To provide reliable estimates of the frequency of condom use and correlates of condom use among Australian adults.
Computer-assisted telephone interviews were completed by a representative sample of 10,173 men and 9,134 women aged 16-59 years. The response rate was 73.1% (69.4% men, 77.6% women).
Although the majority of respondents had used a condom at some time in their lives, fewer than half of the respondents who were sexually active in the year before being interviewed had used a condom in the past year. Condom use in the past year was associated with youth, greater education, residence in major cities, lower incomes, white-collar occupations, being a former smoker, and having more sexual partners in the past year. In the six months prior to interview, 7.1% of respondents always used condoms with regular cohabiting partners, 22.5% always used condoms with regular non-cohabiting partners, and 41.4% always used condoms with casual partners. Approximately 20% of respondents used a condom the last time they had vaginal intercourse, and one in eight of these condoms were put on after genital contact. Condom use during the most recent sexual encounter was associated with youth, living in a major city, having a lower income, having sex with a casual partner, and not using another form of contraception.
As in other studies, condom use was strongly associated with partner type and use of other contraception.
People with multiple sexual partners need to be aware that non-barrier methods of contraception (and condoms applied late) do not protect against sexually transmitted infections.
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"Similarly, for regular partnerships , sexual intercourse occurs with probability p s r f s r /7, where the average number of sex acts per week is f s r . Sexual behavior surveys consistently show that condom use in regular partnerships is always much lower than in casual partnerships [16, 17, 57, 58]. The probability that a condom is used during sexual intercourse in a regular partnership is given by p c r (1 )p c c , where p c c is the percentage of protected sex acts in a casual partnership and is the relative reduction in condom use for regular partnerships. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the likely impact of vaccines on the prevalence of and morbidity due to Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) infections in heterosexual populations.
An individual-based mathematical model of chlamydia transmission was developed and linked to the infection course in chlamydia-infected individuals. The model describes the impact of a vaccine through its effect on the chlamydial load required to infect susceptible individuals (the "critical load"), the load in infected individuals, and their subsequent infectiousness. The model was calibrated using behavioral, biological, and clinical data.
A fully protective chlamydia vaccine administered before sexual debut can theoretically eliminate chlamydia epidemics within 20 years. Partially effective vaccines can still greatly reduce the incidence of chlamydia infection. Vaccines should aim primarily to increase the critical load in susceptible individuals and secondarily to decrease the peak load and/or the duration of infection in vaccinated individuals who become infected. Vaccinating both sexes has a beneficial impact on chlamydia-related morbidity, but targeting women is more effective than targeting men.
Our findings can be used in laboratory settings to evaluate vaccine candidates in animal models, by regulatory bodies in the promotion of candidates for clinical trials, and by public health authorities in deciding on optimal intervention strategies.
Preview · Article · Jul 2009 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although it is often assumed that drinking alcohol interferes with condom use, most studies on this topic do not meet the conditions required for causal interpretation. We examined the association of drinking to condom use using data from diaries of alcohol use and sexual encounters, collected over 8 weeks from college students and clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic. This method establishes the temporal relationships between drinking and condom use and controls for individual differences by using a within-subjects analysis. Multilevel models that predicted condom use from alcohol use before the sexual encounter, partner type, and the use of other contraception showed that drinking before sex was unrelated to condom use. These results do not support the persistent notion that alcohol causes people to engage in sexual risk that they would avoid when sober; instead, people tend to follow their usual pattern of condom use, regardless of alcohol use.
"The higher prevalence of recent STI infection among young adults exists despite the fact that young adults report more consistent condom use than older adults (Laumann et al., 1994; Dubois- Arber and Spencer, 1998; de Visser et al., 2003) This paradoxical result arises because although condoms can be used for prevention of pregnancy and/or HIV/ STIs, young adults' condom use is governed more by concerns about pregnancy than STI infection, such that when other forms of contraception are used, condom use is significantly less likely (Kirkman et al., 1998; Cooper et al., 1999; de Visser and Smith, 1999; Ott et al., 2002). Low levels of condom use for STI prevention may be due to misconceptions about STI prevalence, consequences and treatment or they may be due to a disregard of such knowledge as not personally relevant (Crosby et al., 2000; Garside et al., 2001; Grulich et al., 2003b). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this exploratory qualitative study were to increase our understanding of heterosexual young adults' knowledge
and beliefs about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) other than HIV, to explore their beliefs about the factors that influence
condom use for STI prevention, and to explore their ideas about how best to promote condom use for STI prevention. Data came
from a qualitative study that used 11 group discussions with 53 heterosexual men and women aged 18–25. Respondents thought
that STI infection and unplanned pregnancy were equally likely, but were less concerned about STIs than unplanned pregnancy.
Respondents gave several reasons for their low levels of concern about STIs. They also suggested several means to promote
condom use for STI prevention. They supported multi-faceted condom promotion campaigns, using multiple styles of communication
and a variety of media. The range of suggestions given by participants suggests that rather than employing a ‘one size fits
all’ strategy, a variety of different approaches are needed to promote condom use for STI prevention.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Health Education Research