Navigating between cultures: The role of culture in youth violence
The purpose of this paper is to review three cultural concepts (acculturation, ethnic identity, bicultural self-efficacy) and their relationship to the known risk and protective factors associated with youth violence. We conducted a review of the relevant literature that addresses these three cultural concepts and the relationship among culture, violent behavior, and associated cognition. The available literature suggests that ethnic identity and bicultural self-efficacy can be best thought of as protective factors, whereas acculturation can be a potential risk factor for youth violence. We examine the connection between these cultural concepts and the risk and protective factors described in the 2001 Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence, and present a summary table with cultural risk and protective factors for violence prevention. These concepts can assist physicians in identifying risk and protective factors for youth violence when working with multicultural adolescents and their families. Physicians are more effective at providing appropriate referrals if they are aware that navigating among different cultures influences adolescent behavior.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African Americans have the highest rate of new HIV infection in the United States. This photovoice study explored the perspectives and experiences of African American female youth and sought to understand how adolescent development impacts HIV risk. This study used the photovoice methodology with seven African American or Biracial female youth, in Grades 8 through 12, residing in North Carolina. Study findings indicate that African American female adolescents struggle to navigate adolescence, specifically in coping with race- and gender-related stressors. The photovoice study demonstrated that African American early adolescent females face unique challenges that influence sexual health and HIV risk. There is a need for HIV prevention programs that support positive racial and gender identity development and teach early adolescents how to cope with race- and gender-related stressors. Our findings suggest it is important for youth to be sources of positive support for their peers.1Comment 0Citations
- "Research has identified social distancing and gossip behaviors as a form of relational bullying— bullying that is indirect and more common among female than male adolescents (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; J. Wang, Iannotti, & Nansel, 2009). Researchers have also suggested that African American adolescents who are victims of bullying may be at increased risk of adverse health outcomes because discrimination-related stress may exacerbate the stress associated with bullying (Soriano et al., 2004). Future studies should examine how bullying experiences may be different among Black youth, such as the relationship between discrimination-and bullying-related stress, and how such stressors influence early adolescents, who are more vulnerable to internalizing bullying-related stress (Peskin, Tortolero, Markham, Addy, & Baumler, 2007). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this cross-sectional school-based cohort study was to explore the relations between acculturation orientations and antisocial behavior in adolescents from immigrant families. Among 972 French high-school students, 251 were first- second- and third-generation immigrant adolescents. Adolescents with immigrant background reported higher levels of antisocial behavior than non-immigrant adolescents. Separation (rejection of the host culture) had the highest rates of endorsement after integration (biculturalism) and showed a unique association with antisocial behavior after controlling for other cultural, psychopathological and socio-familial variables.0Comments 2Citations
- "Concerning the relation between ethnic identity and delinquency, studies with immigrant adolescents have yielded mixed and complex findings that may be due to the type of delinquent and violent behavior examined or the facets of ethnic identity considered or the characteristics of the heritage culture (Le & Stockdale, 2008). However, ethnic identity is mostly reported as a protective factor for youth violence, whereas some acculturation styles were most likely to be potential risk factors (Soriano, Rivera, Williams, Daley, & Reznik, 2004; Ting-Tommey et al., 2000). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Minority youth in general, and Aboriginal youth in particular, are at increased statistical risk for being perpetrators or victims of aggression. We examined the potential protective aspect of cultural identity in relation to peer ratings of physical and relational aggression and factors typically associated with each among almost the entire cohort of Naskapi youths from Kawawachikamach, Québec. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that a strong identity with their own Native culture predicted less perceived physical and social aggression by their peers. These findings are discussed in the context of the role of a positive affiliation with ancestral culture for the diminishment of adolescent aggression and for general adaptive development and well-being.0Comments 8Citations
- "In a review of studies of the relations between acculturation and interpersonal and self-directed violence among adolescents from minority groups in the United States, Smokowski et al  identified a link between assimilation and youth violence, as violence was most prevalent among youths who were disconnected from their culture. This finding is consistent with evidence that acculturation is a risk factor for aggression  and that strong ethnic identity is a protective factor . Among the various groups, Smokowski et al  found that American Indian and Alaskan Native adolescents were at higher statistical risk for various types of aggression when compared with other minority groups. "