Importance of premeal injection time in insulin therapy: Humalog Mix25 is convenient for improved post-prandial glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with Italian dietary habits

ArticleinActa Diabetologica 40(4):187-92 · December 2003with10 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s00592-003-0110-2 · Source: PubMed
We investigated the use, in a short period, of Humalog Mix25 (Mix25) in a twice-daily administration regimen compared to a twice-daily injection therapy with Humulin 30/70 (30/70) in diabetic patients with Italian dietary habits. We studied 33 type 2 diabetic patients aged 59.1 +/- 8.1 years, BMI 29.8 +/- 2.7 kg/m2, duration of diabetes and insulin therapy of 14.4 +/- 9.8 and 4.2 +/- 4.6 years, respectively. After a 4-day lead-in period of twice-daily human insulin 30/70 treatment, patients were randomized to one of two treatment sequences: (1) a twice-daily regimen with Mix25 just 5 minutes before the morning and evening meals for 12 days, followed by a twice-daily therapy with human insulin 30/70 given 30 minutes before the morning and evening meals for an additional 12 days; or (2) the alternate sequence. Each patient underwent a mixed meal test: Humulin 30/70 was administered 30 minutes before the meal, while Mix25 was given 5 minutes before. The 2-hour post-prandial glucose concentration after breakfast was significantly lower during treatment with Mix25 than with Humulin 30/70 (157 +/- 43.2 vs. 180 +/- 43.2 mg/dl, p<0.05). The glycemic excursion after dinner on Mix25 treatment was significantly lower than with Humulin 30/70 (12.2 +/- 48.01 vs. 35.5 +/- 36.92 mg/dl, p<0.05). AUCglucose after Mix25 was lower than after Humulin 30/70. Glycemia after test meal was significantly lower with Mix25 than with Humulin 30/70. Insulin and free insulin concentrations after the test meal were significantly higher with Mix25 in comparison to Humulin 30/70. AUC serum insulin and free insulin curves after Mix25 were significantly higher than after Humulin 30/70 (p=0.028 and p=0.005, respectively). Twice-daily injections of Humalog Mix25, compared to human insulin 30/70 in type 2 diabetic patients with Italian dietary habits, provide improved and lasting post-prandial glycemic control, with the great convenience of the injection just before the meal.
    • "The survey results of subjective feeling of insulin injection were in accordance with former studies. Premixed insulin analogues were more flexible in time of injection and had better compliance and quality of life [10,21,22]. "
    Article · Jan 2013
    • "Humalog Mix25 (Mix25), a manufactured premixed insulin analogue containing 25% lispro insulin and 75% basal component insulin lispro-protamine, and humalog Mix50 (Mix50) containing 50% lispro and 50% NPL are widely used as a twice-daily insulin regimen.4 Compared to the human insulin mixture, twice-daily injection of Mix25 or Mix50 provided improved glycemic control with a more convenient injection just before a meal.5-7 In addition, twice-daily Mix25 therapy was reported to achieve better glycemic control than basal insulin (glargine) therapy;8 however, it is difficult to make appropriate use of Mix25 and Mix 50 for particular subjects. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Premixed insulin is effective to improve glycemic control; however, clinicians may be less likely to know which premixed insulin is appropriate for which patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of twice-daily injections of premixed insulin lispro on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Forty type 2 diabetic patients, who had been treated with twice-daily injections of human protamine mixture 30/70 insulin for at least 12 months, were divided into two groups; one group whose blood glucose 2 hours after breakfast was greater than 200 mg/dL, was switched to lispro mix50, and the other group whose blood glucose 2 hours after breakfast < 200 was switched to lispro mix25. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) significantly improved in the Mix50 group from 8.3% to 7.5% (at 12 weeks; p < 0.05), and to 7.5% (at 24 weeks; p < 0.05). On the other hand, HbA1c levels in the Mix25 group were slightly decreased from 8.1% to 7.7% at 12 weeks (p < 0.05), and to 7.9% at 24 weeks (not significant). Both postprandial plasma glucose and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly improved in the Mix50 group, but not in the Mix25 group. Overall, 95% of subjects preferred premixed lispro insulin from human insulin in the viewpoint of the timing of insulin injection by questionnaire analysis. Switching from human protamine mixture 30/70 insulin to lispro mix50 twice-daily injection therapy in patients with high postprandial plasma glucose could improve their glycemic control and quality of life.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin therapy may eventually be required to maintain glycemic control in many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Premixed insulin analogues offer relatively physiologic and predictable time-action profiles and are available in more convenient delivery systems with finer needles than in the past. They also increase the convenience of administration with respect to mealtimes compared with premixed human insulin, and reduce the number of injections compared with basal-bolus therapy. This manuscript describes the development of premixed insulin analogues, reviews efficacy and safety data from randomized trials of premixed insulin analogues compared with human insulin 70/30 or basal insulins, and discusses their use for the management of type 2 diabetes. English-language randomized clinical trials comparing premixed insulin analogues with either premixed human insulin formulations or basal insulins for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, published through May 2005, were identified using PubMed. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were also included. Abstracts presented at the meetings of the American Diabetes Association, International Diabetes Federation, and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes in 2003 and 2004 were also reviewed. Premixed insulin analogues allow delivery of both basal and prandial insulin in 1 injection and are more convenient than premixed human insulin formulations. The rapid-acting component is absorbed and cleared more quickly, thereby allowing mealtime administration and providing better postprandial glycemic control. Although there is an increased risk of minor hypoglycemia, 3 comparative, randomized trials have shown that patients using premixed analogues twice daily are more likely to reach glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) goals compared with those using only insulin glargine once daily. Premixed insulin analogues are available in vials, pens, and dosers. Premixed insulin analogues have a more physiologic time-action profile, can be administered closer to mealtime, and produce greater reductions in the magnitude of postprandial glucose excursions than human insulin 70/30. Despite these advantages, no consistent differences in HbA(1c) reduction or the incidence of hypoglycemia versus human insulin 70/30 have been found in most short-term trials. Although there is an increased risk of minor hypoglycemia, patients using premixed insulin analogues twice daily are more likely to reach HbA(1c) goals than those using only insulin glargine once daily. Further studies are necessary to examine whether these advantages improve patient outcomes in clinical practice.
    Article · Sep 2005
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