lines (A549/H441) were used to examine the migratory abilities in vitro. NSCLC tissue showed higher HSP27 expression than normal lung tissue. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that NSCLC patients with low HSP27 expression ratio (<1) had significantly longer survival time than those with a high expression ratio (>1) (p = 0.04). EGb761 inhibited HSP27 expression and migratory ability of A549/H441 cells, which is the same as HSP27-siRNA transfection effect. Moreover, EGb761 treatment activated the AKT and p38 pathways and did not affect the expression of PI3K, ERK, and JNK pathways. HSP27 is a poor prognostic indicator of NSCLC. EGb761 can decrease the migration ability of A549/H441 by inhibiting HSP27 expression most likely through AKT and p38 MAPK pathways activation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Le Bars and colleagues conducted a 52-week double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial consisting of 309 patients with AD and multi-infarct dementia to study the efficacy and safety of EGb 761 (24% ginkgo-flavone glycosides and 6% terpenoids [73]). Patients were administered either EGb (120 mg/day) or placebo. "
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    • "Although some reports indicate that ginkgolic acid may have allergenic, cytotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects [15,23], systematic and detailed investigations of these events in animal studies and human observations have not been performed. In general, all compounds may have both therapeutic effects and side effects, which must be weighed in the development of clinically useful drugs. "
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