Article

The Effectiveness of ESP (Electronic Stability Program) in Reducing Real Life Accidents

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Abstract

ESP (Electronic Stability Program) has recently been introduced onto the market in an effort to reduce the number and severity of loss-of-control automobile accidents. This reduction is expected to be particularly evident for accidents on roads with low friction (e.g., wet or icy conditions). This study aimed to evaluate the statistical effectiveness of ESP using data from accidents that occurred in Sweden during 2000 to 2002. To control for exposure, induced exposure methods were used, where ESP-sensitive to ESP-insensitive accidents and road conditions were matched in relation to cars equipped with and without ESP. Cars of similar, or in some cases identical, make and model were used to isolate the role of ESP. As predicted, the study showed a positive effect of ESP in circumstances where road surfaces have low friction. The overall effectiveness was 22.1 (+/-21) percent, while for accidents on wet roads, the effectiveness increased to 31.5 (+/-23.4) percent. On roads covered with ice and snow, the corresponding effectiveness was 38.2 (+/-26.1) percent. In addition, ESP was found to be effective for three different types of cars: small front-wheel drive; large front-wheel drive; and large rear-wheel drive.

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... In order to influence the total exposure (2), a range of countermeasures are possible both on road design and vehicle crashworthiness. Several studies have shown major reductions in vehicle crash involvements leading to occupant injuries, for cars fitted with ESC (Aga and Okada, 2003;Dang, 2004;Farmer, 2004;Lie et al., 2004;Bahouth, 2005;Ferguson, 2007) compared to the less effective antilock braking system (ABS) (Farmer, 2001). Countermeasures in road and roadside geometry can reduce casualty crash frequencies by more than 20% according to Corben (1997). ...
... During the last decade, new active vehicle safety systems like ESC have appeared which have had a greater effect on reducing crashes with injured occupants (Aga and Okada, 2003;Dang, 2004;Farmer, 2004;Lie et al., 2004;Bahouth, 2005;Ferguson, 2007) than previous systems like ABS (Kullgren et al., 1994;Farmer, 2001). ESC both avoids crashes and reduces impact speed during skidding. ...
... The estimation of crash severity from calculation programs Gabler et al., 2004) has larger errors compared with EDR measures (Kullgren, 1998). The estimation of change of velocity is mostly underestimated and can be as large as 10-20% (Dang, 2004;Farmer, 2004;Lie et al., 2004). Crash reconstruction programs such as CRASH3 are commonly used to estimate crash severity in collisions with roadside objects. ...
... Bilar med antisladdsystem (ESP) har enligt två svenska olycksstatistikstudier (Tingvall m.fl., 2003;Tingvall m.fl., 2005) visat sig kraftigt reducera risken sladdrelaterade olyckor på våt väg och vinterväglag. Eftersom ESP beroende på situationen stabiliserar fordonet eller förbättrar styrförmågan stödjer dessa resultat att stabilitet och styrbarhet är viktiga faktorer för god trafiksäkerhet. ...
... ESP minskar risken för sladd dramatiskt främst på underlag i friktionsområdet 0,5 till 0,2, det vill säga på våt väg med dålig textur och normal vintervägsfriktion (Tingvall m.fl., 2003;Tingvall m.fl., 2005). Under extrema förhållanden med friktion mellan 0,1 och 0,05 som kan fås med dubbfria däck eller dubbdäck med litet utstick på våt is (underkylt regn) bör ESP dock ha liten effekt eftersom dess funktion är friktionsberoende. ...
... Besides, AVs are expected to have more accurate control of vehicle motion, especially in safety-critical situations. Most of the current active safety systems assist human drivers and have already contributed to a significant reduction in crash rates [4], [5]. Given full control over vehicle motion, AVs are believed to further enhance road safety by preventing accidents due to loss of stability. ...
Preprint
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Motion planning is a fundamental component in automated vehicles. It influences the comfort and time efficiency of the ride. Despite a vast collection of studies working towards improving motion comfort in self-driving cars, little attention has been paid to the performance of human drivers as a baseline. In this paper, we present an experimental study conducted on a public road using an instrumented vehicle to investigate how human drivers balance comfort and time efficiency. The human driving data is compared with two optimization-based motion planners that we developed in the past. In situations when there is no difference in travel times, human drivers incurred an average of 23.5% more energy in the longitudinal and lateral acceleration signals than the motion planner that minimizes accelerations. In terms of frequency-weighted acceleration energy, an indicator correlated with the incidence of motion sickness, the average performance deficiency rises to 70.2%. Frequency-domain analysis reveals that human drivers exhibit more longitudinal oscillations in the frequency range of 0.2-1 Hz and more lateral oscillations in the frequency range of up to 0.2 Hz. This is reflected in time-domain data features such as less smooth speed profiles and higher velocities for long turns. The performance difference also partly results from several practical matters and additional factors considered by human drivers when planning and controlling vehicle motion. The driving data collected in this study provides a performance baseline for motion planning algorithms to compare with and can be further exploited to deepen the understanding of human drivers.
... Best performance as conditions worsens and decrease the road friction coefficient ( Chouinard and Lécuyer, 2011;Green, 2006;Lie et al., 2006;LIE et al., 2004;Thomas, 2006). ...
Article
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Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have introduced several benefits in the vehicular industry, and their proliferation presents potential opportunities to decrease road accidents. The reasons are mainly attributed to the enhanced perception of the driving environment and reduced human errors. However, as environmental and infrastructural conditions influence the performance of ADAS, the estimation of accident reductions varies across geographical regions. This study presents an interdisciplinary methodology that integrates the literature on advanced driving technologies and road safety to quantify the expected impact of ADAS on accident reduction across combinations of road types, lighting, and weather conditions. The paper investigates the safety effectiveness of ADAS and the distribution of frequency and severity of road accidents across 18 driving contexts and eight accident types. Using road safety reports from the United Kingdom (UK), it is found that a high concentration of accidents (77%) occurs within a small subset of contextual conditions (4 out of 18) and that the most severe accidents happen in dark conditions on rural roads or motorways. The results of the safety effectiveness analysis show that a full deployment of the six most common ADAS would reduce the road accident frequency in the UK by 23.8%, representing an annual decrease of 18,925 accidents. The results also show that the most frequent accident contexts, urban-clear-daylight and rural-clear-daylight, can be reduced by 29%, avoiding 7,020 and 3,472 accidents, respectively. Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) is the most impactful technology, reducing three out of the four most frequent accident categories – intersection (by 28%), rear-end (by 27.7%), and pedestrian accidents (by 28.4%). This study helps prioritise resources in ADAS research and development focusing on the most relevant contexts to reduce the frequency and severity of road accidents. Furthermore, the identified contextual accident hotspots can assist road safety stakeholders in risk mitigation programs.
... First, our study only focused on the representativeness assumption among not-at-fault drivers. However, depending on the study context, several previous studies utilized other driver groups as their induced exposures, such as drivers in the struck vehicles in rear-end crashes, drivers in single-vehicle crashes, and drivers in rear-end crashes unaffected by Electronic Stability Control (Lie et al., 2004;Newstead & D'Elia, 2010;Benedetti et al., 2017). Our study did not evaluate the assumption among those groups of drivers. ...
Article
Objective The quasi-induced exposure (QIE) method was developed to estimate relative crash risk exposure. A fundamental assumption often made in applying the QIE method is that not-at-fault drivers in clean two-vehicle crashes (i.e., one and only one driver is at-fault) represent the general exposure of the driving population to crash risk in the absence of the intervention being studied. Our study used direct field observation data to test the representativeness of the assumption for not-at-fault drivers obtained from the General Estimating System (GES) crash data, a national crash database in the United States. Methods Distributions of driver gender, age group, vehicle type, and time-of-crash among the not-at-fault drivers in clean two-vehicle crashes (D2) and the ones in two-or-more-vehicle crashes (i.e., all not-at-fault drivers) from the GES data were compared to the driving population estimated from the National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), a national representative field observation survey. Results The gender and vehicle-type distributions of D2 and all not-at-fault drivers were not statistically significantly different from the ones in the NOPUS data. Age-group distributions for both not-at-fault driving populations were marginally similar to the ones estimated from NOPUS. Conclusion By system-wide comparisons on gender, age group, vehicle type, and period, our study suggests that the not-at-fault drivers in crash databases with crashes ranging from no injury to fatal injury reflect the general driving population when the collision occurred. Future study should evaluate the representativeness assumption among other important factors, including roadway type, road geometry, and level of urbanization. Our study supports the credibility of applying the QIE method in traffic safety research using crash databases of all crashes with all severities.
... During automated photo and video recording, adverse events occur that are characterized by failures and malfunctions of ATEF, as well as erroneous actions, violations of governing documents, temporary disability of the CARAV staff, employees of organizations and other services. Indicators describing those events represent the initial information for the analysis, evaluation, and study as well as the development of activities and decision-making on traffic safety improvement (Tingvall et al. 2004, UNECE 2014. ...
Article
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The article addresses relevant issues of vehicle traffic management when using operational and technical monitoring systems in the field of traffic safety assurance. The authors provide a rationale for promising directions of traffic management system improvement using automated traffic enforcement facilities to record traffic violations. The operation of a system of technical means of monitoring is modeled. A method to evaluate the efficiency of traffic enforcement system management is proposed. It allows us to determine the implementation degree of management functions assigned to the monitoring system in the field of traffic safety assurance. A stochastic model is developed to evaluate the performance of departments that ensure traffic monitoring using automated traffic enforcement facilities. The results of the study conducted include the developed model as well as a method and algorithm for optimizing the structure of the system managing operational and technical means of vehicle traffic monitoring.
... To evaluate the efficiency of complexes for photo and video recording of administrative traffic violations in their interaction with the objects of the i th system, it is reasonable to use the following criterion (Hiramatsu 2006, Russian Federation Gosstandard 1997, SAE 2014: ( ) E + is characterized by an increase in the traffic safety level and the negative effect is characterized by a decrease in the traffic safety level and, consequently, an increase in the accident rate with all the consequences that come with it; C s the total system costs for the operation of the complex and its maintenance in a technically sound state, reduced to the form of an economic indicator; N en the set of system entropy types, neutralized by the automated traffic enforcement facilities (ATEF), i.e. a decrease in the accident rate, represented as an economic indicator (Tingvall et al. 2004, UNECE 2013. In such problems, entropy refers to the process of energy consumption, e.g. ...
Article
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The article addresses the issue of substantiating a methodological approach to evaluating the efficiency of automated information and telecommunication systems for vehicle traffic monitoring, which allows us to quantify the efficiency of their application. The feature of these systems is their service nature. The authors develop a method for the optimal application of technical means of monitoring in the field of traffic safety assurance during the operation of the “driver–vehicle–road” system and obtain a dependence to determine the financial costs of maintaining the proper functioning of the photo and video recording complex throughout its service life. They propose criteria for evaluating the efficiency of automated vehicle traffic monitoring systems, taking into account the stochastic nature of system-forming factors. Promising directions for the formation of control functions in the operation of vehicles based on the use of automated monitoring systems are justified. To evaluate the impact of the automated traffic enforcement system on traffic safety, it is necessary to conduct studies at two levels: at the first level, we shall give an absolute evaluation of the road accidents, at the second level, we shall analyze the influence of automated traffic enforcement systems on the number of road accidents by their location and types. The implementation of the “correlation recording system” allows assessing in practice the efficiency of use of various automated traffic enforcement facilities recording traffic violations, as well as the degree of their influence on the accident rates. The formulated scientific and technical task is solved with the use of methods and software tools implementing the systemic criterion.
... Although stability control is prioritised, the average driver generally drives below a lateral acceleration of 4 m/s 2 (on high friction road) [16] which represents a normal and non-safety-critical driving behaviour. It is only during certain critical manoeuvres that the electronic stability program (ESP) will be triggered [17,18]. During non-safety-critical driving manoeuvres, energy-efficient driving should play the dominant role as long as it does not cause potential stability issues. ...
Article
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An active energy-efficient direct yaw moment control (DYC) for in-wheel motor electric vehicles taking motor efficiency maps into consideration is proposed in this paper. The potential contribution of DYC to energy saving during quasi-steady-state cornering is analysed. The study in this paper has produced promising results which show that DYC can be used to reduce the power consumption while satisfying the same cornering demand. A controller structure that includes a driver model and an offline torque distribution law during continuous driving and cornering is developed. For comparison, the power consumption of stability DYC is also analysed. Simulations for double lane change manoeuvres are performed and driving conditions either with a constant velocity or with longitudinal acceleration are designed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller in different driving situations. Under constant velocity cornering, since the total torque demand is not high, two rear wheels are engaged and during cornering it is beneficial to distribute more torque to one wheel to improve energy efficiency. In the simulated driving manoeuvres, up to 10% energy can be saved compared to other control methods. During acceleration in cornering, since the total torque demand is high, it is energy-efficient to use all the four in-wheel motors during cornering.
... The introduction of effective safety technologies has led to dramatic improvements in passenger car safety (e.g. Lie et al. 2004, D'Elia et al. 2013. Given this, the development and deployment at large of specific safety systems for PTWs may represent in the future a key contribution to PTW safety. ...
Article
Objective: Motorcycles and mopeds, often referred to as powered 2-wheelers (PTWs), play an important role in personal mobility worldwide. Despite their advantages, including low cost, space occupancy, and fuel efficiency, the risk of sustaining serious or fatal injuries is higher than that for occupants of passenger cars. The development of safety systems specific for PTWs represents a potential way to reduce casualties among riders. With the proliferation of new active and passive safety technologies, the question as to which might offer the most value is important. In this context, a prioritization process was applied to a set of PTW active safety systems to evaluate their applicability to crash scenarios alone and in combination. The systems included in the study were antilock braking (ABS), autonomous emergency braking (AEB), collision warning, curve warning, and curve assist. Methods: With the functional performance of the 5 safety systems established, the relevance of each system to specific crash configurations and vehicle movements defined by a standardized accident classification system used in Victoria, Australia, was rated by 2 independent reviewers, with a third reviewer acting as a moderator where disagreements occurred. Ratings ranged from 1 (definitely not applicable) to 4 (definitely applicable). Using population-based crash data, the number and percentage of crashes that each safety system could potentially influence, or be relevant for, was defined. Applying accepted injury costs permitted the derivation of the societal economic cost of PTW crashes and the potential reductions associated with each safety system given a theoretical crash avoidance effectiveness of 100%. Results: In the 12-year period 2000–2011, 23,955 PTW riders and 1292 pillion passengers were reported to have been involved in a road crash, with over 500 killed and more than 10,000 seriously injured; only 3.5% of riders/pillion passengers were uninjured. The total economic cost associated with these injured riders and pillion passengers was estimated to be AU$11.1 billion (US$7.70 billion; €6.67 billion). The 5 safety systems, as single solutions or in combination, were relevant to 57% of all crashes and to 74% of riders killed. Antilock braking was found to be relevant to the highest number of crashes, with incremental increases in coverage when combined with other safety systems. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that ABS, alone and in combination with other safety systems, has the potential to mitigate or possibly prevent a high percentage of PTW crashes in the considered setting. Other safety systems can influence different crash scenarios and are also recommended. Given the high cost of motorcycle crashes and the increasing number of PTW safety technologies, the proposed approach can be used to inform the process of selection of the most suitable interventions to improve PTW safety.
... This approach uses highly detailed data from in-depth databases and/or also data from national accident statistics (more likely less detailed compared to in-depth data) and searches for effects that the market introduction of specific systems had. Retrospective analysis for example was used to assess the safety effect of ESP (Electronic Stability Program) by Langwieder et al. [1], Sferco et al. [2], Lie et al. [3] or Aga and Okada [4]. The disadvantage in regard of effectiveness assessment of active systems is that the safety effects can be seen only when a sufficient number of datasets is available to perform this type of investigation, which might require years of data collection after market introduction. ...
Conference Paper
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Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) such as autonomous emergency braking systems (AEB) are an increasingly common focus for newly introduced car models. Before such systems can be released to the market, they have to be tested thoroughly to ensure that they work as intended. In general, active safety functions are influenced by a high number of factors, such as traffic flow, sight obstructions, lighting conditions and others. It is very difficult to physically test these factors in a reproducible way. Simulations offer the possibility to consider such a variety of influences even in complex situations. The objective of this study is to define and demonstrate a new approach that allows prospective effectiveness assessment of ADAS systems. The novelty of this method is the combination of the traffic flow simulation software PTV VISSIM with the crash-simulation software PC-Crash. This approach is unique as VISSIM generates distinct and realistic traffic scenarios, instead of relying on in-depth databases as scenario sources. Furthermore, it considers not only two conflicting vehicles, but also the environmental traffic, which potentially plays a major role for the used sensors in terms of sight obstructions and thus visibility of other vehicles. First, a real traffic site is chosen as subject of investigation, limiting the scope of the traffic flow simulation. In this study, an intersection and its connecting roads in the city of Graz (Austria) were chosen, simulating one hour of morning peak traffic in VISSIM. The resulting vehicle trajectories are then analyzed based on safety surrogate measures such as TTC (time to collision) or PET (post encroachment time) by SSAM (Safety Surrogate Assessment Model). Safety surrogate measures correlate with criticality of traffic situations, leading to a certain number of traffic conflicts. In this method, the conflicts are re-simulated in crash-simulation using PC-Crash and the automation platform X-RATE (Extended Effectiveness Rating of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) for simulation of active safety systems. For these active systems, specifications such as sensor range, sensor opening angle and system reaction time are varied automatically. For demonstration purposes, a simple geometrical sensor model and an autonomous emergency brake system were used which brakes when a specific TTC-threshold is reached. By performing a variation for all detected conflicts, it becomes possible to determine the minimum system specifications required to achieve a specific safety benefit at this traffic site, e.g. avoidance of accidents or mitigation of the consequences in case of collisions. In this study, a parameter variation with subsequent simulation in X-RATE was conducted for a single conflict situation. Results showed which system configurations can avoid the accident, mitigate the consequences or do not provide any safety benefit for the selected conflict. Moreover, it was shown that environmental vehicles that are not directly involved in a conflict can play a crucial role for the visibility of potential collision partners. They can be the deciding factor whether accidents can be avoided or not, even when ideal sensor properties are assumed. In a further step and as an outlook, all the conflicts during the simulation timeframe have to be resimulated in the crash-simulation with parameter variations in order to achieve a more holistic assessment of the system capabilities.
... ESC systems are designed to alleviate crashes in which the root cause is loss of control (LOC). Statistical studies have shown that ESC can reduce accidents (3)(4)(5)(6)(7); however, no empirical research on ESC effectiveness has been available until recently, when a first-of-its-kind ESC assessment was performed at NADS (8). ...
Article
The mission of the National Advanced Driving Simulator is to conduct highway safety research that will reduce annual loss of life on U.S. roadways. The simulator is well suited in its ability to replicate vehicle dynamics—and associated motion and visual cues—realistically to conduct complex experiments. It is unique in its ability to study vehicle control and loss-of-control situations in a safe and controlled environment. These capabilities make it an appropriate device to study the effectiveness of electronic stability control (ESC) systems, in which proper handling during loss of vehicle control is critical to assess system efficacy. The focus of the study is on challenges associated with creating repeatable yet unexpected scenario events in which loss of control is imminent for most drivers. Scenario events designed for a large-scale experiment to study ESC systems are detailed, data derived from these scenarios are discussed, and findings of scenario effectiveness are presented. A discussion of what constitutes loss of control and how to measure its effect effectively is provided.
... ESC, on the same note, offers many benefits to users though it depends on the driver's attitude to optimize its use during crashes (Sagberg, 1997). Currently, the relationship between ESC and behavioural adaptation has not been extensively researched (Erke, 2008;Lie et al. 2004Lie et al. & 2006). Often, as stated earlier, drivers tend to take more risks as they assumed ESC can provide better vehicle stability performance. ...
Article
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Malaysia has been taking serious efforts in reducing the number of crash‐related deaths on the road. The framework for the Malaysia‘s Road Safety Plan 2014‐2020 was formulated based on the five Strategic Pillars from United Nation’s Decade of Action (DOA). Among the initiatives in the DOA is the usage of crash technologies with proven effectiveness such as Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Anti‐Lock Braking System (ABS). A study is carried out to better understand Malaysian drivers’ perception and knowledge of ABS and ESC system found in their vehicle. The study used a survey method conducted in selected districts in KlangValley. For each district several shopping malls were randomly selected. A total 757 respondents participated in this study. Result shows that about 70% of the respondents could easily associate “ABS” with “Anti‐lock Braking System”. However only 18% are aware on the correct method to activate ABS. When they were asked on experienced of ABS activation during emergency, they claimed that panic caused them to be unable to control the vehicle even when ABS was activated. With regard on ESC assessment, only 16% out of 757 respondentsequipped with ESC in their vehicles where about 60% of them were informed on the ESC availability by the dealers. In addition, they believed that ESC give very large benefit while driving in wet conditions and very effective in lowering risk of skidding while driving. The findings suggested that the majority of respondents were more familiar with ABS compared to ESC system. A few recommendationsare highlighted in the study in order to increase Malaysian knowledge on these technologies.
... In practical terms, for the first 2 SFs in the ranking, equivalent safety systems in cars are currently available, namely, antilock braking system + electronic stability program (ABS+ESP) and autonomous emergency braking (AEB). The effectiveness of ABS+ESP and AEB for passenger cars was demonstrated in real cases (Burton et al. 2004;Fildes et al. 2015;Lie et al. 2004). However, the solutions for motorcycles still need to be clearly defined, and the KBMS method can contribute to this end. ...
Article
Objective: Motorcycle riders are involved in significantly more crashes per kilometer driven than passenger car drivers. Nonetheless, the development and implementation of motorcycle safety systems lags far behind that of passenger cars. This research addresses the identification of the most effective motorcycle safety solutions in the context of different countries. Methods: A Knowledge-Based system of Motorcycle Safety (KBMS) was developed to assess the potential for various safety solutions to mitigate or avoid motorcycle crashes. First, a set of 26 common crash scenarios was identified from the analysis of multiple crash databases. Second, the relative effectiveness of 10 safety solutions was assessed for the 26 crash scenarios by a panel of experts. Third, relevant information about crashes was used to weigh the importance of each crash scenario in the region studied. The KBMS method was applied with an Italian database, totalizing more than one million motorcycle crashes in the period 2000-2012. Results: When applied to the Italian context, the KBMS suggested that automatic systems designed to compensate for riders' or drivers' errors of commission or omission are the potentially most effective safety solution. The KBMS method showed an effective way to compare the potential of various safety solutions, through a scored list with the expected effectiveness of each safety solution for the region to which the crash data belong. A comparison of our results with a previous study that attempted a systematic prioritization of safety systems for motorcycles (PISa project) showed an encouraging agreement. Conclusions: Current results revealed that automatic systems have the greatest potential to improve motorcycle safety. Accumulating and encoding expertise in crash analysis from a range of disciplines into a scalable and re-usable analytical tool, as proposed with the use of KBMS, has the potential to guide research and development of effective safety systems. As the expert assessment of the crash scenarios is decoupled from the regional crash database, the expert assessment may be re-utilized, thereby allowing rapid re-analysis when new crash data becomes available. In addition, the KBMS methodology has potential application to injury forecasting, driver/rider training strategies, and redesign of existing road infrastructure.
... Furthermore, many vehicle safety systems have been aiming at avoiding or mitigating crashes. For instance, several studies have shown that Electronic Stability Control (ESC) reduces injury and fatality crash involvement risk by 20%-35% [2][3][4][5][6][7]. In 2012, almost 100% of new cars in Sweden were equipped with ESC [8]. ...
Article
Low-speed Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is a safety system designed to support passenger car drivers to avoid or mitigate the consequences of rear-end crashes, mostly in urban road environments. This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of this technology in reducing real-life crashes, based on Swedish police-reported injury crashes 2010-2014. Cars with standard AEB were compared with non-AEB cars from the same manufacturer as well as from others. Both groups were chosen to be of similar types and weights. The statistical analysis used odds ratio calculations with an induced-exposure approach. In this case, striking rear-end crashes were considered sensitive to AEB. The non-sensitive crash types used in the analysis were struck rear-end crashes as well as all crossing crashes. Only two-car collisions were included. The results showed that the reduction of striking rear-end crashes in 50 km/h speed areas ranged between 54% and 57%. The reduction of all striking rear-end crashes, regardless of speed area, ranged between 35% and 41%. These findings were in line with previous research, although of greater magnitude as the striking and the struck car could be identified and separated. However, it should be noted that the present study calculated the overall benefits of AEB, in terms of both crash avoidance and injury mitigation.
... There have been many studies highlighting the benefits of ESC and the majority have shown a reduction in single vehicle crash rates of around 30-50% [1]- [15]. Even greater effectiveness is reported for specific types of crashes, especially where a loss of control might otherwise have occurred. ...
Conference Paper
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Twenty crash scenarios were developed based on actual rural road crashes obtained from an in-depth crash database. With the assistance of Robert Bosch (Australia) Pty. Ltd., the scenarios were simulated using vehicle models with and without Electronic Stability Control (ESC) fitted. In two of the scenarios, no simulation was necessary as the driver made no attempt to avoid a collision. In six scenarios, the attempt at simulation was unsuccessful. For the twelve remaining simulations that were successful, ESC was found to prevent a collision in ten cases and reduce the severity of a collision in the other two. Output plots from the simulations showing the timing and level of interventions enabled an analysis of how ESC was able to prevent or lower the severity of a collision.
... Single vehicle 35% Tingvall [5] Measured effectiveness ...
Article
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This report has evaluated the reduction in crash involvement of cars equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems. The evaluation has been conducted for all crashes as well as for a variety of road and loss of control conditions. In addition, a study of ESC benefits in terms of crash costs and accidents prevented has been undertaken. The results show that ESC effectiveness is 3% in crashes of all severity. Serious crashes are 19% lower compared to non-ESC cars and fatalities 15% lower. The potential annual savings in accident costs for a 100% take up of ESC amounts to 588 million pounds by preventing some 5212 crashes. Overall, ESC has shown worthwhile reductions in both accident frequency and cost across a wide variety of crash situations.
... ESC is an efficient equipment to avoid accident. A lot of studies have been published and show a statistically significant reduction of accident for cars equipped with ESC [1] [2] [3] [4]. The later is very interesting as it distinguishes the different accident scenarios. ...
Article
ESC efficiency to reduce accident is now well proven. To obtain this accident reduction tests employed for the tuning of a car equipped with an ESC must be related to real world accident cases. With accident statistics obtained in France, two main categories of accidents are defined: loss of control in a curve and accidents in a straight line or at an intersection. For each of these categories, thanks to detailed analyses of real accidents, we can define tests scenarios that are related to real world. Several examples are given. To measure the performance of a car equipped with an ESC during these tests, stability criteria are defined. In addition criteria to assess the quality of ESC intervention are defined. These tests pointed some limitations of ESCs. Some improvements of ESCs algorithms were specified to overcome these problems. Examples are given. During this ESC tuning, it is decided if a rollover prevention module is necessary or not. This decision process, which includes both real tests and HIL (Hardware In the Loop) tests is described. One of the conditions that may lead to a rollover is a contact between the rim and the ground. This process also enables us to define test conditions to check there is no risk of rim contact on the ground. A test method of a tyre on a bench to check these conditions are satisfied is described. It is also shown that the risk to have a contact of the rim on the ground is not significantly modified during the brake activation by the ESC.
... The Swedish Road Administration (Vägverket) recommends that all new cars should be equipped with ESC, and urge all car manufacturers, importers and resellers to stop selling cars without ESC (Vägverket, 2004). The recommendation is based on several studies, which have shown the effectiveness of ESC in reducing traffic accidents (Aga & Okada, 2003;Farmer, 2004;Langwieder et al., 2003;Page & Curry, 2004;Papeliset al., 2004;Sferco et al., 2001;Tingvall et al., 2004;Unselt et al., 2004). ESC can reduce the total number of traffic accidents by 17%, and the number of accidents with serious/fatal injuries by 22% (Vägverket, 2005;Lie et al., 2006). ...
... Unfortunately, the attempts to confirm this prognosis in retrospective accident analyses were not successful. Only many years later it was possible to create a successful retrospective accident analysis -for a different system, the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) / Electronic Stability Control (ESC) [2,3,4,5,6]. ...
Article
Starting around 1980 with the introduction of ABS, followed in 1995 with the presentation of ESP/ESC, and recently with the development of radar and camera based driver assistance systems, the automotive industry has introduced a great number of electronic systems with the specific goal of enhancing the active safety of vehicles. The paper discusses evaluation methods for the effectiveness of modern Active Safety systems with respect to: Analyses of accident statistics In-depth studies on real world accidents Case by case evaluations of real world accidents and/or field studies Performance tests and measurements on test tracks The paper gives an overview of the latest methods with their benefits and limitations as seen by an OEM.
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Safety ratings for cars, published by New Car Assessment Programmes (NCAPs) around the world, have mobilized consumers and enabled them to make a more intelligent, better-informed buying decision based on a car’s crash test performance. Consumer ratings involve comprehensive, objective, and realistic crash testing of cars, and the application of best-practice, consumer-oriented criteria and thresholds to promote safety enhancements beyond the legal requirements. Over time, the New Car Assessment Programmes have tailored their crash tests to focus on real-world priorities in the protection of car occupants and vulnerable road users. They have also successfully incorporated the assessment of new crash avoidance technologies, such as autonomous braking systems, in the ratings. All of this has made NCAP a driving force behind many improvements in the safety of vehicles throughout the world and a key instrument in reaching vision zero.
Article
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The role of powered two-wheeler (PTW) transport from the perspective of a more sustainable mobility system is undermined by the associated high injury risk due to crashes. Motorcycle-based active safety systems promise to avoid or mitigate many of these crashes suffered by PTW riders. Despite this, most systems are still only in the prototype phase, and understanding which systems have the greatest chance of reducing crashes is an important step in prioritizing their development. Earlier studies have examined the applicability of these systems to individual crash configurations, e.g., rear-end vs. intersection crashes. However, there may be large regional differences in the distribution of PTW crash configurations, motorcycle types, and road systems, and hence in the priority for the development of systems. The study objective is to compare the applicability of five active safety systems for PTWs in Australia, Italy, and the US using real-world crash data from each region. The analysis found stark differences in the expected applicability of the systems across the three regions. ABS generally resulted in the most applicable system, with estimated applicability in 45–60% of all crashes. In contrast, in 20–30% of the crashes in each country, none of the safety systems analyzed were found to be applicable. This has important implications for manufacturers and researchers, but also for regulators, which may demand country-specific minimum performance requirements for PTW active safety countermeasures.
Article
Objective: Knowledge regarding sickness absence (SA) and disability pension (DP) following a road traffic injury, is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate SA and DP among injured car occupants before and after a crash, accounting for permanent medical impairment (PMI). Further, to explore associations between injured body region, car model year of introduction (MYI), and European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) safety rating and number of SA/DP days in year two and four following the crash date. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study including 63,358 individuals injured when aged 17-62, in crashes occurring 2001-2013 and involving a car insured by the Folksam Insurance Group. Mean numbers of SA/DP net days per year were calculated, in total and by injury diagnosis category, for all, for those with SA or DP with the same diagnosis as the initial injury, and for those with and those without injuries resulting in PMI. Logistic regressions were performed to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for having 90-180 or ≥181 combined SA/DP days, respectively, among those with injury diagnoses, in year two and four after the crash. Associations with injured body region, car model introduction year, and Euro NCAP star ratings, was investigated, with adjustments made for sociodemographics. Results: The mean number of SA/DP days/year was higher in the years following the crash (56-50 days) compared to the year prior (41). In year one and two the increase in days was mainly with SA due to injury diagnoses and musculoskeletal diagnoses, and in year three and four, with DP due to injury diagnoses, musculoskeletal diagnoses, and mental diagnoses, respectively. Individuals whose injuries resulted in PMI had more future SA/DP days compared to those without PMI. Individuals with injuries to the torso/back and with multiple injuries were more likely to have > 180 SA/DP days both year two (2.9 and 2.2 times, respectively) and year four (2.0 and 1.6 times), compared to individuals with head injuries. Injured occupants in Euro NCAP 2-3-star rated cars as well as in untested cars, were more likely to have > 180 days in year four (1.4 and 2.0 times, respectively), compared to 4-5 stars. Conclusion: Higher levels of SA/DP remained throughout the four years following the crash, with substantial differences between those with PMI and those with no PMI. Low overall car safety level, injuries to the torso/back, and multiple injuries were associated with high SA/DP.
Article
Vehicle lateral acceleration is a critical state and index for vehicle safety and ride comfort. To limit it in high speed cornering situation, a vehicle speed preview controller is proposed with the information of future road curvature, just as a human driver behavior. The future road curvature can be obtained from high definition map in intelligent vehicle control, and to implement it, model predictive control method (MPC) is implemented taking advantage of its preview nature. In this preview speed control framework, a novel kinematics model with vehicle location, speed and track curvature is established for vehicle states prediction. The control performance index of MPC is constructed with vehicle road following index and lateral acceleration index with the aiming of promoting safety and ride comfort. The controller is evaluated during cornering with different road trajectory, initial speed, preview time and road adhesion coefficient in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform. It is testified that vehicle slows down before cornering as human driver does to decrease lateral acceleration and steering angle with the benefit of promoting comfort and safety.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract: The project of an intelligent parking system can be used in city parking using GIS technologies. An electronic map of the project of an intelligent parking system based on GIS technologies will be created, and a mobile application will be created for this. The owner of the vehicle can get information about where the parking is located and how much space is available or occupied through the mobile application. Through the mobile application you can reserve a parking space and make a payment.
Article
This study proposes a double linear model predictive control (DLMPC) structure to improve the tyre force utilization of active front steering (AFS) vehicle at the handing limits. The DLMPC structure consists of a linear model predictive control (LMPC) and a linear time-varying model predictive control (LTV-MPC). During normal driving conditions, the AFS adopts LMPC to control the vehicle. When vehicle running at the handing limits, the tyre force is near saturation, LTV-MPC is activated to prevent tyre force from entering unstable region. The proposed DLMPC controller can reflect the nonlinear dynamic characteristic of tyres by the expression design of tyre force. Double lane change and sine with dwell maneuver tests are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the DLMPC controller. Results corroborate that the proposed DLMPC controller can fully exploit the potential of AFS and maintain the yaw stability of the vehicle at the handling limits.
Article
The connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies have made great progresses. It has been commonly accepted that CV or AV technologies would reduce human errors in driving and benefit traffic safety. However, the answer of how many crashes can be prevented because of CV or AV technologies has not reached a consistent conclusion. In order to quantitatively answer this question, this study used meta-analysis to evaluate the safety effectiveness of nine common and important CV or AV technologies, and tested the safety effectiveness of these technologies for six countries. First, 73 studies about the safety impact of CV or AV technologies were filtered out from 826 CAV-related papers or reports. Second, the safety impacts of these technologies with regard to assistant types and triggering times have been compared. It shows AV technologies can play a more significant role than CV technologies, and the technologies with closer triggering time to collision time have greater safety effectiveness. Third, in the meta-analysis, the random effect model was used to evaluate the safety effectiveness, and the funnel plots and trim-and-fill method were used to evaluate and adjust publication bias, so as to objectively evaluate the safety effectiveness of each technology. Then, according to the crash data of six countries, the comprehensive safety effectiveness and compilation of safety effectiveness of the above technologies were calculated. The results show that if all of technologies were implemented in the six countries, the average number of crashes could be reduced by 3.40 million, among which the India would reduce the most (54.24%). Additionally, different countries should develop different development strategies, e.g., USA should prioritize the development of the lane change warning and intersection warning, the UK should prioritize applications related to intersection warning and rear-end warning. Overall, this study provides comprehensive and quantitative understating of the safety effectiveness of CA or AV technologies and would contribute to government, vehicle companies, and agencies in deciding the development priority of CA or AV technologies.
Article
A hierarchical controller is designed to enhance the lateral stability of electric vehicles (EVs) with as low dissipation energy as possible in this paper. In particular, a reference dynamic model based on the estimated tire cornering stiffness is established for different driving conditions, the lateral stability control can be transformed into tracking the desired sideslip angle and yaw rate by the reference dynamic model. At the upper-level, the controller is consisted of an integral terminal sliding mode (ITSM) controller and a speed tracking controller. The ITSM controller considering parameter uncertainties is proposed to quickly achieve the lateral stability, the speed tracking is used to stabilize the longitudinal dynamics. At the lower-level, in order to reduce the computational burden of the tire energy consumption, a penalty function with the longitudinal slip ratio is introduced to automatically modulate the weight factor of each wheel torque. Then, an optimal torque control allocation (CA) strategy utilizes the designed penalty function to allocate the control command from the upper-level controller. Simulation results show that the designed controller can guarantee the lateral stability under different driving conditions. Moreover, compared to other CA methods, the tire dissipation energy can be effectively decreased by the proposed CA based on the longitudinal slip ratio.
Article
FlexRay offers high-speed reliable transmission in the vehicle domain. Thus, it is one of the most popular in-vehicle communication protocols for the applications that are safety-critical or applications with very low transmission time requirement. Due to the real-time constraint, the worst case end-to-end delay (EED) for such applications transmitting over a shared bus must be known. This paper addresses the problem of computation of EED for a given set of tasks with precedence constraint and corresponding messages, which are scheduled with slot multiplexing for event-triggered communication over the dynamic segment of FlexRay. First, computing precise delay has been shown to be an intractable problem. Subsequently, motivated by the intractability, an efficient estimation technique has been proposed to compute approximate EED. Unlike the common practice of considering the network in isolation, we present a comprehensive timing analysis, which considers the effects of task execution as well. Moreover, EED is allowed to be greater than interactivation time of task graph. The extensive simulation has been performed on the test cases generated with uniform as well as normal distribution.
Thesis
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This work contributes to the safety of automated road vehicles for public traffic. The first part covers surrounding conditions for automated vehicles and important terms are defined. Especially automation levels for automated vehicles are focused. The state of research for vehicle automation closes this part. The second part considers the development process according to the ISO 26262 standard and its applicability to automated vehicles. The development steps to create an Item Definition for a fully automated vehicle on demand as an example of automated driving are applied. A complete Item Definition covering all scenarios is not feasible in a single dissertation. Thus, part two uses selected pathological scenarios to deviate requirements. Additionally, skill graphs to model vehicle guidance systems are integrated into the concept phase. Theses graphs allow a modeling of systems adapted from the activities performed by humans while driving. In the third part a functional safety concept is developed. This should enable the operation of automated vehicles in public traffic. As a first step, a hazard identification and risk assessment for the pathological scenarios of the fully automated vehicle on demand is performed. This results in safety goals, which need to be fulfilled by the resulting system. The functional safety concept implements the safety goals by introducing a self-perception and a self-representation for automated vehicles. The self-representation is achieved with a transfer of the skill graph to an ability graph. In the ability gaph, aggregated performance metrics are calculated, which create a representation of the current performance capabilities of the automated vehicle in respect to the current driving situation. The resulting self-representation can then be used as an input to the driving decisions. The preservation of a safe operating state is reached by functional degradation. With self-healing, the performance capabilities can be improved.
Chapter
This chapter introduces concepts and trends related to the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), which aid human drivers in collision avoidance. Some industrial developments and major functional blocks of ADAS are also introduced. We have focused on the camera vision-based systems, which are very popular mainly because of their low development costs and very diverse potential applications. The system-on-chip (SoC) architecture and components of automobile vision systems are also presented.
Conference Paper
This paper proposed a novel nonlinear control approach to improve vehicle yaw stability and trajectory tracking ability after a tire blow-out. By using the triple-step nonlinear method, the controller design procedure is presented for a class of non-affine systems where the control inputs take their actions through a nonlinear and implicit way. Simulation results are obtained in a commercial software veDYNA. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed approach.
Conference Paper
For further enhancing vehicle handling stability and improving the DYC's deficiency of causing undesired longitudinal decelerations, an integrated control of the active front steering and direct yaw moment is proposed. A formulation of the bicycle model which considers the nonlinear tire characteristics is adopted. Considering several security constraints, the model predictive control method is used to design the integrated controller. Finally, some simulations are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the controller. The simulation results show that the proposed integrated control is able to reduce the vehicle longitudinal velocity fluctuations and enhance the yaw stability.
Article
This study investigates the limited-slip and steering characteristics of a dual continuously variable transmission system. The dual continuously variable transmission is a unique final drive system composed of two continuously variable transmissions, with one continuously variable transmission connected to each rear wheel. In this study, a dynamic model of the dual continuously variable transmission system is derived, and models of the conventional final drive systems, i.e. the solid axle and the open differential, are used as benchmarks. In the simulations, the dual continuously variable transmission model, the solid axle model and the open differential model are applied to a vehicle dynamic model for split-μ road tests and a series of steering tests. According to the results of the split-μ road tests, the limited-slip function of a dual continuously variable transmission system is verified. The results of the steering tests show that different torque distributions for the inside wheels and the outside wheels while cornering can be controlled with different gain values of the continuously variable transmissions; for this reason, the application of the dual continuously variable transmission system as a torque-vectoring device is proposed, and a basic setting principle is presented. The results of this study establish a fundamental knowledge for developing the dual continuously variable transmission as an advanced final system for improving the vehicle dynamics.
Article
In the last years there has been a decline in accident figures in Germany especially on rural roads. The number of fatalities on rural roads decreased from 4.767 in the year 2000 to about 3.230 in 2005. This positive development is mainly based on improved primary and secondary vehicle safety. However, the impact of automotive engineering on accidents of passenger cars on rural roads has not been quantified yet. For that purpose we examined by means of the national accident statistics in how far modern safety systems are responsible for the reduction of accidents and accident severity. First suitable safety systems were selected like brake assist, improved lighting or airbags which could have had a positive influence on certain accident configurations. In addition, the development of the equipment rates of the systems were determined. In a second step we selected subsets of all accidents on which the safety systems from a technical point of view should definitely have an influence. Accidents which could serve as control group were selected as well. To assess the effect of vehicle-related safety measures on the accident development the vehicle fleet was split for each year considered in this study into younger cars (1 or 2 years old) and older cars (5 to 14 years old) since the majority of the safety systems considered is fitted into newer vehicles. At the same time side effects depending on the age of the vehicle could be excluded. We thus examined if accident figures for younger vehicles which should be equipped with modern safety features were lower or were decreasing faster in the selected accident situations in comparison with both the control group and older vehicles. In detail the following assumptions were investigated: Vehicle stability control should have a positive influence on loss of control accidents. Brake assisting systems and anti-lock braking systems should mitigate rear-end accidents or accidents in which obstacles on the road were hit. Gas discharge lighting should have a positive effect on accidents during nighttime including pedestrians or obstacles on the road. Measures of secondary vehicle safety like airbags or improved vehicle structures taken due to consumer protection crash testing or new regulations with regard to frontal and side impact should have a mitigating effect especially in accidents with oncoming traffic. As a result of the study it could be verified by the figures of the German national accident statistics that there are essential effects of some primary vehicle safety systems on the number of accidents on rural roads. For secondary vehicle safety we could show significant reductions in accident severity. However, the study also demonstrated in which cases other means than national accident statistics are needed to prove safety gains due to automotive engineering.
Article
This paper describes our verification work for multi-axes sensing MEMS accelerometers of comb shaped structure for electronic stability control (ESC) system. The results of basic, environmental performance test and durability test using simulation, it proved that comb structure has same performance and durability with cantilever structure. And we can also find there is no difference between single axis and multi-axes sensing accelerometer's performance. The multi-axes sensing MEMS accelerometers of comb structure can reduce costs and increase the space efficiency of the advanced ESC system
Article
Fully considereing the operating principle and pattern of ESP in real vehicles, used MATLAB/xPC real-time platform and CAN communication network to transmit all the signals needed by the ECU in the same way with real vehicles. Using CAN communication to monitor the working status of the ECU, the real vehicles were fully simulated and a closed loop system with driver-vehicle-environment was established. Compared with Signals of real vehicles, the test bench proved to have a high precision of simulation. Finally, the authors used the test bench to verify the ECU designed by themselves, the experiment and simulation indicates that the controller is qualified with satisfactory control effect.
Article
This paper describes our development work for acceleration sensing modules for electronic stability program (ESP) applications. The accelerometer is fabricated using the unique sacrificial/bulk micromachining (SBM) process by us. The sensing modules are designed to measure low level accelerations accurately and be stable in an automotive environment. This paper describes the accelerometer design and fabrication, electronic circuits and PCB design, module assembly, and performances of the developed sensing module. The developed sensing module offers analog voltage output with ±1.5g dynamic range, 0.05% nonlinearity, >50Hz bandwidth and 1295mV/g scale factor. The module includes a CAN2.0A interface and yields good experimental performance when implemented on a CAN test server.
Article
An 8-DoF vehicle dynamics model was established and a fuzzy PI controller and a control strategy of a vehicle stability control system were developed. A hardware-in-loop simulator was built based on Matlab/Simulink platform, and the hardware-in-loop simulations were performed for the cases of the vehicle steering brake and double-lane steering. The results show that the fuzzy PI controller and the control strategy suppress the vehicle oversteering or understeering by the effective control of the brake force and the vehicle control stability is improved significantly.
Article
Objective: A driver's instinctive response of the lower extremity in braking movement consists of two parts, including reaction time and braking reaction behaviour. It is critical to consider these two components when conducting studies concerning driver's brake movement intention and injury analysis. The purposes of this study were to investigate the driver reaction time to an oncoming collision and muscle activation of lower extremity muscles at the collision moment. The ultimate goal is to provide data that aid in both the optimization of intervention time of an active safety system and the improvement of precise protection performance of a passive safety system. Method: A simulated collision scene was constructed in a driving simulator, and 40 young volunteers (20 male and 20 female) were recruited for tests. Vehicle control parameters and electromyography characteristics of eight muscles of the lower extremity were recorded. The driver reaction time was divided into pre-motor time (PMT) and muscle activation time (MAT). Muscle activation level (ACOL) at the collision moment was calculated and analysed. Results: PMT was shortest for the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (243∼317 ms for male and 278∼438 ms for female). Average MAT of the TA ranged from 28-55 ms. ACOL was large (5∼31% for male and 5∼23% for female) at 50 km/h, but small (<12%) at 100 km/h. ACOL of the gluteus maximus was smallest (<3%) in the 25 and 100 km/h tests. ACOL of RF of men was significantly smaller than that of women at different speeds. Conclusions: Ankle dorsiflexion is firstly activated at the beginning of the emergency brake motion. Males showed stronger reaction ability than females, as suggested by male's shorter PMT. The detection of driver's brake intention is upwards of 55 ms sooner after introducing the electromyography. Muscle activation of the lower extremity is an important factor for 50 km/h collision injury analysis. For higher speed collisions, this might not be a major factor. The activations of certain muscles may be ignored for crash injury analysis at certain speeds, such as gluteus maximus at 25 or 100 km/h. Furthermore, the activation of certain muscles should be differentiated between males and females during injury analysis.
Thesis
Full-text available
This research relates to cooperatives activities between car drivers and driving assistances. The theoretical framework deals with cognitive processes implied in car driving. It also proposes a classification of various potential types of lateral control assistance devices according to their influence on human-machine cooperation. Three experimental studies are presented. The first two assessed the influence of lane departure warning systems on driving. Results point out that giving a subsymbolic motor cue on the steering wheel is more effective than a simple warning, which intervenes upstream in situation diagnosis. The third experiment concerned the influence of the delegation of lateral control on steering behaviour and visual exploration. Changes in visual strategies and difficulties to return to manual control when the device was invalid were observed.
Article
The sine with dwell (SWD) manoeuvre has received much attention within the context of vehicle stability testing. This manoeuvre is used in a test developed by the NHTSA, designed to certificate electronic stability control systems in light vehicles. The test is used in legislations as well as in consumer tests all over the globe. The SWD manoeuvre was designed using test vehicles on a test track and experimentally validated. The paper at hand uses optimal control theory to theoretically justify the use of the SWD manoeuvre to produce a severe lateral motion and over-steering based on steering input. It is shown that a manoeuvre similar to the SWD manoeuvre can be obtained from an optimal control problem using simple vehicle dynamics models. The optimal control method is further used to analyse the manoeuvre's robustness with respect to vehicle dimensions and tyre properties. It is shown that the manoeuvre is robust in dimensions, which theoretically motivates its application for various sizes of vehicles.
Article
The development of ESP Hardware-In-the-Loop(HIL) test bench has brought great benefit to the development of ESP system and could shorten the development period. Therefore the accuracy of ESP HIL bench is crucial to the development of ESP system. The adjustment of vehicle parameters is an important section in the simulation model and it decides the accuracy of the bench to a great extent. The vehicle parameters from actual measurements are limited, so it is very difficult to obtain a high-accuracy simulation model. The article offers a way to solve this problem. With CANoe from Vector Corp., the experiment data were gathered from actual vehicle and returned to simulation model through CAN telecommunication. This will enable the simulation model to operate in the same mode of actual vehicle. By contrasting the output of response, the vehicle parameters will be adjusted step by step, until the response of simulation model is same as the one of actual vehicle.
Conference Paper
For further enhancing vehicle handling stability and improving the ESP's deficiency of causing undesired longitudinal decelerations, an integrated control of the active steering and direct yaw moment (DYC) is proposed. A new formulation of the bicycle model which adds the additional front wheel angle and yaw moment is introduced. And the model predictive control method is used to design the integrated controller. Finally, this paper investigates the effectiveness of integrated control system in the standard double lane change condition. The simulation results show that the proposed integrated control is able to enhance the yaw stability and reduce the longitudinal velocity fluctuations.
Article
A new method to determine how occupant characteristics affect fatality risk in traffic crashes is developed. The method, which uses data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS), focuses on two occupants, a "subject" occupant and an "other" occupant. The probabilities of a fatality to the subject occupant when that occupant has one of two characteristics are compared. The other occupant serves essentially a normalizing, or exposure estimating, role. The method uses only fatality frequency data--no external exposure information is required, and it is relatively free from uncertain assumptions. It has wide applicability; examples of potential applications include investigating car occupant fatality risk as a function of sex, age, alcohol use or motorcyclist fatality risk as a function of helmet use. The first application is to determining the effectiveness of safety belts in preventing car occupant fatalities, as described in the paper following this paper.
Accident research with regard to crash-worthiness and crash avoidance Vehicle safety 2000 Conference. I Mech E London
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Accident research with regard to crashworthiness and crash avoidance
  • R Zobel
  • Friedrich
  • H Becker