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Abstract

The objectives of the study were to examine the prevalence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), anorexia athletica (AA), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (ED-NOS) in both male and female Norwegian elite athletes and a representative sample from the general Norwegian population. A 2-step study including self-reported questionnaire and clinical interview. The entire population of Norwegian male and female elite athletes (n=1620) and controls (n=1696) was evaluated for the presence of eating disorders (EDs). Based on the results of the questionnaire, all athletes and controls classified as at risk for EDs, and a representative sample of athletes and controls classified as healthy participated in the clinical part of the study to determine the number of subjects meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria for EDs. More athletes (13.5%) than controls (4.6%; P<0.001) had subclinical or clinical EDs. The prevalence of EDs among male athletes was greater in antigravitation sports (22%) than in ball game (5%) and endurance sports (9%; P<0.05). The prevalence of EDs among female athletes competing in aesthetic sports (42%) was higher than that observed in endurance (24%), technical (17%), and ball game sports (16%). The prevalence of EDs is higher in athletes than in controls, higher in female athletes than in male athletes, and more common among those competing in leanness-dependent and weight-dependent sports than in other sports. A collaborative effort among coaches, athletic trainers, parents, physicians, and athletes is optimal for recognizing, preventing, and treating EDs in athletes.
... Scientific studies have shown that the estimated prevalence of DE and clinical EDs in athletes is higher than in non-athletic populations and generally ranges from 0% to 19% in males and from 6% to 45% in females [22,23]. Clinical EDs are more prevalent in women compared to male athletes [24], especially in elite adolescent athletes compared to their peers in the general population [14,19,25] and in sports that depend on thinness and weight compared to other sports [25][26][27]. ...
... Scientific studies have shown that the estimated prevalence of DE and clinical EDs in athletes is higher than in non-athletic populations and generally ranges from 0% to 19% in males and from 6% to 45% in females [22,23]. Clinical EDs are more prevalent in women compared to male athletes [24], especially in elite adolescent athletes compared to their peers in the general population [14,19,25] and in sports that depend on thinness and weight compared to other sports [25][26][27]. ...
... Previous studies have shown that, compared to the general population, athletes with EDs are less prone to psychopathology and have a better prognosis for recovery [11]. They are more likely to present disorders with specific characteristics, such as anorexia athletica [25] or orthorexia nervosa [30], than full-blown mental illnesses such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia [19,23]. Following Bachner-Melman et al. in the early 1980s, a hypothesis was made that there was an analogy between certain groups of athletes and patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, based on having certain common features. ...
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Anorexic Readiness Syndrome (ARS) is a concept used in research for the early detection of disordered eating (DE). It is a set of indicators located primarily within the cognitive and behavioral sphere of an individual’s functioning. The aim of this study was to examine whether among the elite acrobats there are girls showing a high level of anorexic tendency, and if so, what behaviors and attitudes are the most common. In addition, an attempt to determine what sport-related factors or other non-sport variables may increase the risk of ARS was conducted. The study group was made up of 133 acrobatic gymnasts aged 10–19, representing six countries that participated in the Acro World Cup competition held in Poland. The study procedures included surveys (personal questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Questionnaire), anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and determination of the Body Mass Index (BMI), fat percentage (Fat%), and waist to height ratio (WHtR). A high level of ARS was found in 9.8% of acrobats. This group most often declared attitudes and behaviors indicative of anorexic tendencies. A strong relationship with the level of ARS was noted in the following: the use of fasting and diets (p ≤ 0.001; V = 0.54), limiting of fats and carbohydrates (p ≤ 0.001; V = 0.60), feeling angry after eating too much (p ≤ 0.001; V = 0.55), knowing the caloric value of many food products (p ≤ 0.001; V = 0.59), and the desire to improve the appearance of one’s body (p ≤ 0.001; V = 0.52). The role played in the acrobatic partnership and the region of residence were considered as the sport-related risk factors. Among non-sport factors, the strongest predictor of ARS was the age of gymnasts (β = 0.516; p ≤ 0.001).
... Among the specific factors often discussed in the literature, gender seems the one most analysed. Females are reported to be affected more often than males both in the general population (5-10%) and among athletes (up to 42%) [5,19,20]. Underreporting in males is thought probable for both the athlete and the general populations [21,22]. However, when focusing on dieting behaviour alone, Prnjak et al. [6] could not find a difference between female and male competing athletes. ...
... The anonymity may have been beneficial in reducing the risk of selection and reporting bias, however, it renders further investigations impossible and in particular prevents the invitation of participants to a clinical assessment. The need of such an assessments following selfreported screening to arrive at firm conclusions about the prevalence has been emphasized in the literature ( [4,5,19,49,50]). ...
... The incidence of eating disorders is strongly gender dependent and women are significantly more likely than men to have had anorexia or bulimia in their lifetime. In fact, some studies put female incidence of eating disorders as high as 60% for highly competitive female athletes [15]. On the other hand, males have eating disorders as well-elite athletes higher than non-elite [15]. ...
... In fact, some studies put female incidence of eating disorders as high as 60% for highly competitive female athletes [15]. On the other hand, males have eating disorders as well-elite athletes higher than non-elite [15]. ...
Article
Using one religion as an example, in the context of its historical culture, this article examines the medical and psychiatric literature on the role of religion and culture as it has affected sports. By way of providing background, we first review historical examples of how religion and its culture can affect sports participation, performance and psychiatric health/illness. Given these emotionally and religiously powerful influences over historical time, we then review implications for the sports physician or mental health therapist with a focus on how religious and cultural issues can affect diagnosis and treatment for athletes, their teams and communities. A case example is presented by way of illustrating the need to both be aware of religious-cultural negative and positive factors as they affect integrative treatment of athletes.
... Higher levels of functionality appreciation among athletes than non-athletes can also explain their more positive body image [9]. Despite of lower body dissatisfaction, the prevalence of eating disorders has been reported to be higher among elite athletes than adolescents and adults in general [10]. Differences in disordered eating behaviour have been suggested to relate to, for example, athletes' personality, such as high achievement orientation and perfectionism, and coaching behaviours [11,12]. ...
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Background Regardless of competitive athletes’ body image pressures, only few studies have focused on adolescent sport participants’ body image and the findings are inconclusive. Furthermore, the role of competitive goals in sports on adolescents’ body size perception has not been studied. We examined the factors associated with adolescents’ competitive goals in sports and body size perception, and the associations between adolescents’ competitive goals in sports and body size perception. Methods The cross-sectional study consisted of 475 goal-oriented sports club participants and 936 reference youths (aged 14–16 years). The study questionnaire included multiple choice items on health behaviours, motives to exercise, competitive goals in sports and body size perception. The multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations. Results Adolescents with competitive goals in sports perceived their body size as about the right size more frequently than reference youths (68% vs 47%, p < 0.001 in girls; 74% vs 61%, p < 0.001 in boys). More than one-fourth of girls with competitive goals in sports perceived themselves as overweight, although only 7% of them were overweight. Adolescents with appearance/weight motives to exercise and poor perceived physical fitness had higher odds of perceived fatness. Additionally, BMI was positively associated with perceived fatness and negatively with perceived thinness. Having competitive goals in sports was not independently associated with perceived fatness or perceived thinness. Conclusions Adolescents’ BMI, appearance/weight motives to exercise, and perceived physical fitness were more strongly associated with body size perception than their competitive goals in sports. However, perceived fatness among girls with competitive goals in sports should be considered in organized sports.
... In combat sports, constant control of food intake and body weight leads to pressure and stress in athletes, which may also trigger eating disorders (Iuso, Bellomo, Pagano, Carnevale, & Ventriglio, 2019;Soylu, 2021;Sundgot-Borgen & Torstveit, 2004). Studies have shown that dieting causes recurrence of negative moods and emotional problems, and those individuals tend to eat more (Baucom & Aiken, 1981;Grilo, Shiffman, & Wing, 1989). ...
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Emotional eating is the act of eating to cope with stress and pressure, and it is assumed that this behavior increases as the level of self-control decreases. Several factors, including anxiety about winning and fear of injury, can cause stress in athletes. An athlete's high mental toughness is closely related to their ability to easily cope with such stress factors. It is still a matter of curiosity how negative psychological factors affect emotional eating in athletes with low mental toughness. This study investigated the relationship between emotional eating and mental toughness in female wrestlers. Emotional Eating Questionnaire and Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire were applied to 69 female wrestlers. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation tests. It was found that the participants were low emotional eaters and accepted all of the mental toughness sub-dimensions. There was a significant difference in emotional eating total score and "disinhibition" score according to nationality status (p<0.05). The findings suggested a positive and significant relationship between sub-dimensions of emotional eating and sub-dimensions of mental toughness (p<0.05). It was concluded that national female wrestlers tended to eat more emotionally than non-national athletes and had more difficulty preventing the urge to eat. As female wrestlers' mental toughness levels increased, they tended to eat emotionally and felt guilty about eating.
... Athletes have a higher prevalence of eating disorders and disordered eating relative to nonathletes, with female athletes reporting higher rates than male athletes (6%-45% and 0%-19%, respectively). 33,34 Identification of athletes at risk of eating disorders demonstrated significantly higher numbers in this study population at all 3 survey points [82.6% (T0), 79.7% (T1), and 72.1% (T3)] with no differences between sexes. It is noted that the SMHAT-1 consensus authors identified that the BEDA-Q had no established threshold and thus proposed a cutoff of 4 or more. ...
Article
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The purpose of this chapter is to identify nutritional requirements for special groups of pregnant exercisers and pregnant athletes such as (1) athletes practicing aesthetic sports, weight competing for sports, and sports of long duration; (2) pregnant exerciser women who restrict or prohibit certain dietary practices or the consumption of important sources of energy and nutrients; (3) adolescent pregnant exercisers; and (4) other pregnant exerciser women in high-risk categories. In addition, risk factors such as low energy availability and eating disorders related to their energy and nutritional requirements are also included. Micronutrients’ needs increase much more than macronutrients. Even prior to conception, an increased average intake of folate, iodine, and iron is recommended. However, only at the beginning of the second trimester, a marked increase in vitamins and minerals is observed. A pregnant exerciser or athlete who continues to train during pregnancy may have a total energy expenditure quite high, which depends on the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of the activities performed. Therefore, dietary intakes before, during, and after physical exercise are crucial for the maintenance of adequate energy availability. In addition, some unhealthy behaviors such as the consumption of alcohol, smoking, and other stimulant substances, and the lack of sleep should be avoided.KeywordsPregnancyNutritionDietary intakesEnergyMacronutrientsMicronutrientsExercisersAthletesEating disordersSleep
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This article reviews current eating disorder self-report and interview measures and makes recommendations for choosing assessment devices for practice and research. The authors also incorporate overviews of related measures, such as body satisfaction and restrained eating. The presentation of women with eating disorders on measures of gen-eral psychological functioning (such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inven-tory) is also discussed. Implications and recommendations for practice are presented, as are recommendations for future research. The lack of validation of, and urgent need for, eating disorder assessment measures with ethnic minority women is discussed throughout. Our goal is to provide information about useful assessment methods for counseling psychologists doing research or practice in the area of eating dis-orders (EDs). As Crowther and Sherwood (1997) noted, the multifaceted nature of EDs requires multidimensional, comprehensive assessment. The ED assessment literature is burgeoning with increasing attention focused on evaluating the psychometric qualities of both new measures and revisions of more established instruments (Crouther & Sherwood, 1997). In this article, we cover two major types of assessment procedures specific to eating disor-ders: self-report inventories and structured interview measures. In addition, we provide brief information regarding related measures of potential interest to researchers and practitioners (e.g., body image assessment) and briefly cover material concerning how women with EDs typically score on standard assessment inventories such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inven-tory (MMPI) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI). Finally, we conclude with implications for practice and research. Throughout the arti-cle, we attend to issues of assessment with ethnic minority women. A great 662
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