As a consequence of the physiological demands experienced during a competitive soccer season, the antagonistic relationship between anabolic and catabolic processes can affect performance. Twenty-five male collegiate soccer players were studied throughout a season (11 weeks) to investigate the effects of long-term training and competition. Subjects were grouped as starters (S; n = 11) and nonstarters (NS; n = 14). Measures of physical performance, body composition, and hormonal concentrations (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) were assessed preseason (T1) and 5 times throughout the season (T2-T6). Starters and NS participated in 83.06% and 16.95% of total game time, respectively. Nonstarters had a significant increase (+1.6%) in body fat at T6 compared to T1. Isokinetic strength of the knee extensors (1.05 rad.sec(-1)) significantly decreased in both S (-12%) and NS (-10%; p < or = 0.05) at T6. Significant decrements in sprint speed (+4.3%) and vertical jump (-13.8%) were found at T5 in S only. Though within normal ranges (10.4-41.6 nmol.L(-1)), concentrations of T at T1 were low for both groups, but increased significantly by T6. Concentrations of C were elevated in both groups, with concentrations at the high end of the normal range (normal range 138-635 nmol.L(-1)) at T1 and T4 in NS and T4 in S, with both groups remaining elevated at T6. Data indicate that players entering the season with low circulating concentrations of T and elevated levels of C can experience reductions in performance during a season, with performance decrements exacerbated in starters over nonstarters. Soccer players should therefore have a planned program of conditioning that does not result in an acute overtraining phenomenon prior to preseason (e.g., young players trying to get in shape quickly in the 6 to 8 weeks in the summer prior to reporting for preseason camp). The detrimental effects of inappropriate training do not appear to be unloaded during the season and catabolic activities can predominate.
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"Observing the data on the initial drop in performance induced by the eccentric activity [7, 15, 17], recent researches have aimed at a very important aspect of the physical training process: the monitoring of biochemical and immunological markers and also the performance [18–20]. High training loads with insufficient recovery periods have been suggested to induce overreaching and overtraining in team sport players [18, 21], and the monitoring of these responses along with the training period may be critical for the identification of such events. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to observe the time course of muscle damage and inflammatory responses following an eccentric overload resistance-training (EO) program. 3 females (23.8 ± 2.6 years; 70.9 ± 12.7 kg; 1.6 ± 0.08 m) and 5 males (23.8 ± 2.6 years; 75.1 ± 11.2 kg; 1.8 ± 0.1 m) underwent thirteen training sessions (4 × 8–10 eccentric-only repetitions—80% of eccentric 1RM, one-minute rest, 2x week
, during 7 weeks, for three exercises). Blood samples were collected prior to (Pre) and after two (P2), seven (P7), nine (P9), eleven (P11), and thirteen (P13) sessions, always 96 hours after last session. The reference change values (RCV) analysis was employed for comparing the responses, and the percentual differences between the serial results were calculated for each subject and compared with RCV
. Four subjects presented significant changes for creatine kinase at P2, and another two at P13; six for C-reactive protein at P2, and three at P11; two for neutrophils at P2, P4, and P13, respectively; and only one for white blood cells at P2, P4, P7, and P9, for lymphocyte at P7, P9, and P13, and for platelet at P4. We conclude that EO induced high magnitude of muscle damage and inflammatory responses in the initial phase of the program with subsequent attenuation.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Mediators of Inflammation
"A decreased ratio has been correlated with tiredness, lethargy, exhaustion, and even negative performance (1). Researchers who have investigated how the levels of these hormones vary over the course of a soccer season have found that they are generally affected by intensity and duration of exercise: preseason and the final 9 weeks of the season (16,19,26). A single soccer match shows anticipatory rises before performance and then increases in cortisol during match play, with equivocal findings for testosterone; however, researchers have not calculated testosterone to cortisol ratio over the course of a match (7,14,20,23,29,36,37). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thorpe, R and Sunderland, C. Muscle damage, endocrine, and immune marker response to a soccer match. J Strength Cond Res 26(10): 2783-2790, 2012-This study represents the first time that muscle damage, endocrine, and immune markers have been measured, together with activity profile, during a competitive soccer match. Seven semiprofessional soccer players participated in a competitive league match. Blood and saliva samples were obtained 1 hour before kick off and immediately postmatch. Global positioning system equipment was used to measure heart rate and activity profile data throughout the match. Percentage increase in creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (MYO) concentrations was correlated with the number of sprints performed during the match (r = 0.88, p = 0.019; r = 0.75, p = 0.047, respectively). Creatine kinase increased by 84% (p = 0.17) from prematch to postmatch, whereas MYO increased by 238% (p = 0.05). Players performed 39 ± 18 sprints during the course of the match. Cortisol increased by 78% (p = 0.103), whereas testosterone increased significantly by 44% (p = 0.004). No differences were seen from prematch to postmatch in the testosterone to cortisol ratio, immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, or IgG. Sprinting is correlated with changes in CK and MYO and may therefore be associated with muscle damage in semiprofessional soccer players.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
"(Elloumi et al., 2008). These observations are in agreement with other studies that found a decrease in plasma or sT concentrations after a few weeks of a training program, in relation to the volume, the intensity, the training load, and the type of sport (Lo´pez Calbet et al., 1993; De Souza et al., 1994; Lac et al., 1995; Filaire et al., 2001a; Kraemer et al, 2004; Coutts et al., 2007). Lac and Berthon (2000) reported variations in the sT and sF levels and the sT/sF ratio in long-distance runners during a relay competition and during the 3 days following the competition. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saliva contains cells and compounds, of local and non-local oral origin, namely inorganic, organic non-protein, protein/polypeptide, and lipid molecules. Moreover, some hormones, commonly assayed in plasma, such as steroids, are detectable in oral fluid and peptide/protein, and non-steroid hormones have been investigated. The sports practice environment and athletes' availability, together with hormone molecule characteristics in saliva and physical exercise behavior effects, confirm this body fluid as an alternative to serum. This review focuses on the relation between salivary steroids and psycho-physiological stress and underlines how the measurement of salivary cortisol provides an approach of self-report psychological indicator and anxiety change in relation to exercise performance. The correlation between salivary and plasma steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels, observed during exercise, has been considered, underlining how the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise influence the salivary steroid concentrations in the same way as serum-level variations. Training conditions have been considered in relation to the salivary hormonal response. This review focuses on studies related to salivary hormone measurements, mainly steroids, in physical exercise. Saliva use in physical disciplines, as a real alternative to serum, could be a future perspective.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports