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Two family aggregation studies report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments (LIs) and reading impairments (RIs). Study 1 examined the occurrence (rate) of LI and RI in children with specific language impairment (SLI probands), a matched control group, and all nuclear family members. Study 2 included a larger sample of SLI probands, as well as their nuclear and extended family members. Probands and their family members who met specific criteria were classified as language and/or reading impaired based on current testing. In Study 1, the rates of LI and RI for nuclear family members (excluding probands) were significantly higher than those for control family members. In the SLI families, affected family members were more likely to have both LI and RI than either impairment alone. In Study 2, 68% of the SLI probands also met the diagnostic classification for RI. The language and RI rates for the other family members, excluding probands, were 25% and 23% respectively, with a high degree of co-occurrence of LI and RI (46%) in affected individuals. Significant sex ratio differences were found across generations in the families of SLI probands. There were more male than female offspring in these families, and more males than females were found to have both LIs and RIs. Results demonstrate that when LIs occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with RIs. Our data are also consistent with prior findings that males show impairments more often than females.
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... It has long been known that both language and literacy disorders run in families, and family aggregation studies clearly show an increased incidence in the relatives of children with dyslexia or language disorder (Flax et al., 2003). A meta-analysis of prospective studies showed that 45% of children with a first-degree relative who has dyslexia are likely to develop dyslexia, compared to 11.6% of children who were not a family risk (Snowling & Melby-Lervag, 2016). ...
... A meta-analysis of prospective studies showed that 45% of children with a first-degree relative who has dyslexia are likely to develop dyslexia, compared to 11.6% of children who were not a family risk (Snowling & Melby-Lervag, 2016). Similarly, children born into families with a first-degree relative with language disorder had significantly poorer language skills at the age of 3 years, compared to children not at family risk, as well as some weaknesses in emergent literacy skills at ages 5 and 7 (Flax et al., 2003). Taken together, this literature provides strong evidence that family history is an important marker of risk of language and literacy difficulties. ...
... All rights reserved In the studies reviewed above, early difficulties in spoken language often manifest in later problems in written language, even when the oral language difficulties themselves appear to have resolved (Stothard et al., 1998). Family aggregation and family risk studies strongly suggest that what is shared in the family is not specifically dyslexia or DLD, but rather weak language skills more broadly defined: a child with DLD is as likely to have parents or siblings who have dyslexia, as s/he is to have family members with oral language difficulties (Flax et al., 2003). Similarly, a child with dyslexia is likely to have family members who display weaknesses in spoken language (Snowling & Melby-Lervag, 2016). ...
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This study examines whether, and how, multiple risks in early childhood are associated with an increased likelihood of a poor language or literacy outcome in early adolescence. Using data from 210 participants in the longitudinal Twins Early Developmental Study, we focus on the following risk factors at age four: family risk, and poor language, speech, emergent literacy and nonverbal skills. The outcomes of interest at age 12 are language, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. We contrast a ‘cumulative risk’ model, counting the presence or absence of each risk factor (breadth), with a model that also considers the severity of the early deficits (depth). A ‘cumulative risk index’ correlated modestly but significantly with outcome (r = .32-.40). Odds ratios confirmed that having many risk factors (3-6) confers a higher probability of a poor outcome (OR 7.86-17.71) than having one or two (OR 3.65-7.28). Logistic regression models showed that predictive validity is not improved by including information about the severity of each deficit. Even with rich information on children’s risk status at age 4, we can make only a moderately accurate prediction of the likelihood of a language or literacy disorder eight years later (Area Under the Curve = .74-.84; Positive Predictive Value = .33-.55, Negative Predictive Value = .86-.91). Taken together, and consistent with the idea of ‘cumulative risk’, these results suggest that breadth of risk is a core predictor of outcome, and furthermore that severity of early deficits does not add significantly to this prediction.
... In a meta-analysis conducted by Rudolph (2017), clinically significant risk factors associated with child language disorders were low maternal education level, very low 5 min Apgar scores, later birth order, and male gender. There are also additional factors, including 1) Genetics: language disorders commonly aggregate in families (Bishop & Hayiou-Thomas, 2008;Flax et al., 2003;Tallal et al., 2001;Zambrana et al., 2014); 2) Premature birth: many premature children have slower language development than full-term children (Barre et al., 2011;van Noort-van der Spek et al., 2012;Vohr, 2014); and 3) SES: there is evidence that low socio-economic status in the family is a risk for delayed language development (Fernald et al., 2013; see overview by Roy & Chiat, 2013). In addition, maternal age has been found to correlate with child language development, but the results are inconsistent. ...
... The reasons for this finding may be that the expressive vocabularies were very small at this age, and boys had smaller expressive vocabularies than girls. The difference of language development in boys and girls has been revealed in many studies (Fenson et al., 1994;Fenson et al., 2007;Stolt et al., 2008), and boys also have higher risk of developmental language disorder than girls (Flax et al., 2003;Zambrana et al., 2014). The effect of the mother having received special education at school age was not hypothesized, but it is possible that mothers with this type of educational background talk less with their children and give less verbal input than mothers without it. ...
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Introduction Studies have shown that many children with early language difficulties also have delays in social-emotional competencies as well as social-emotional and behavioral problems. It is unclear if these conditions are causally related, if they share a common underlying etiology, or if there are bidirectional effects. Studies investigating these associations have mostly involved children who are already using words to communicate, but it is important to know whether delays in preverbal communication and language development have any effects on these associations. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between preverbal communication and early verbal skills in infancy and subsequent social-emotional competencies and ensuing social-emotional and behavioral problems in early toddlerhood. The role of background factors known to influence early language development was also examined. Methods The sample consisted of 395 children (51.6% boys) from the Finnish Steps Study cohort. Language was assessed at age 13 months (+ 1 month) with the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for Infants (CDI-I), and the social-emotional domain was assessed at age < 17 months with the Brief Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). Results Infants with lower preverbal gestural communication and receptive language skills had a higher risk of delays in social-emotional competencies in toddlerhood than children with better communication skills, but not of elevated social-emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions The results indicate that lower early communication skills can predict delays in the development of social-emotional competencies, which has been found to be a risk factor for later development of social-emotional and behavioral problems. It is important to monitor early communication skills to provide guidance to parents in supporting early pragmatic communication and language development in infancy, if needed.
... Moreover, a high co-occurrence of language and literacy problems was found in the parents: 55.3% of the parents with language problems also had literacy problems, while 43.8% of the parents with literacy problems also reported language problems [27]. The finding of the co-occurrence of language and reading impairments is in line with the results of previous FH studies [36] as well as of twin studies [37,38], suggesting the existence of common underlying mechanisms. Indeed, common genetic markers for RI and DLD have been reported [39][40][41]. ...
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Aim: Research is lacking in terms of reading decoding skills among clinical samples of Swedish-speaking children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). Method: The present cross-sectional study included a sample of 61 children (8-12 years) with DLD attending school language units, years 1 to 5. Our purpose was to study reading decoding skills and predictors for decoding, such as a phonological processing skill (nonword repetition), working memory, and a family history of literacy problems. Results: The results on a combined measure of the word and nonword decoding indicated that only 18% of the children had age-adequate decoding skills. The proportion of age-adequate decoders did not change noticeably with the school year. The participants' decoding skills showed larger deviations to test norm means with higher school years. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the best predictors of decoding skills were measures of working memory and nonword repetition, followed by school year. These factors significantly contributed to the variance in decoding among our sample of children with DLD. A family history of literacy problems made no contribution to the variance. Conclusions: The findings emphasize the necessity of assessing and following up on literacy development in children with DLD.
... Literacy problems are the most commonly reported problems in all three generations of relatives to our SLI probands. This is in accordance with Flax et al. (2003), who reported that reading impairments generally co-occur with language impairment within families of SLI probands. Besides, we found that literacy problems were the most common LRDPs to co-occur with other LRDPs in the parents of our SLI probands. ...
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The aim was to study a broader phenotype of language-related diagnoses and problems in three generations of relatives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Our study is based on a family history interview of the parents of 59 children with SLI and of 100 matched control children, exploring the prevalence of problems related to language, reading, attention, school achievement and social communication as well as diagnoses such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, Asperger syndrome, dyslexia, mental retardation, cleft palate and stuttering. The results show a spectrum of language-related problems in families of SLI children. In all three generations of SLI relatives, we found significantly higher prevalence rates of language, literacy and social communication problems. The risk of one or both parents having language-related diagnoses or problems was approximately six times higher for the children with SLI (85%) than for the control children (13%) (odds ratio = 37.2). We did not find a significantly higher prevalence of the diagnoses ADHD, autism or Asperger syndrome in the relatives of the children with SLI. However, significantly more parents of the children with SLI had problems with attention/hyperactivity when compared with the parents of controls. Our findings suggest common underlying mechanisms for problems with language, literacy and social communication, and possibly also for attention/hyperactivity symptoms.
... We believe that parents with language problems and parents with reading problems may contribute to similar home language environments when it comes to language input to the child, such as attitudes to reading. High levels of co-occurrence of language and literacy problems in parents of children with SLI have been reported in previous family history studies [82]. In addition, in the present study LLP in the parents co-occur with low levels of parental education, which is another factor that may have direct and indirect influence on home language environment and children's development. ...
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First, we explore the performance of nonword repetition (NWR) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing children (TD) in order to investigate the accuracy of NWR as a clinical marker for SLI in Swedish-speaking school-age children. Second, we examine the relationship between NWR, family aggregation, and parental level of education in children with SLI. A sample of 61 children with SLI, and 86 children with TD, aged 8-12 years, were administered an NWR test. Family aggregation, measured as the prevalence of language and/or literacy problems (LLP) in parents of the children with SLI, was based on family history interviews. The sensitivity and specificity of nonword repetition was analyzed in a binary logistic regression, cutoff values were established with ROC curves, and positive and negative likelihood ratios reported. Results from the present study show that NWR distinguishes well between Swedish-speaking school-children with and without SLI. We found 90.2% sensitivity and 97.7% specificity at a cutoff level of 22 standard deviations for binary scoring of nonwords. Differences between the SLI and TD groups showed large effect sizes for the two scoring measures binary (d = 2.11) and percent correct consonants (PCC) (d = 1.79). The children with SLI were split into two subgroups: those with no parents affected with LLP (n = 12), and those with one or both parents affected (n = 49). The subgroup consisting of affected parents had a significantly lower score on NWR binary (p = .037), and there was a great difference between the subgroups (d = 0.7). When compared to the TD group, the difference from the subgroup with affected parents was almost one standard deviation larger (d = 2.47) than the difference from the TD to the subgroup consisting of non-affected parents (d = 1.57). Our study calls for further exploration of the complex interaction between family aggregation, language input, and phenotypes of SLI.
... In particular, the literature converges to show moderate to high heritability of speech and language abilities and in particular, of speech and language disorders (dyslexia: Friend, DeFries, & Olson, 2008;Harlaar, Spinath, Dale, & Plomin, 2005;Kirkpatrick, Legrand, Iacono, & McGue, 2011;DLD: Bishop & Hayiou-Thomas, 2008;Conti-Ramsden, Falcaro, Simkin, & Pickles, 2007;Hayiou-Thomas, 2008;stuttering: Dworzynski, Remington, Rijsdijk, Howell, & Plomin, 2007;van Beijsterveldt, Felsenfeld, & Boomsma, 2010;see Deriziotis & Fisher, 2017, for a review). Importantly, different developmental speech/language disorders as well as speech/language disorders and ADHD tend to co-occur in families (e.g., Carroll & Myers, 2010;Flax et al., 2003;Kovac et al., 2001;Lahey & Edwards, 1995;Mueller & Tomblin, 2012). ...
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Although a growing literature points to substantial variation in speech/language abilities related to individual differences in musical abilities, mainstream models of communication sciences and disorders have not yet incorporated these individual differences into childhood speech/language development. This article reviews three sources of evidence in a comprehensive body of research aligning with three main themes: (a) associations between musical rhythm and speech/language processing, (b) musical rhythm in children with developmental speech/language disorders and common comorbid attentional and motor disorders, and (c) individual differences in mechanisms underlying rhythm processing in infants and their relationship with later speech/language development. In light of converging evidence on associations between musical rhythm and speech/language processing, we propose the Atypical Rhythm Risk Hypothesis, which posits that individuals with atypical rhythm are at higher risk for developmental speech/language disorders. The hypothesis is framed within the larger epidemiological literature in which recent methodological advances allow for large-scale testing of shared underlying biology across clinically distinct disorders. A series of predictions for future work testing the Atypical Rhythm Risk Hypothesis are outlined. We suggest that if a significant body of evidence is found to support this hypothesis, we can envision new risk factor models that incorporate atypical rhythm to predict the risk of developing speech/language disorders. Given the high prevalence of speech/language disorders in the population and the negative long-term social and economic consequences of gaps in identifying children at-risk, these new lines of research could potentially positively impact access to early identification and treatment. This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain Neuroscience > Development Linguistics > Language Acquisition.
... In the case of severe comprehension difficulty, performance resembles what has been reported for children with DLD (Contemori & Garraffa, 2010;Håkansson & Hansson, 2000;Novogrodsky & Friedmann, 2006). These findings are not unexpected as nine of our 11 SLD participants were diagnosed with dyslexia, and the dyslexia-DLD overlap is well documented (Bishop & Snowling, 2004;Catts et al., 2002Catts et al., , 2005Flax et al., 2003;McArthur et al., 2000). Indeed, when McArthur and colleagues evaluated the oral and written language capacity of 110 English-speaking children aged 7 to 13 who had been diagnosed with dyslexia, they found that 55% of these children also presented an impairment in oral language and could be classified as having DLD. ...
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Working memory (WM) limitations are frequently reported for children with specific learning disorder (SLD). However, WM capacity influences more than literacy and numeracy, as research highlights the contribution of WM to language development, in particular syntax. In this article, the authors study the effect of syntactic intervention, i.e. syntactic elements intervening between filler and gap, on comprehension in children with SLD and evaluate the relationship of this effect to WM capacity. Specifically, they assess how these children comprehend wh-questions and relative clauses. Additionally, they examine how comprehension relates to WM, measured by backward digit recall. The authors report that a subgroup of children with SLD struggle to comprehend structures containing intervention, and that WM capacity influences performance in SLD. Their conclusion is that computing a syntactic relation in which a moved object and an intervening subject share a featural specification taxes the processing system of children with SLD who have WM limitations. Thus, syntactic difficulties, although not typically associated with SLD, may form part of the SLD profile, especially when WM capacity is reduced.
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Bibliografia do Novo Deit Libras, 3ª edição revista e ampliada (2015). A publicação lista 2.841 referências bibliográficas que foram consultadas para a elaboração da 3a. edição revista e ampliada do Novo Deit-Libras: Novo Dicionário Enciclopédico Ilustrado Trilíngue da Língua de Sinais Brasileira. As referências cobrem campos como os de Psicologia e Neuropsicologia Cognitivas e do Desenvolvimento, Linguística e Neuropsicolinguística Cognitiva, Educação, Educação de Surdos, História de Educação de Surdos, Filosofias educacionais em surdez, Fonoaudiologia, Antropologia Cultural, dentre muitos outros. Como esse dicionário propõe, em diversos capítulos associados, um novo modelo de lexicografia e lexicologia da Libras, grande esforço foi feito na justificação e explicação das bases desse modelo. O dicionário encarna, usa e ilustra esse novo modelo. References used in the New Encyclopedic Illustrated Dictionary of Brazilian Sign Language, 3rd edition (2015). The publication lists 2,841 references that were used to support the elaboration of the Brazilian Sign Language Encyclopedic Dictionary, 3rd edition. The references cover fields such as Cognitive and Developmental Psychology and Neuropsychology, Cognitive Linguistics and Neurolinguistics and Neuropsycholinguistics, Applied Linguistics, Lexicography, Lexicology, Education, Deaf Education, Special Education, History of Education, Bilingualism, History of Deaf Education, Speech Language Pathology, Cultural Anthropology, among many othes. In several chapters, this seminal dictionary advances a groundbreaking original model dicionário in sign language lexicography and lexicology. The chapters justify and explain such a model, which is embodied by the dictionary itself.
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Developmental language disorder (DLD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, occurring in about 3% to 7% of preschoolers, that can impair communication and negatively impact educational and social attainments, in spite of adequate neurological, cognitive, emotional, social development, and educational opportunities for language learning. Significant risk factors for DLD are male sex, familial history of early language delay, low parental education, and various perinatal factors. A strong sex effect with a higher prevalence of language delay and DLD in males than in females has been consistently reported. Neurobiological and environmental risk factors, interacting with each other, are probably responsible for the phenotypic expression of DLD. The aim of this brief review is to further the knowledge of the role of sex in early language delay and DLD by analyzing the evidence from four significant sources: epidemiological studies, studies on twins, family aggregation studies, and studies on sex chromosome trisomies. Data pertaining only to sex differences (biological and physiological characteristics of females and males) will be analyzed. Studies on family aggregations and twins confirm the role of genetic factors and of sex in determining language abilities and disabilities, but genes alone do not determine outcomes. Sex chromosome trisomies represent a unique example of the relationship between a genetic alteration and a language disorder. Clarification of how sex acts in determining DLD could provide new information on early risk factors and, thus, contribute to improve diagnosis and clinical management.
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Some researchers argue that the ability to acquire and use language is largely the result of innate predispositions that are specific to language (the INNATENESS HYPOTHESIS). If the innateness hypothesis is correct, these predispositions must be encoded for in our DNA. This article reviews more than one hundred genetic studies of language. The results of these studies strongly suggest that genetic factors play a role in the variation in the rate of language acquisition and linguistic proficiency attained by children and adults. Genetic factors account for much of the variance in linguistic abilities among people with written or spoken language disorders and some of the variance in linguistic abilities among normal people. In addition to heritable factors that influence both nonverbal and verbal abilities, there appear to be genetic factors that specifically influence linguistic abilities. Furthermore, some studies suggest that different genetic factors are involved in different aspects of language (e.g. written language vs. spoken language; lexical vs. syntactic abilities).
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Abstract A pedigree analysis was performed for a 50 member, multigenerational family ascertained for an SLI proband. Rates of impairment for language, reading, spelling, and rate processing were examined. In addition, composite affectation