Characteristics of Violent Bars and Bar Patrons
Research Institute on Addictions, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, 1021 Main Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA. Journal of studies on alcohol
12/2003; 64(6):765-72. DOI: 10.15288/jsa.2003.64.765
The present analysis is an attempt to examine the characteristics of bars in which violence occurs while accounting for the personalities of the clientele that frequent the bar. It is proposed that an explanation of why violence occurs at certain bars requires examining the characteristics of the bars, the personalities of the clientele, and how these two types of variables act together in order to give rise to aggressive behavior.
We conducted interviews with frequent bar patrons (n = 327), assessing participants on a number of individual differences related to aggression and drinking behavior as well as on characteristics of the usual bar that they attend. Bars were categorized into violent bars (n = 256) or nonviolent bars (n = 71) based on participant responses.
Participants' age, alcohol dependence and anger expression differentiated those who frequented violent bars from those who frequented nonviolent bars. The relationship of these individual differences to bar type was mediated by a number of characteristics of the bar itself, including noise, temperature, the presence of bouncers, the gender of the workers, the presence of billiards and illegal activities in the bar.
The results indicate that individuals having certain personality characteristics are attracted to bar environments that promote antinormative behaviors such as violence. However, it seems to be the characteristics of the bars that are the strongest predictors of violence.
Available from: Lucy Zinkiewicz
- "Although a patron's characteristics have been found to moderate the relationship between alcohol and aggression in and around licensed venues (Quigley et al., 2003; Graham et al., 2006; Graham and Homel, 2008), few studies have directly examined the influence of both gender and socio-economic status (SES) on alcohol-related aggression (ARA) in and around these premises. Of the research examining gender differences in drinking behaviour and aggression, findings show men are more likely to use direct forms of aggression, including physical and verbal assaults, while women engage in more indirect forms of aggression including spreading rumours and gossiping (Krienert and Vandiver, 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the role of gender and both area-level and individual socio-economic status (SES) as independent predictors of alcohol-related aggression (ARA) in and around licensed venues.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between gender, area-level SES and individual SES (operationalised as occupational category) and ARA in and around licensed venues. The sample comprised 697 men and 649 women aged 16-47, who completed a patron intercept survey as part of a larger study assessing trends in harm and stakeholders' views surrounding local community level interventions in dealing with alcohol-related problems in the night-time economy.
Binary logistic regression analyses showed that age, gender, occupational category, area-level SES and level of intoxication at time of interview were all significant predictors of involvement in ARA. Being male doubled the odds of involvement in ARA, while age was a protective factor. Blue collar workers had more than double the odds of ARA involvement of professionals, while those living in the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas were over twice as likely to report experiencing ARA compared to those living in the most advantaged areas. However, assessment of the predictive model by gender revealed that effects of age, occupational category and area-level SES were restricted to male participants, with greater intoxication no longer predictive.
ARA among patrons was significantly more likely to occur among men, those in blue collar occupations, and individuals living in low SES areas, suggesting both individual and area-level disadvantage may play a role in ARA.
© The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Available from: sciencedirect.com
- "If the elements upon which diversification takes place are associated with alcohol-related problems, the bar itself may then become geographically associated with alcohol-related problems as it reaches its targeted market (Gruenewald, 2007). For example, if a bar intended to diversify by adding dancing for entertainment or lowering drink prices, it is possible that bar would then attract clientele predisposed to violent behavior since low drink prices and dancing are associated with bars that are classified as violent (Quigley et al., 2003). Though the data in our study included type and class of bars, they did not indicate information about the social and physical context within an alcohol outlet aside from the kind of alcohol it is permitted to sell. "
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the spatio-temporal relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet locations and crime events in Buffalo, New York. Specifically, this research examined whether crime became clustered around on-premises alcohol outlet locations after those locations were licensed. Data from licensed alcohol outlets and violent crime events that occurred between 2005 and 2011 were analyzed using global and local bivariate space-time k-function analyses. The global bivariate space-time K-function analyses indicated that there was dispersion between bars and crime over space and time. Personal crimes showed both dispersion and clustering. Local analyses revealed clustering between alcohol outlets and crimes at discrete space-time intervals. Spatio-temporal analysis of the association between bars and crime gives an indication of the direction of the relationship between them. If this dynamic is better understood, it could be better regulated.
Available from: Peter Homel
- "Although the presence of alcohol and drugs is a key factor in many incidences of patron self-harm, violence, and antisocial behavior in or near licensed events and venues, it is also the case that various environmental factors have been identified as acerbating these problems. These factors include: low lighting; overcrowding; long queues; poorly maintained decor and seating; high noise levels; the presence of rubbish and waste in or around an event/venue; poor ventilation; long operating hours; patron/attendee access to water and food; and high temperatures (Allsop, Pascal, & Chikritzhs, 2005; Graham et al., 2006; Morgan & McAtamney, 2009; Quigley, Leonard, & Collins, 2003). To this mix of factors can be added: patron/attendee perceptions that aggression is tolerated by management; failure to dissipate groups immediately outside venues; high alcohol prices at events and venues that lead to attendee's " preloading " prior to entry; cheap alcohol promotions; lack of alcohol control by security staff and serving staff; and inadequate access to public transport (Barton & Husk, 2012; Homel & Clark, 1994; Hughes et al., 2011; Martin, Freeman, & Davey, 2013). "
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ABSTRACT: One of the major challenges of operating events and venues is that of managing attendee/patron alcohol and drug use. In the Australian context, a rising number of alcohol and drug-related incidents in and around these settings have resulted in a renewed focus on how these negative outcomes
can be more effectively controlled. In order to aid those charged with the task of addressing this matter—event and venue managers, police, security firms, alcohol and drug regulatory bodies, and governments at all levels—this article seeks to identify those variables with the
potential to impact this management issue. Further, it aims to provide the previously identified stakeholders with a deeper appreciation of the raft of practices that are currently in use, and potentially available to them, as they build responses to this challenge at the individual state,
precinct, venue, or event level. The research approach used involved an extensive literature review and a series of in-depth interviews with key stakeholders across three states—New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia.
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