Reductions in circulating anabolic hormones induced by sustained sleep deprivation rats
Department of Neurology, The Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53295, USA. AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
(Impact Factor: 3.79).
07/2004; 286(6):E1060-70. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00553.2003
The main systemic disorders resulting from prolonged sleep deprivation in laboratory animals are a negative energy balance, low circulating thyroid hormones, and host defense impairments. Low thyroid hormones previously have been found caused by altered regulation at the level of the hypothalamus with possible pituitary involvement. The present studies investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on other major anabolic hormonal systems. Plasma growth hormone (GH) concentrations and major secretory bursts were characterized. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was evaluated as an integrative marker of peripheral GH effector activity. Prolactin (PRL) was assessed by basal concentrations and by stimulating the pituitary with exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Leptin was studied for its linkage to metabolic signs of sleep loss and its correspondence to altered neuroendocrine regulation in other disease states. Last, plasma corticosterone was measured to investigate the degree of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation. Sleep deprivation was produced by the disk-over-water method, a well-established means of selective deprivation of sleep and noninterference with normal waking behaviors. Hormone concentrations were determined in sham comparisons and at intervals during baseline and experimental periods lasting at least 15 days in partially and totally sleep-deprived rats. The results indicate that high-amplitude pulses of GH were nearly abolished and that concentrations of GH, IGF-I, PRL, and leptin all were suppressed by sleep deprivation. Corticosterone concentration was relatively unaffected. Features of these results, such as low GH and low IGF-I, indicate failed negative feedback and point to hypothalamic mechanisms as containing the foci responsible for peripheral signs.
Available from: Liu Xinmin
- "This discrepancy may ascribe to species differences, the sleep deprivation intensity and duration, the difference of sleep deprivation between human real life and experimental animals. The following three reasons may contribute to the weight loss of the mice: firstly, reduced assimilation as a result of reductions in circulating anabolic hormones induced by sustained sleep deprivation; secondly, excessive degradation of skeletal muscle protein induced by high-level corticosterone ; thirdly, increased activity of the mice caused by the rotation of the sleep interruption apparatus. As an adverse stimulus, CSI also affects the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. "
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ABSTRACT: Nuciferine (NF) is one of the main aporphine alkaloids existing in the traditional Chinese medicine Folium Nelumbinis (lotus leaves). Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that NF has a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as anti-HIV and anti-hyperlipidemic effects, and has been recommended as a leading compound for new drug development. However, the metabolites and biotransformation pathway of NF in vivo have not yet been comprehensively investigated. The present study was performed to identify the metabolites of NF for exploring in vivo fates. Rat plasma and urine samples were collected after oral administration and prepared by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. A method based on ultra fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was applied to identify the metabolites. Q1 (first quadrupole) full scan combined with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) survey scan were used for the detection of metabolites. MRM-information dependent acquisition (IDA) of enhanced product ions (MRM-IDA-EPI) was used for the structural identification of detected metabolites. A total of ten metabolites were identified, including phase I (demethylation, oxidation and dehydrogenation) and phase II (glucuronidation, sulfation and glutathione) biotransformation products. In which, demethylation is the main metabolic pathway of NF in the body. The results can help to better understand the disposition and pharmacological mechanism of NF in the body. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- "In animal models, REM sleep deprivation may cause alterations in metabolic  , immune , and hormonal   parameters in male rats. In cycling females, previous studies have demonstrated that SR alters the estrous cycle, plasma levels of corticosterone and progesterone  and cognitive performance . "
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ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to analyze the effects of sleep restriction (SR) during pregnancy in rats. The following three groups were studied: home cage (HC pregnant females remained in their home cage), Sham (females were placed in tanks similar to the SR group but with sawdust) and SR (females were submitted to the multiple platform method for 20h per day from gestational days (GD) 14 to 20). Plasma corticosterone after 6days of SR was not different among the groups. However, the relative adrenal weight was higher in the SR group compared with the HC group, which suggests possible stress impact. SR during pregnancy reduces the body weight of the female but no changes in liver glycogen, cholesterol and triglycerides, and muscle glycogen were detected. On GD 20, the fetuses of the females submitted to SR exhibited increased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus, which indicates that sleep restriction of mothers during the final week of gestation may affect neuronal growth factors in a fetal brain structure, in which active neurogenesis occurs during the deprivation period. However, no changes in the total reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cortex, hippocampus, or cerebellum of the fetuses were detected. SR females showed no major change in the maternal behavior, and the pups' preference for the mother's odor on postpartum day (PPD) 7 was not altered. On GD 20, the SR females exhibited increased plasma prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) compared with the HC and Sham groups. The negative outcomes of sleep restriction during delivery could be related, in part, to this hormonal imbalance. Sleep restriction during pregnancy induces different changes compared with the changes described in males and affects both the mother and offspring.
Available from: Marcos Mônico-Neto
- "Factors affecting body weight in these animals include altered hormonal profiles and feeding behavior and increased metabolic rate. In sleep-deprived animals, anabolic hormones such as testosterone (TESTO) , growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) , and thyroid hormones T3 and T4  are decreased along with increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) . High levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) after 96 h of SD may contribute to considerable increase in metabolic rate and insufficient food ingestion, leading to weight loss  . "
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Describe multicompartmental changes in the fat and various muscle fiber types, as well as the hormonal profile and metabolic rate induced by SD in rats. Methods. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were equally distributed into two groups: experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). The EG was submitted to SD for 96 h. Blood levels of corticosterone (CORT), total testosterone (TESTO), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were used to assess the catabolic environment. Muscle trophism was measured using a cross-sectional area of various muscles (glycolytic, mixed, and oxidative), and lipolysis was inferred by the weight of fat depots from various locations, such as subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, and epididymal. The metabolic rate was measured using oxygen consumption (
O2) measurement. Results. SD increased CORT levels and decreased TESTO, IGF-1, and T4. All fat depots were reduced in weight after SD. Glycolytic and mixed muscles showed atrophy, whereas atrophy was not observed in oxidative muscle. Conclusion. Our data suggest that glycolytic muscle fibers are more sensitive to atrophy than oxidative fibers during SD and that fat depots are reduced regardless of their location.
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