House fly resistance to chemicals

To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.


It is no doubt significant that housefly resistance to DDT was first recognized and reported in Europe, where DDT came into commercial use in 1944 and was used extensively by civil and military personnel in 1945. In 1947, Sacca and Missiroli attributed the failure of DDT to control flies in Italy to the presence of a variety of house fly which had become resistant to DDT. About the same time Wiesmann (1947) reported house fly resistance in Sweden. Two years later Keiding and Van Deurs (1949) in three short paragraphs summarized the course of events which was apparently common throughout Europe, as follows: “Already in 1946 there were some isolated complaints of failing effect, and in the summer of 1947 the fly control failed in a great many places.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... House flies were among the first insects to demonstrate documented resistance to insecticides, as DDT became commercially available for house fly control in 1944. By 1947, DDT had failed to control fly populations in Europe (Decker and Bruce 1952). House fly resistance to pyrethroids emerged within ten years of introduction of these chemicals as commercial products for house fly control (Hogsette 1998). ...
Full-text available
Thesis available at
... Others were less than 3. According to Decker and Bruce (7) , resistance ratios higher than 5, would show ineffectiveness of insecticide in field. These lower than 5, however close to 5, thought as highly tolerant. ...
The green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) distributes throughout the temperate, subtropical and tropical areas in the world and is regarded as one of the most serious insect pests on rice in Taiwan. This species is prevalent in central Taiwan, occurring 8-10 generations annually and is more abundant in the first rice crop. Among the seven areas surveyed, green rice leafhopper of PY strain was found resistant to monocrotophos, TC strain was also resistant to malathion, while strain HsHs was highly tolerant to monocrotophos. Continuous use of these insecticides may result in the entire population becoming resistant over a period of time. The green rice leafhopper strains from PY was found to be highly tolerant to vamidothion and carbaryl. Hereagain, the continuous use of these three insecticides may lead to the development of resistance. Strains examined from other areas remained relatively susceptible to these four insecticides. The small correlation among the resistance levels of these four commonly used insecticides in the field populations of green rice leafhopper in central Taiwan implies that they may have multiresistance to all four insecticides. It has also been found that the toxicity of insecticides and the occurrence of green rice leafhopper may be related to temperature which may influence the appearance of resistance. There are some positive correlations between toxicity of insecticide and temperature. Vertical polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis was used in the study of the esterase activity of the strains collected from yarious locations. There was positive correlation between the esterase activity and the resistance level of green rice leafhopper to these four insectivides. The esterase activity is considered to be an important factor in the appearance of esistance.
... In the development of resistance, it has been pointed out that larval pressure is more effective than adult, and a combination of pressures on both stages was the most effective (Brown, 1958). Thus Decker & Bruce (1952) concluded that contamination of larval breeding places was the main factor in the development of DDT resistance in houseflies in the field. Evidence in the present experiments and in former trials (Kartman, 1958) have clearly demonstrated that the DDT affected adult fleas both on hosts and in nests, and that DDT deposits were found in nests where they contaminated the larval medium and killed the larvae. ...
A field experiment was conducted from July 1958 to February 1959 in the San Francisco Bay region to test the effect on flea populations of prolonged exposure of the native meadow vole, Microtus californicus , to 5% DDT powder in insecticide-bait-boxes. Previous studies had shown that two important vectors of sylvatic plague, Malaraeus telchinum and Hystrichopsylla linsdalei , could be controlled both on their hosts and in the host nests by this method. However, the question of possible resistance was postulated since the control of H. linsdalei on its host was inferior to control of other flea species. Bait-boxes with DDT powder were maintained in the field for 6 months. Records of flea populations on Microtus during this period showed equally good control of all flea species. Observations on vole nests at termination of the study revealed deposits of DDT and good control of all flea species in them. During the period of study, the evidence suggested that none of the flea species involved exhibited DDT resistance. The major portion of the field routine was done by Messrs A. R. Kinney and R. L. Martin. Flea identifications were made by Mr H. E. Stark. Analyses of nests and rodents for DDT were performed by Mr C. Cueto, Technical Development Laboratories, CDC, Savannah, Georgia.
... In the development of resistance, it has been pointed out that larval pressure is more effective than adult, and a combination of pressures on both stages was the most effective (Brown, 1958). Thus Decker & Bruce (1952) concluded that contamination of larval breeding places was the main factor in the development of DDT resistance in houseflies in the field. Evidence in the present experiments and in former trials () have clearly demonstrated that the DDT affected adult fleas both on hosts and in nests, and that DDT deposits were found in nests where they contaminated the larval medium and killed the larvae. ...
Since 1950 the author has been engaged in the research of insecticide resistance developed in the insects of medical importance in Japan. This report dealt with the main points of the author's observations and findings.
SKA flies have two factors of resistance to dieldrin: the major factor DR4, on the IV linkage group, is intermediate and confers immunity to topically applied dieldrin in acetone during the first 24 hr, but increasing numbers of deaths during the next 72 hr decrease resistance to ca. × 700. The proportion of SKA flies with this factor has decreased over the last three years from ca. 25% to fewer than 10%. The minor factor of resistance, R2 on the II linkage group, greatly delays knock-down by retarding the penetration of dieldrin, but gives × 2 resistance at death. This factor is intermediate and is probably identical to the one in SKA flies that also delays penetration and knock-down by diazinon, DDT and other insecticides, and is retained in the SKA flies by selection with diazinon. The presence of DR4 in SKA flies is probably not the result of selection with diazinon. It has almost certainly been inherited from the chlordane-resistant parents of the SKA strain. GENETIK DER INSEKTIZIDRESISTENZ DES SKA-STAMMES VON MUSCA DOMESTICA 111. LOKALISATION UND ISOLATION DER DIELDRIN-RESISTENZFAKTOREN SKA-Fliegen besitzen zwei Resistenzfaktoren gegenüber Dieldrin: der Hauptfaktor DR4, in der IV. Koppelungsgruppe, ist intermediär und ergibt gegen lokal in Aceton appliziertes Dieldrin während der ersten 24 Stunden Immunität, aber innerhalb der nächsten 72 Stunden erniedrigen zunehmende Todesfälle die Resistenz um das 700fache. Der Anteil der SKA-Fliegen mit diesem Faktor hat sich während der letzten drei Jahre von ca. 25% auf weniger als 10% vermindert. Der Hilfsresistenzfaktor R2, in der II. Koppelungsgruppe, verzögert die Schockwirkung durch Verzögern des Eindringens des Dieldrins, ergibt jedoch zweifache Absterberesistenz. Der Faktor ist intermediär und wahrscheinlich identisch mit dem, der in SKA-Fliegen auch die Schockwirkung und das Eindringen von Diazinon, DDT und anderen Insektiziden verzögert und der bei SKA-Fliegen bei Selektion mit Diazinon beibehalten wird. Die Gegenwart von R4 in SKA-Fliegen ist wahrscheinlich nicht das Ergebnis der Selektion durch Diazinon. Er ist höchstwahrscheinlich von Chlordan-resistenten Eltern des SKA-Stammes vererbt worden.
The high toxicity of dietary V. album to housefly larvae diminishes with increasing larval age and disappears at maturity. The retardation of growth initially caused by V. album is proportional to the concentration of the poison. The benzene-insoluble fraction of V. album is largely non-toxic, whereas the benzene-soluble fraction contains highly toxic ester alkaloids which have also been tested in pure form. The active compounds act as stomach poison. The toxicity of the ester alkaloids of Veratrum is dependent on the intactness of their molecules, their constituent alkamines being non-toxic. The more ester groups the alkaloid contains, the more toxic it is. Larval resistance to V. album develops relatively slowly. The glycosidic alkaloids of Veratrum and Solanum are practically non-toxic for fly larvae. The toxic action of protoveratrine on housefly larvae is not due to an antagonism to cholesterol.
Two field strains of Lucilia cuprina (Wied.) of different susceptibilities to diazinon were selected over 25 generations by immersion of first-instar larvae in aqueous emulsions of diazinon for five minutes ; the resistance of the larvae and adult females was compared with a standard laboratory susceptible strain. Resistance increased rapidly in both strains, reaching a maximum for adult females (R.F. = 5–6) in generation 3 and for larvae (R.F. = 46–60) in generation 6. After removal of selection pressure at generation 8 the resistance factor fell to 20–24 by generation 25. Because the resistance mechanisms are known to place their carriers at a disadvantage in the absence of selection pressure, the practical implications of the rapid increase in resistance must await results of experiments with known genotypes.
A pyrethrins-resistant strain of houseflies, 213ab, previously selected with a 1:10 (by wt.) mixture of natural pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, was further selected either with natural pyrethrins alone (strain NPR) or with resmethrin (strain 104). After 50 generations the two populations differed in their resistance to the natural and synthetic esters. Both were resistant to all pyrethroids. Part of strain NPR was immune and very much more resistant than strain 104 to the natural pyrethrins and allethrin, but it was only 2–3 times more resistant than strain 104 against the new synthetic esters resmethrin (5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl (±)-cis-trans-chrysanthemate), bio-resmethrin (5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl (+)-trans-chrysanthemate), pyresmethrin (5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl pyrethrate) and 5B2Me3FC (5-benzyl-2-methyl-3-furylmethyl (±)-cis-trans-chrysanthemate). Pretreatment of both strains with sesamex diminished but did not eliminate resistance. Synergism was greater in strain NPR, especially with natural pyrethrins and allethrin. Both strains had great resistance to DDT indicating that resistance to DDT and pyrethroids is linked.Differences in resistance to different compounds suggest that at least three factors can confer resistance, one of which, pen, delays penetration and two others involve detoxication, one py a on the acid side of the ester linkage and the other, py b, on the alcohol side. Natural pyrethrins and resmethrin select for different groupings of these factors. Treatment with resmethrin does not select for py b presumably because this mechanism cannot attack the resmethrin molecule. Similarly when piperonyl butoxide is added to the natural pyrethrins py b is inhibited and so removed from selection pressure. Under these conditions, the strain produced contains the same factors as one selected by resmethrin and so shows the same small resistance to natural pyrethrins alone.
Adults of a field strain of the grain weevil, Calandra granaria L., initially twice as resistant to pyrethrins in oil solution as a laboratory standard strain, have been exposed to selection pressure with pyrethrins in 17 out of 22 generations in the course of five years. The strain has steadily increased in resistance to pyrethrins and is now 18 times as resistant as the standard. There has been a simultaneous increase in resistance to pyrethrins synergised with piperonyl butoxide of only X2. In the course of selection the beetles of the resistant strain became heavier in weight but not sufficiently to account for the resistance. They also became darker in colour but this change was shown to be physiologically unconnected with the increase in resistance to pyrethrins.
The resistance to pyrethrins of a strain of the granary weevil, Sitophilus (Calandra) granarius (L)., previously reported1 at the 21st generation to be 18 times that of the P.I.L. standard strain, has been raised by further selection to X 52 in the 29th generation. A branch-line stock from the 24th and 25th generations, when the pyrethrum resistance was X34, was used for cross-tolerance tests with methyl bromide (x0.9), dieldrin (x2.2), carbaryl (x3.1), lindane (x5.5), malathion (x5.7), dinoseb (x5.8), DDT (x15.1), allethrin (x39.8), synergised pyrethrins (x5.5) and synergised allethrin (x6.6). The interpretation of these results is discussed in relation to the results of exposure to environmental stress in the form of starvation (x2.0), heat (x1.2), cold (x1.1) and two methods of desiccation (x1.8, 1.7). Over the range of temperature 10–30°, the resistant strain had a lower fecundity than the standard strain and cross-breeding tests showed that the pyrethrin-resistant stock may be homozygous for a recessive sex-linked gene reducing the number of offspring reaching maturity. The darker colour of the resistant beetles may also be transmitted by the female. A preliminary test with small numbers of insects indicated that the genetic factor, or factors, for pyrethrin resistance is autosomal and partially dominant.
Housefly resistance to DDT and lindane in Egypt was first reported 17 years ago, yet these insecticides continue to be used.The present degree of housefly resistance to DDT and lindane was found to be high, and cross-resistance to dieldrin was discovered. An analysis of dieldrin resistance was made, and it was found that a single selection with dieldrin at a high selection pressure resulted in a homozygous resistant strain. The strains were found to be still susceptible to organophosphates and carbamates, some of which could be chosen for housefly control in Egypt.
Four strains of German cockroaches have been exposed to a variety of insecticides in an effort to obtain more information on the cross-resistance phenomenon in this species. The insecticides chlordane, aldrin, and lindane were each tested against chlordane-resistant, lindane-resistant, and non-resistant strains. The insecticides diazinon and Sevin were each tested against DDT-resistant, chlordane-resistant, and non-resistant strains. Adult females were used exclusively in these tests. The data are presented in the form of regression lines.The results show that the DDT-resistant strain is highly resistant to Sevin but is susceptible to diazinon, while the chlordane-resistant strain is susceptible to both of these compounds. Furthermore, the chlordane- and the lindane-resistant strains are both highly resistant to chlordane and to aldrin, but show only low-level resistance to lindane.The over-all picture of cross-resistance between insecticidal groups in the German cockroach is still one of relative simplicity. At the present time the only real exception is that reported in this paper: the DDT-resistant strain was found to be resistant to the carbamate insecticide Sevin.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.