Assignment of Downfield Proton Resonances in Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase·Immucillin-H Complex by Saturation-Transferred NOEs
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) catalyzes N-ribosidic bond phosphorolysis in 6-oxypurine nucleosides and deoxynucleosides to form purine and alpha-D-phosphorylated ribosyl products. The transition state has oxacarbenium ion character with partial positive charge near C-1', ionic stabilization from the nearby phosphate anion, and protonation at N-7 of the purine. Immucillin-H (ImmH) has a protonated N-7 and resembles the transition-state charge distribution when N-4' is protonated to the cation. It binds tightly to the PNPs with a K(d) value 56 pM for human PNP. Previous NMR studies of PNP. ImmH.PO(4) have shown that the N-4' of bound ImmH is a cation and is postulated to have a significant contribution to its tight binding. Several unassigned downfield proton resonances (>11 ppm) are specific to the PNP. ImmH.PO(4) complex, suggesting the existence of strong hydrogen bonds. In this study, two of the proton resonances in this downfield region have been assigned. Using (15)N-7-labeled ImmH, a resonance at 12.5 ppm has been assigned to N-7H. The N-7H resonance is shifted downfield by only approximately 1 ppm from its position for ImmH free in aqueous solution, consistent with only a small change in the hydrogen bonding on N-7H upon binding of ImmH to PNP. In contrast, the downfield resonance at 14.9 ppm in the PNP. ImmH.PO(4) complex is assigned to N-1H of ImmH by using saturation-transferred NOE measurements on the PNP. ImmH complex. The approximately 4 ppm downfield shift of the N-1H resonance from its position for ImmH free in solution suggests that the hydrogen bonding to the N-1H in the complex has a significant contribution to the binding of ImmH to PNP. The crystal structure shows Glu201 is in a direct hydrogen bond with N-1H and to O-6 through a water bridge. In the complex with 6-thio-ImmH, the N-1H resonance is shifted further downfield by an additional 1.5 ppm to 16.4 ppm, but the relative shift from the value for 6-thio-ImmH free in solution is the same as in the ImmH complex. Since the binding affinity to hPNP for 6-thio-ImmH is decreased 440-fold relative to that for ImmH, the loss in binding energy is primarily due to the hydrogen bond energy loss at the 6-thiol.