Qualitative Content Analysis in Nursing Research: Concepts, Procedures and Measures to Achieve Trustworthiness

Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden
Nurse Education Today (Impact Factor: 1.36). 03/2004; 24(2):105-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001
Source: PubMed


Qualitative content analysis as described in published literature shows conflicting opinions and unsolved issues regarding meaning and use of concepts, procedures and interpretation. This paper provides an overview of important concepts (manifest and latent content, unit of analysis, meaning unit, condensation, abstraction, content area, code, category and theme) related to qualitative content analysis; illustrates the use of concepts related to the research procedure; and proposes measures to achieve trustworthiness (credibility, dependability and transferability) throughout the steps of the research procedure. Interpretation in qualitative content analysis is discussed in light of Watzlawick et al.'s [Pragmatics of Human Communication. A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies and Paradoxes. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, London] theory of communication.

  • Source
    • "As a widely used research technique, qualitative content analysis[27]has been used when studying a wide variety of subject matter. It is particularly suitable when analyzing interview data in care science research and education[26,28]. The transcribed interview material was analysed according to the steps described below. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Worldwide, there is a growing population of older people who develop dementia in a country other than that of their origin. When their dementia has reached an advanced stage, residential care is most often needed. People with dementia in Sweden are often cared for in group homes. For immigrants, this may mean a linguistically challenging care environment for both healthcare staff and the patients’ family members. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of family members and professional caregivers regarding the care provided to immigrants with dementia in group homes in Sweden. An exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative approach was chosen. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine professional caregivers and five family members of people with dementia with Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian and Ingrian backgrounds; all were chosen purposefully. All people with dementia had lost their Swedish language skills as their second language. The data was analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three main categories and seven subcategories were identified. The first main category: A new living situation comprised the subcategories: adjusting to new living arrangements and expectations regarding activities and traditional food at the group home, the second main category: Challenges in communication with the subcategories: limited communication between the immigrant with dementia and the Swedish-speaking nursing staff and the consequences of linguistic misunderstandings and nuanced communication in a common language and the third main category: The role of the family member at the group home with the subcategories: a link to the healthy life story of the family member with dementia and an expert and interpreter for the nursing staff. The family member played a crucial role in the lives of immigrants with dementia living in a group home by facilitating communication between the nursing staff and the PWD and also by making it possible for PWD to access the cultural activities they wanted and which professional caregivers were either not able to recognise as needed or could not deliver.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Geriatrics
  • Source
    • "Data were organized with the help of Atlas. ti version 7. Structured questions were managed and analyzed using SPSS version 17 software.Qualitative data were analysed using manifest content analysis techniques151617. Description of the visible, obvious components of text and what the text says in the transcripts was taken into account in the coding process. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the high HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about their access to HIV services. This study assessed barriers and opportunities for expanding access to HIV services among MSM in Uganda. Methods: In October-December 2013, a cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in 12 districts of Uganda. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 85 self-identified MSM by snowball sampling and 61 key informants including HIV service providers and policy makers. Data were analysed using manifest content analysis and Atlas.ti software. Results: Three quarters of the MSM (n = 62, 72.9%) were not comfortable disclosing their sexual orientation to providers and 69 (81.1%) felt providers did not respect MSM. Half (n = 44, 51.8%) experienced difficulties in accessing health services. Nine major barriers to access were identified, including: (i) unwelcoming provider behaviours; (ii) limited provider skills and knowledge; (iii) negative community perceptions towards MSM; (iv) fear of being exposed as MSM; (v) limited access to MSM-specific services; (vi) high mobility of MSM, (vii) lack of guidelines on MSM health services; viii) a harsh legal environment; and ix) HIV related stigma. Two-thirds (n = 56, 66%) participated in MSM social networks and 86% of these (48) received support from the networks to overcome barriers to accessing services. Conclusions: Negative perceptions among providers and the community present barriers to service access among MSM. Guidelines, provider skills building and use of social networks for mobilization and service delivery could expand access to HIV services among MSM in Uganda.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
    • "The short descriptions from 807 mothers were analyzed looking for manifest content by using qualitative content analysis . This method is suitable when analyzing texts to distill words into a few content-related categories and ensuring that words when clustered and categorized share the same meaning (Graneheim & Lundman 2004;Elo & Kyngas 2008). The inductive analysis process included three phases. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study addressed the contentious discussions about the benefits and risks of nipple shield use. The objective was to explore self-reported reasons for using a nipple shield and examine associations pertaining to the mother, the infant and duration of breastfeeding. Data were collected from 4815 Danish mothers (68%) who filled out a self-administered questionnaire with open and closed question. Data were analyzed by content and statistical descriptive and multivariable analysis. Results showed that 22% of the mothers used nipple shields in the beginning and 7% used it the entire breastfeeding period. Primiparae used nipple shields more often than multiparae, and early breastfeeding problems as well as background factors like lower age, education and higher body mass index were associated with a higher likelihood of using nipple shields. Characteristics of infants associated with introducing nipple shields were lower- gestational age and birthweight. The use of nipple shields was furthermore found to be associated with a threefold increased risk of earlier cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: among primiparae odds ratio = 3.80 (confidence interval 2.61-5.53); among multiparae odds ratio = 3.33 (confidence interval 1.88-5.93). Mothers' own descriptions underlined how various early breastfeeding problems led to the use of nipple shields. Some mothers were helped through a difficult period; others described the use creating a kind of dependence. The results highlight how nipple shields may help breastfeeding mothers in the early period but is not necessarily a supportive solution to the inexperienced mother who needs extra support in the early process of learning to breastfeed.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Maternal and Child Nutrition
Show more