Nutritional plan: Matching diet to disease

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri at Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.
Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice (Impact Factor: 0.82). 03/2004; 19(1):9-21. DOI: 10.1053/S1096-2867(03)00081-1
Source: PubMed


Institution of appropriate, timely nutritional support in the anorexic or critically ill patient has become accepted medical practice in people and animals. This article focuses on the benefits of appropriate nutrient intake in critically ill animals, recommended nutrient requirements for dogs and cats receiving enteral feeding, and mechanics of food preparation and delivery for a variety of feeding tubes. General nutrient requirements for all patients, specific recommendations for certain illnesses such as renal failure, pancreatitis, and hepatic disease, and nutritional alterations for critical illness are reviewed. Commercial liquid diets manufactured for people and pets, and pet-food diets practical for formulation of gruel are presented. Institution of and weaning from feeding are explained.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the medical and nutritional management of a 4-year-old Weimaraner with acute hepatic failure and immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) associated with consuming a commercial dog food. Case summary: A 4-year-old male castrated Weimaraner developed signs of IMHA, hepatic failure, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and malnutrition after consuming a commercial dog food. During the course of hospitalization, medical management included immunosuppressive therapy and supportive care. Nutritional support consisted of both enteral and parenteral nutrition. The dog was discharged after 19 days of hospitalization and fully recovered by 6 months. An investigation by the Food and Drug Administration was not able to determine the exact cause of the acute hepatic failure and IMHA. New information provided: This is the first case report documenting the medical and nutritional management of a critically ill animal associated with ingestion of this commercial dog food.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2005
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the percentage of prescribed enteral nutrition that is actually delivered; the percentage of goal feeds [defined in terms of the animal's estimated resting energy requirement (RER)] that are delivered; and the reasons animals are under or overfed in a small animal teaching hospital.Design: Prospective investigation.Setting: Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.Animals: All dogs and cats that received tube feeding while admitted to the Ryan Veterinary Hospital during the months of August–December 2003.Interventions: The medical record for each animal was reviewed to determine the feeding prescription, the amount of tube feeds actually delivered, and any reasons why the amount delivered differed from the amount prescribed. The amount prescribed was also compared with the animal's goal feeds which were defined for a patient as 50% RER/day on the first day of feeding and 100% RER/day for the remaining days of hospitalization.Main results: Twenty-five animals (23 cats and 2 dogs) were enrolled in the study. Animals received a median of 91% (range: 68–100%) of their prescribed feeds/day and a median of 90% (range: 36–133%) of goal feeds/day. Nausea or vomiting and conflict with other treatments were the most common recorded reasons for incomplete feeds.Conclusions: Both prescribed and goal feeds were delivered to the animals in this investigation with a good rate of success. Consultation with the Nutrition Support Service improved the likelihood that prescribed feeds would meet the animal's estimated RER.
    No preview · Article · May 2006
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    ABSTRACT: Objective – To evaluate the complications and outcome associated with different nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding techniques in cats with suspected acute pancreatitis.Design – Descriptive retrospective case seriesSetting – Small animal emergency and referral hospitalAnimals – The patient database (2001-2006) was searched for cats with suspected acute pancreatitis that received NGT liquid enteral feeding within 72 hours of admission and ≥12 hours during hospitalization.Measurements and Main Results – Signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory data and abdominal ultrasonographic examinations were used for suspected diagnosis. Cats were grouped based upon whether they received bolus feeding or continuous rate infusion (CRI) of a liquid diet via the NGT, and whether or not administration of an intravenous amino acid and carbohydrate solution occurred prior to NGT feeding (AAS and non-AAS group, respectively). Fifty-five cats were included. For all cats, NGT feeding was initiated at a mean of 33.5 ± 15.0 hours and the target caloric intake (1.2 X {(30 X BW [kg]) +70}) was reached at 58.0 ± 28.4 hours from presentation. There was a significantly longer time from admission to the initiation of NGT feeding in the 34/55 cats in the AAS group vs. the 21/55 cats in the non-AAS group (P = 0.009). The 8 bolus-fed cats took longer to reach target caloric intake vs. the 47 CRI-fed cats (P = 0.002). Complications associated with NGT feeding for all cats included: mechanical problems (13%), diarrhea (25%), vomiting following NGT placement (20%) and vomiting following NGT feeding (13%). Mean time to discharge for all cats occurred after 78.6 ± 29.5 hours with an overall weight gain of 0.08 ± 0.52 kg. Fifty cats survived 28 days post-discharge.Conclusions – NGT feeding in this group of cats with suspected acute pancreatitis was well tolerated, and associated with a low incidence of diarrhea, vomiting, and mechanical complications.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2009
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