Cancer pharmacogenetics

Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.84). 02/2004; 90(1):8-11. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601487
Source: PubMed


The large number of active combination chemotherapy regimens for most cancers has led to the need for better information to guide the 'standard' treatment for each patient. In an attempt to individualise therapy, pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (a polygenic approach to pharmacogenetic studies) encompass the search for answers to the hereditary basis for interindividual differences in drug response. This review will focus on the results of studies assessing the effects of polymorphisms in drug-metabolising enzymes and drug targets on the toxicity and response to commonly used chemotherapy drugs. In addition, the need for polygenic pharmacogenomic strategies to identify patients at risk for adverse drug reactions will be highlighted.

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    • "Up to now, researchers have determined that efficacy of the chemotherapy is multifactorial. Gene polymorphisms of drug target genes, genes involving in DNA repair pathways and detoxification pathways may influence the effect of the anti-cancer agents [2], [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many reports have shown inconsistent results on the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of X-ray repair cross complementing protein (XRCC1) gene and platinum-based chemotherapeutic efficacy. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize published data about the association between two SNPs of XRCC1 (Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln) and treatment outcomes of patients with advanced gastric cancer. We retrieved the relevant articles from MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Studies were selected according to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed according to the guidelines outlined by Hayden, et al. and PRISMA guidelines. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) for response rate versus no response after platinum-based chemotherapy. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated by pooled Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that none of the XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms was significantly associated with tumor response. Stratified analysis by ethnicity or sensitivity analysis also showed that XRCC1 SNPs were not related with chemotherapy response. Patients with minor variant A allele were likely to have poorer 2-year survival rate than those with G/G genotype. However, in the group of 5-year follow up, there was no significant association between the A allele and OS yet. There is no evidence to support the use of XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms as prognostic predictors of TR and PFS in gastric patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The relationship between minor variant A allele and OS requires further verification.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Resistance to platinum agents has been attributed to enhanced tolerance to platinum DNA adducts, decreased drug accumulation, or enhanced DNA repair (11). Variable chemosensitivity to oxaliplatin may depend on detoxification pathways, including the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family of isoenzymes (12, 13). Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) is a member of a superfamily of dimeric phase II metabolic enzymes that play an important role in the cell defense system. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of the polymorphism Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) Ile(105)Val on oxaliplatin/5-FU-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. Patients with advanced gastric cancer accepted oxaliplatin/5-FU-based chemotherapy as first-line chemotherapy were investigated. GSTP1 Ile(105)Val polymorphism was detected by TaqMan-MGB probe allelic discrimination method. Response to treatment was assessed by disease controlled rate. Time to progression, overall survival and toxicities were recorded. Final patient outcomes were as follows: the allele frequencies of GSTP1 were (105)Ile/(105)Ile 52%, (105)Ile/(105)Val 41% and (105)Val/(105)Val 7%. For patients with (105)Ile/(105)Ile and those with at least one (105)Val allele, disease control rate was 39% and 71% (P=0.026), respectively; median time to progression was 4.0 and 7.0 months (P=0.002); median overall survival time was 7.0 and 9.5 months (P=0.002). Neurological toxicity was more frequently occurred in patients with two (105)Ile alleles (P=0.005). In conclusion, patients with at least one (105)Val allele have better prognosis and response to oxaliplatin/5-FU-based regimen as first-line treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Korean medical science
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    • "The mutant form of this gene is associated with lower MTHFR enzymatic activity leading to changes in the distribution of tissue folates. Similarly, tumour response to oxaliplatin may be influenced by polymorphisms in genes involved in the nucleotide excision repair pathway (Marsh and McLeod, 2004; Reed, 2005). These include polymorphisms in codon 118 (AAC to AAT) of the excision repair cross complementing group 1 (ERCC1) gene and codon 399 (CGG to CAG) of the X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1). "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate three genetic alterations (TP53 mutation, Kras mutation and microsatellite instability (MSI)) and three polymorphisms (methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, excision repair cross complementing group 1 (ERCC1)-118 and X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1)-399) for their ability to predict response, survival and toxicity to FOLFOX first line chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Tumour tissues from 118 mCRC patients who underwent FOLFOX treatment from three successive phase II trials were evaluated for mutations in TP53 (exons 5-8) and Kras (codons 12 and 13) and for MSI using PCR-based analysis. Genotyping for common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MTHFR (codon 677), ERCC1 (codon 118) and XRCC1 (codon 399) genes was also carried out using PCR techniques. These genetic markers were correlated with clinical response, survival and toxicity to treatment. Patients with the T allele of ERCC1-118 showed significantly worse progression-free survival in univariate analysis (HR=2.62; 95% CI=1.14-6.02; P=0.02). None of the genetic alterations or polymorphisms showed significant association with clinical response to FOLFOX. The MTHFR, ERCC1 and XRCC1 polymorphisms showed no associations with overall haematological, gastrointestinal or neurological toxicity to FOLFOX, although MTHFR 677 TT genotype patients showed a significantly higher incidence of grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea (26%) compared with CC or CT genotype patients (6%, P=0.02). The ERCC1-118 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms were associated with progression and severe diarrhoea, respectively, after FOLFOX treatment in mCRC. Although our findings require confirmation in large prospective studies, they reinforce the concept that individual genetic variation may allow personalized selection of chemotherapy to optimize clinical outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · British Journal of Cancer
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