The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor ZD1839 (Iressa) Suppresses c-Src and Pak1 Pathways and Invasiveness of Human Cancer Cells

ArticleinClinical Cancer Research 10(2):658-67 · February 2004with6 Reads
DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-0382-03 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Abnormalities in the expression and signaling pathways downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) contribute to the progression, invasion, and maintenance of the malignant phenotype in human cancers, including those of the head and neck and breast. Accordingly, agents such as the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) ZD1839 (Iressa) are promising, biologically based treatments that are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. The process of tumor progression requires, among other steps, increased transformation, directional migration, and enhanced cell survival; this study explored the effect of ZD1839 on the stimulation of c-Src and p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), which are vital for transformation, directional motility, and cell survival of cancer cells. We examined the effect of ZD1839 on biochemical and functional assays indicative of directional motility and cell survival, using human head and neck squamous cancer cells and breast cancer cells. ZD1839 effectively inhibited c-Src activation and Pak1 activity in exponentially growing cancer cells. In addition, ZD1839 suppressed EGF-induced stimulation of EGFR autophosphorylation on Y1086 and Grb2-binding Y1068 sites, c-Src phosphorylation on Y215, and Pak1 activity. ZD1839 also blocked EGF-induced cytoskeleton remodeling, redistribution of activated EGFR, and in vitro invasiveness of cancer cells. These studies suggest that the EGFR-TKI ZD1839 may cause potent inhibition of the Pak1 and c-Src pathways and, therefore, have potential to affect the invasiveness of human cancer cells deregulated in these growth factor receptor pathways.
    • "In this context, Bain et al., in 2013, introduced proton therapy in the treatment of dissemination in an attempt to eliminate the exit dose, with radiation focused only to the craniospinal axis. In cases with EGFR overexpression, EGFR inhibitors would represent useful adjuvant therapy [16,43]. The treatment regimen in our case consisted of subtotal resection, local irradiation to the sacral mass, and chemotherapy , with relatively effective disease control for 7 years. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a low-grade tumor. It has an excellent prognosis after total resection. Leptomeningeal dissemination and hemorrhage are very rare to be associated with PA and leads to unfavorable prognosis. A 35-year-old man was diagnosed with a hemorrhagic suprasellar PA in 2006. Subsequent examination in 2007 revealed another large subdural hemorrhagic lesion in the sacral region, which proved to be PA by histopathologic assessment. Other leptomeningeal foci were discovered mainly at the craniocervical junction. The patient underwent subtotal resection and received chemotherapy with disease control for 7 years. Progression of the disseminated disease has recently occurred; however, the patient is still alive with stable disease after radiotherapy. The radiological features, management, and relevant literature are also presented. Our report heightens the awareness of PA in the adult population and the importance of close surveillance for the leptomeningeal spread, especially for sellar region tumors.
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    • "Previously it was demonstrated that ADAM17 contributes to tumour cell migration and invasion in vitro [34] and EGFR inhibition with gefitinib can decrease cancer cell metastasis in vivo [36]. We therefore examined whether treatment with inhibitory antibody D1 (A12) could affect cell motility in the presence or absence of gefitinib in an in vitro wound closure assay. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) regulates key cellular processes including proliferation and migration through the shedding of a diverse array of substrates such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands. ADAM17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and cancers such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). As a central mediator of cellular events, overexpressed EGFR is a validated molecular target in HNSCC. However, EGFR inhibition constantly leads to tumour resistance. One possible mechanism of resistance is the activation of alternative EGFR family receptors and downstream pathways via the release of their ligands. Here, we report that treating human HNSCC cells in vitro with a human anti-ADAM17 inhibitory antibody, D1(A12), suppresses proliferation and motility in the absence or presence of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib. Treatment with D1(A12) decreases both the endogenous and the bradykinin (BK)-stimulated shedding of HER ligands, accompanied by a reduction in the phosphorylation of HER receptors and downstream signalling pathways including STAT3, AKT and ERK. Knockdown of ADAM17, but not ADAM10, also suppresses HNSCC cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, we show that heregulin (HRG) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF) predominantly participate in proliferation and migration, respectively. Taken together, these results demonstrate that D1(A12)-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation, motility, phosphorylation of HER receptors and downstream signalling is achieved via reduced shedding of ADAM17 ligands. These findings underscore the importance of ADAM17 and suggest that D1(A12) might be an effective targeted agent for treating EGFR TKI-resistant HNSCC.
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    • "Our screening using the unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis suggests that PAK1 is a leading candidate among all reported possible target candidates. PAK1 is integrally tied to the HER-2 and EGFR networks, although it is unknown if PAK1 is directly regulated by HER-2 or EGFR [19], [56]. Consistently, our clustering results suggest that PAK1 is closely related with components of the HER-2 and EGFR networks. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma is a lethal cancer with rising incidence, yet the molecular biomarkers that have strong prognostic impact and also hold great therapeutic promise remain elusive. We used a data mining approach and identified the p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), an oncogene and drugable protein kinase, to be among the most promising targets for GEJ adenocarcinoma. Immunoblot analysis and data mining demonstrated that PAK1 protein and mRNA were upregulated in cancer tissues compared to the noncancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry revealed PAK1 overexpression in 72.6% of primary GEJ adenocarcinomas (n = 113). A step-wise increase in PAK1 levels was noted from paired normal epithelium, to atypical hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. PAK1 overexpression in tumor was associated with lymph node (LN) metastasis (P<0.001), advanced tumor stage (P<0.001), large tumor size (P = 0.006), residual surgical margin (P = 0.033), and unfavorable overall survival (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed PAK1 overexpression is an independent high-risk prognostic predictor (P<0.001). Collectively, PAK1 is overexpressed during tumorigenic progression and its upregulation correlates with malignant properties mainly relevant to invasion and metastasis. PAK1 expression could serve as a prognostic predictor that holds therapeutic promise for GEJ adenocarcinoma.
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