The University of California at Los Angeles Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90064, USA.
Current Psychiatry Reports (Impact Factor: 3.24). 05/2004; 6(2):96-100. DOI: 10.1007/s11920-004-0048-2
Source: PubMed


Over the past decade, the University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index has been one of the most widely used instruments for the assessment of traumatized children and adolescents. This paper reviews its development and modifications that have been made as the diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder have evolved. The paper also provides a description of standard methods of administration, procedures for scoring, and psychometric properties. The Reaction Index has been extensively used across a variety of trauma types, age ranges, settings, and cultures. It has been broadly used across the US and around the world after major disasters and catastrophic violence as an integral component of public mental health response and recovery programs. The Reaction Index forms part of a battery that can be efficiently used to conduct needs assessment, surveillance, screening, clinical evaluation, and treatment outcome evaluation after mass casualty events.

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    • "2.2.1. Mental health (wave one and wave two) DSM-IV posttraumatic stress symptoms over the past month were measured using the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) (Steinberg, Brymer, Decker, & Pynoos, 2004). The PTSD-RI is a 20-item scale in which responses are recorded on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 ('never') to 4 ('most of the time'). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Little is known about parents' health following their children's exposure to trauma. We investigated the mental health of parents of young terrorist survivors and assessed parental distress and guilt as potential predictors of mental health. Method: Mothers and fathers (N=531) participated in two study waves 4-5 and 14-15 months after the shooting. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSS) and anxiety/depression were compared with age- and gender-adjusted expected scores that were calculated from a concurrent population study. Mixed effects models investigated the associations between parental distress, parental guilt, and mental health. Results: Parents' level of anxiety/depression was three times higher and PTSS was five times higher than that of the general population. Parental distress and guilt about their child's traumatic experience contributed uniquely to symptoms at both time points. Conclusions: Parents of traumatized youth constitute a vulnerable group that has been overlooked in the literature. Intervention strategies following trauma should include both survivors and their parents.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Anxiety Disorders
    • "Psychopathology. Symptoms of PTSD were assessed using child-and parent-report versions of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) (Steinberg et al, 2004). The PTSD-RI includes a 13-item trauma screen that we used to create a composite index of non-maltreatment trauma exposure and assesses PTSD re-experiencing, avoidance/ numbing, and hyper-arousal symptoms according to DSM-IV criteria (Five parents whose children did not report exposure to abuse or domestic violence indicated that their child had been exposed to some form of violence on the trauma screen; all analyses were repeated with these five "
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in learning processes and the neural circuitry that supports fear conditioning and extinction represent mechanisms through which trauma exposure might influence risk for psychopathology. Few studies examine how trauma or neural structure relates to fear conditioning in children. Children (n=94) aged 6-18 years, 40.4% (n=38) with exposure to maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or domestic violence), completed a fear conditioning paradigm utilizing blue and yellow bells as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-) and an aversive alarm noise as the unconditioned stimulus. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and self-reported fear were acquired. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 60 children. Children without maltreatment exposure exhibited strong differential conditioning to the CS+ versus CS-, based on SCR and self-reported fear. In contrast, maltreated children exhibited blunted SCR to the CS+ and failed to exhibit differential SCR to the CS+ versus CS- during early conditioning. Amygdala and hippocampal volume were reduced among children with maltreatment exposure and were negatively associated with SCR to the CS+ during early conditioning in the total sample, although these associations were negative only among non-maltreated children and were positive among maltreated children. The association of maltreatment with externalizing psychopathology was mediated by this perturbed pattern of fear conditioning. Child maltreatment is associated with failure to discriminate between threat and safety cues during fear conditioning in children. Poor threat-safety discrimination might reflect either enhanced fear generalization or a deficit in associative learning, which may in turn represent a central mechanism underlying the development of maltreatment-related externalizing psychopathology in children.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 18 December 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.365.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    • "Trauma History Profile (THP) The Trauma History component of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD-RI; Steinberg et al. 2004) was used to obtain information about potentially traumatic events and other adverse childhood experiences (hereafter referred to as ACEs) from multiple informants , including the child or adolescent, parents/caregivers, and other relatives. The resultant THP includes information on 17 variables (see Table 2). "
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    ABSTRACT: By the time children reach adolescence, most have experienced at least one type of severe adversity and many have been exposed to multiple types. However, whether patterns of adverse childhood experiences are consistent or change across developmental epochs in childhood is not known. Retrospective reports of adverse potentially traumatic childhood experiences in 3 distinct developmental epochs (early childhood, 0- to 5-years-old; middle childhood, 6- to 12-years-old; and adolescence, 13- to 18-years-old) were obtained from adolescents (N = 3485) referred to providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) for trauma-focused assessment and treatment. Results from latent class analysis (LCA) revealed increasingly complex patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences in middle childhood and adolescence compared to early childhood. Depending upon the specific developmental epoch assessed, different patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences were associated with gender and with adolescent psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing behavior problems), and juvenile justice involvement. A multiply exposed subgroup that had severe problems in adolescence was evident in each of the 3 epochs, but their specific types of adverse/traumatic experiences differed depending upon the developmental epoch. Implications for research and clinical practice are identified.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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