Cadmium and nutritional intake in pregnant Japanese women
A study to clarify the food composition and nutritional factors that contribute to the levels of blood and urinary cadmium (Cd) was conducted on 50 pregnant Japanese women with mean age of 29 years. The mean iron (Fe) intake of subjects was 9.2 mg, which is much lower than the recommended level of 20 mg for pregnant women. Cd in urine samples collected at 30-32 weeks of gestation were correlated (r = 0.354), but urinary Cd was related to age more than blood Cd. Urinary Cd and blood Cd levels were inversely related to total energy (rpartial = -0.325, and -0.334, respectively) and fat intake (rpartial = -0.419, and -0.379, respectively), even after adjustment for age. Blood Cd was also correlated to protein and iron intake (rpartial = -0.299, and -0.353, respectively). These results indicate that Cd exposure levels of pregnant women with low energy intake, especially less fat intake, were higher than those of women with more energy and fat intake. In particular, blood Cd may be affected by protein and iron intake in pregnant women with increased these nutrients demand.