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The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale-3 (SATAQ-3): Development and Validation

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Abstract

The goal of this investigation was to develop and validate a revision of a widely used measure of societal influences on body image and eating disturbances-the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ). Two independent samples of college females completed a revision and extension of the SATAQ and factor analyses were conducted to determine the underlying structure of the revised scale. Factor analyses indicated two distinct internalization factors: one appeared to reflect a generic media influence related to TV, magazines, and movies. A second factor clearly reflected internalization of athletic and sports figures. Two other factors, reflecting media pressures and media as an informational source, also emerged. Another widely used measure of thin-ideal internalization, the Ideal Body Internalization Scale-Revised (IBIS-R), was included in factor analyses to determine its empirical relationship with the revised SATAQ. None of the IBIS-R items loaded with any of the internalization items or items reflective of media pressures or information. Instead, the IBIS-R appeared to tap into an awareness of appearance norms dimension. The SATAQ-3 subscales had excellent convergent validity with measures of body image and eating disturbance. Eating-disturbed and eating-disordered samples had higher scores on SATAQ-3 subscales than a control sample. The SATAQ-3 measures multiple aspects of a societal influence and should prove useful for basic risk factor work as well as for gauging the efficacy of prevention and treatment programs.

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... The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ; Thompson et al., 2004) consists of 30 items and four scales associated with the media including internalization-general (e.g., I compare my body to the bodies Journal of Child and Family Studies of people in the media), internalization-athlete (e.g., I compare my body to that of people in "good shape"), pressures (e.g., I've felt pressure from media to lose weight), and information (e.g., media is an important source of information about fashion and "being attractive"). Cronbach's alpha for the scales range from 0.92 to 0.96 and correlations among the subscales indicate excellent convergent validity (Thompson et al., 2004). ...
... The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ; Thompson et al., 2004) consists of 30 items and four scales associated with the media including internalization-general (e.g., I compare my body to the bodies Journal of Child and Family Studies of people in the media), internalization-athlete (e.g., I compare my body to that of people in "good shape"), pressures (e.g., I've felt pressure from media to lose weight), and information (e.g., media is an important source of information about fashion and "being attractive"). Cronbach's alpha for the scales range from 0.92 to 0.96 and correlations among the subscales indicate excellent convergent validity (Thompson et al., 2004). Furthermore, the factor structure of the scale is consistent across studies (Thompson et al., 2004). ...
... Cronbach's alpha for the scales range from 0.92 to 0.96 and correlations among the subscales indicate excellent convergent validity (Thompson et al., 2004). Furthermore, the factor structure of the scale is consistent across studies (Thompson et al., 2004). The four scales indicated perceived negative media messages in this study, and all had alphas >0.70. ...
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Previous research has shown that media messages affect body image in emerging adults. Furthermore, parental body image messages and parent–child relationship quality have also been shown to affect emerging adult body image. However, little research has examined the relationships among these variables collectively. Thus, the current study examined the indirect effects of media body image messages and parent–child relationship quality on emerging adult body esteem through parental body image messages. Participants included 555 college-attending emerging adults (72.1% female) who completed online surveys assessing media messages, parental messages, parent–child relationship quality, and body esteem. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of maternal parent–child relationship quality and negative media body image messages on male and female emerging adult body esteem via negative parental body image messages.
... Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale (SATAQ-3; Thompson et al., 2004). The instrument measures the influence and internalization of aesthetic ideals in relation to mass media. ...
... After this variation, four factors were obtained explaining 65.24% of the total variance. In this second model, the generated factors adjust to those obtained by Thompson et al. (2004). Therefore, the configuration was as follows: the first factor called "Pressure" was responsible for 43.0% of the variance; secondly, the factor "Information" explained 9.51%; and finally, the third (7.38%) and fourth factor (5.35%) were "Internalization-athletic" and "Internalization-general", respectively. ...
... The questionnaire has been validated in different contexts, including reverse-keyed items (Markland & Oliver, 2008;Sánchez-Carracedo et al., 2012), or excluding reverse-keyed items (Jackson & Chen, 2010;Madanat et al., 2006;Warren et al., 2013). In the validation published by Thompson et al. (2004), performed on female university students, the questionnaire without reverse-keyed items was used. However, the authors recommended the inclusion of some items with this type of wording, so as to detect whether there is a trend in the participants' responses. ...
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The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) is one of the instruments used to measure the influence of mass media on adolescents, and is a useful instrument that has been widely applied in different countries and translated to many languages. The present study is the first validation of the Mexican version of the SATAQ-3 with a male college student sample. A total of 148 students participated in the study (M = 19.1, SD = 2.14). A principal axis factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale, yielding a poor result, due to the formation of an extra factor with reverse-keyed items. Therefore, reversed key items were removed and a second analysis was conducted. After removing reverse-key items, a four-factor structure was obtained: Pressures, Internalization-general, Internalization-athletic, and Information. The internal consistency obtained for SATAQ-3 was satisfactory (α = .81), however, it was slightly lower than the original. Regarding the concurrent validation, the SATAQ-3 presented significant correlations with body dissatisfaction, social perfectionism and psychological distress. SATAQ-3 is an appropriate instrument to measure the internalization of aesthetic ideals and acceptance, among male college students in Mexico.ResumenUno de los cuestionarios más utilizados para medir la influencia de los medios de comunicación es el Cuestionario de Actitudes Socioculturales hacia la Apariencia (SATAQ-3), el cual ha sido traducido a varias lenguas y aplicado en distintos países. El presente estudio constituye la primera validación mexicana del SATAQ-3 en varones. Participaron 148 estudiantes universitarios (M = 19.1, DE = 2.14). Para evaluar la escala se realizó un análisis factorial de ejes principales, obteniendo inicialmente un resultado pobre, dada la formación de un factor extra con los ítems con redacción inversa. Por esta razón dichos ítems fueron removidos y se condujo un segundo análisis que derivó una estructura de cuatro factores: Presión, Interiorización general, Interiorización atlética, e Información. La consistencia interna del SATAQ-3 fue satisfactoria (α = .81), sin embargo fue un poco menor a la obtenida de la escala original. Respecto a la validación concurrente, el SATAQ-3 presentó correlaciones significativas con la insatisfacción corporal, el perfeccionismo social y el malestar psicológico. El SATAQ-3 es un instrumento apropiado para medir la interiorización de los ideales estéticos y su aceptación en estudiantes universitarios varones mexicanos.
... SATAQ-3 :Thompson, van den Berg, Roehrig, Guarda et Heinberg, 2004). Cet outil comporte 30 items et une échelle de Likert en cinq points allant de « complètement en désaccord » à « complètement en accord ». ...
... qui présentent des ACAP et ceux qui n'en présentent pas ne sont pas significatives (p  0,05) pour les autres échelles de l'IDPESQ ; score global, anxiété, dépression, irritabilité et anxiété sociale.Dans le même sens, aucune des différences observées entre les participant.es qui présentent des ACAP et ceux n'en présentant pas ne s'est révélée significative en lien avec les différentes échelles associées à l'intériorisation des idéaux de beauté sociétaux du SATAQ-3(Thompson et al., 2004). ...
... Ensuite, dans le cadre de l'étude, des outils reconnus dans la littérature ont été employés autant pour mesurer les ACAP que les caractéristiques psychologiques. En effet, l'Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3 : Garner, 2004), le Questionnaire for a diagnosis of orthorexia (ORTO-15 : Donini et al., 2005), le Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI : Hildebrandt et al., 2004) sont des outils largement utilisés dans la littérature pour évaluer les TCA et les ACAP.De même, les outils évaluant les caractéristiques psychologiques permettent aussi d'assurer une validité à l'étude actuelle : le Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3 :Thompson et al., 2004) et les échelles portant sur les caractéristiques psychologiques de l'EDI-3. Seul un outil employé n'est pas couramment utilisé dans la littérature, mais il a été retenu pour ses qualités psychométriques acceptables : l'Indice de détresse psychologique de l'Enquête Santé Québec (IDPESQ :Préville et al., 1992). ...
Thesis
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Les attitudes et comportements alimentaires problématiques (ACAP), tout comme les troubles des conduites alimentaires, réfèrent à des préoccupations envahissantes pour l’alimentation, l’apparence et le poids, à une influence du poids et de l’apparence sur l’estime de soi ainsi qu’à des perturbations des comportements alimentaires. Les ACAP entraînent des conséquences importantes (ex: détresse psychologique, dépression, anxiété, altération de la qualité de vie et des relations familiales et sociales, augmentation des risques de présenter des troubles des conduites alimentaires). Les étudiant.es-athlètes universitaires sont à risque de présenter des ACAP, car ils doivent surmonter au même moment des enjeux en lien avec le début de l’âge adulte, les études universitaires et la pratique de sport universitaire élite. L’étude actuelle a comme objectifs de 1. Déterminer la proportion d’étudiant.es-athlètes universitaires présentant des ACAP ; 2. Déterminer les différences sur le plan des caractéristiques psychologiques entre les étudiant.es-athlètes présentant ou non des ACAP ; 3. Évaluer quelles sont les variables psychologiques les plus fortement associées à la présence d’ACAP chez les étudiant.es-athlètes universitaires. L’échantillon est composé de 133 étudiant.es-athlètes faisant partie de l’équipe sportive de leur université québécoise, lors de l’année scolaire 2018-2019. Trois outils ont été employés pour mesurer les ACAP, soit l’Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3), le Questionnaire for a diagnosis of orthorexia et le Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory. Trois outils ont été utilisés pour évaluer les caractéristiques psychologiques, soit l’EDI-3, le Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 et l’Indice de détresse psychologique de l’enquête santé Québec. En lien avec le premier objectif, 19,5 % de l’échantillon total présente des ACAP (21,1 % chez les femmes et 15,8 % chez les hommes, p > 0,05). Ensuite, les participant.es ayant des ACAP présentaient significativement (p ≤ 0,05) plus d’ascétisme, de difficulté de régulation émotionnelle, d’aliénation interpersonnelle, de problèmes cognitifs et une plus faible estime de soi que les participant.es exempts d’ACAP (second objectif). En lien avec le troisième objectif, une régression linéaire multiple a été réalisée, permettant d’observer que le sexe et le surcontrôle explique 36,3 % de la variance (p ≤ 0,01) du score d’ACAP. De ces deux variables, c’est le surcontrôle qui contribue le plus au modèle (ß = 0,595, comparativement au sexe ß = 0,208 ). En résumé, en contrôlant pour le sexe, plus un ou une étudiant.e-athlète universitaire aurait de surcontrôle, plus il ou elle présenterait un score d’ACAP élevé. Face à ces résultats, il est nécessaire de conscientiser les entraîneurs à la problématique des ACAP afin qu’ils en connaissent les manifestations et les conséquences permettant de repérer des étudiant.es-athlètes plus à risque et de leur offrir un soutien supplémentaire en prenant le temps de discuter avec eux ou en les référant à des professionnels spécialisés.
... Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire 3 (SATAQ-3; Thompson, van den Berg, Roehrig, Guarda, & Heinberg, 2004). The subscales Internalization-General (nine items) and Internalization-Athlete (five items) were included, and items rated from 1 = Definitely disagree to 5 = Definitely agree. ...
... Although many efforts were made to secure a valid translation process, more could have been done (e.g., additional back-translations, pre-testing in a larger sample), in line with previous recommendations (Swami & Barron, 2019). The fact that several of the included measures (e.g., BESAA by Mendelson et al., 2001; SATAQ-3 by Thompson et al., 2004) have not been previously validated in Swedish should also be acknowledged as a limitation. Further, our sample was not large enough to split in order to follow-up the EFAs with confirmatory factor analyses in line with previous recommendations (Swami & Barron, 2019). ...
Article
This report describes a Swedish translation and psychometric evaluation of the Experience of Embodiment Scale (EES; Piran, Teall, & Counsell, 2020), an instrument for assessing a wide range of positive and negative experiences of living in the body. A community sample (N = 545) of Swedish young women (56%) and men (Mage = 24.4; SD = 0.52) completed the Swedish translation of the EES. To explore its construct validity, participants also completed measures of body esteem, disordered eating, internalization of appearance ideals, drive for muscularity and leanness, body mass index, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and psychological distress. Exploratory factor analyses (performed separately for women and men) revealed structures of the Swedish EES similar to those displayed during the development and first evaluations of the scale in North America. However, among men, the factors of agency and sexual desire combined to form one factor. On total scale level, the Swedish EES showed good internal consistency (McDonald’s ω = .95 for women; ω = .94 for men), convergent validity, and incremental validity. Overall, the present findings support the Swedish version of the EES and the EES’s cross-national use to assess the construct of embodiment, as well as its use among men.
... Sociocultural standards of beauty imply both the recognition (i.e., awareness) and acceptance (i.e., internalization) of the predominant physical-attractiveness and appearance benchmarks in a societal context (Heinberg, Thompson, & Stormer, 1995). While awareness indexes one's knowledge of beauty standards (Thompson, Van Den Berg, Roehrig, Guarda, & Heinberg, 2004), internalization represents one's endorsement of these standards as personal beliefs and goals (Thompson et al., 2004;Thompson & Stice, 2001). ...
... Sociocultural standards of beauty imply both the recognition (i.e., awareness) and acceptance (i.e., internalization) of the predominant physical-attractiveness and appearance benchmarks in a societal context (Heinberg, Thompson, & Stormer, 1995). While awareness indexes one's knowledge of beauty standards (Thompson, Van Den Berg, Roehrig, Guarda, & Heinberg, 2004), internalization represents one's endorsement of these standards as personal beliefs and goals (Thompson et al., 2004;Thompson & Stice, 2001). ...
Article
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Recent research showed that body image concerns (i.e., drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction) may be associated with exposure to images on social networking sites. We analysed this relationship by taking into account the possible mediating role of both the appearance‐related comparisons (i.e., the comparison with others on a specific dimension) and the internalization of beauty standards (i.e., the acceptance of the predominant physical‐attractiveness societal standards) in the Italian context. In two studies, we showed that Instagram‐photo activity was positively associated with both drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction through the mediating role of appearance‐related comparisons on Instagram. We further showed that the association between Instagram‐photo activity and body image concerns was sequentially mediated by appearance‐related comparisons on Instagram and the internalization of beauty standards. Female participants who engaged in Instagram‐photo activity also expressed greater concerns about their bodies as they were highly likely to make more comparisons relative to the appearance dimension and show high levels of internalization of beauty standards. These findings are discussed within theoretical and applied implications in the social media domain. Please refer to the Supplementary Material section to find this article's Community and Social Impact Statement.
... Concerning intrapersonal characteristics that were perceived to positively impact favorable attitudes towards cosmetic surgery, the women described internalization of the beauty ideal and appearance-based comparisons to others. Beauty-ideal internalization (i.e., "buying into" and comparing against the idealized beauty; Stice, 2002;Thompson, van den Berg, Roehrig, Guarda & Heinberg, 2004) and appearance comparison (i.e., to evaluate one's own appearance based on comparing with others; e.g., Menzel et al., 2011;Sharp et al., 2014; also see social comparison theory; Festinger, 1954) are key mediators within the tripartite influence model (Thompson et al., 1999), and contribute to body image disturbances and cosmetic surgery consideration across cultures (e.g., Ching & Xu, 2019;Jackson & Chen, 2015;Smart & Tsong, 2014;Stefanile et al., 2014;Sun, 2018;Vaughan-Turnbull & Lewis, 2015;Wu et al., 2020). ...
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There is an established relationship between acceptance of cosmetic surgery and psychological factors, including body image. However, qualitative research among diverse cultural groups is needed to provide a more fine-grained understanding of the influences on women’s attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. In this study, 20 Chinese and 20 Dutch women aged 18-50 years (MChinese = 34.20; MDutch = 34.70) participated in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. We identified three themes that captured the factors that women perceived to foster favorable attitudes towards cosmetic surgery: (a) sociocultural pressures (e.g., normalization of cosmetic surgery, appearance-focused peers); (b) intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., beauty-ideal internalization, social comparison); and (c) benefits of beauty (e.g., attracting men, socioeconomic benefits). Conversely, two themes captured the factors perceived to reduce favorable attitudes towards cosmetic surgery: (a) intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., unconditional body acceptance, self-confidence); and (b) external considerations (e.g., health risks, financial costs). Overall, Chinese and Dutch participants shared many similarities in their opinions about what might affect cosmetic surgery consideration. The most striking cross-cultural differences concerned perceived socioeconomic benefits of beauty (mainly Chinese women) and women’s conceptualization of body appreciation. This study may enable a more comprehensive understanding about the factors influencing Chinese and Dutch women’s attitudes towards cosmetic surgery, and the nuances in these relationships across these cultures.
... Internalisation of societal appearance ideals will be assessed using a culturally adapted Bahasa Indonesia version of the internalisation-general subscale of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) [61]. Participants will be asked to indicate agreement with items (e.g., "I wish I looked like the models in music videos") on a five-point Likert-type scale from 1 (totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree). ...
Article
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Background Due to the prevalence and associated adverse health consequences of negative body image among adolescents globally, there is a need to develop acceptable, effective, and scalable interventions. School-based body image interventions delivered by trained teachers show promise in reducing negative body image in adolescents. However, there is currently a lack of evidenced-based body image interventions for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This paper outlines a protocol for the development and evaluation of Dove Confident Me Indonesia: Single Session , a single-session, teacher-led body image intervention for Indonesian adolescents. Method The effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the trial will be conducted online. Trained teachers or school guidance counsellors will deliver the intervention. Self-report questionnaires will be collected at three time points: baseline, post-intervention, and two-month follow-up. The primary outcome is body esteem. Secondary outcomes are internalisation of appearance ideals, mood, engagement in life activities, tendency to engage in appearance comparisons, and skin shade satisfaction. A minimum of 1000 participants will provide 95% power to detect small-to-medium intervention effects. To account for attrition and potential internet issues, the sample will comprise of 2000 Indonesian adolescents in grades 7–9, attending state junior high schools in Surabaya, East Java. Quantitative and qualitative data on acceptability of the intervention will also be collected from teachers and students. Additionally, fidelity of lesson implementation will be assessed. This project received ethical approval from the Universitas Indonesia and the University of the West of England. The intervention will be disseminated in junior high schools throughout Indonesia via UNICEF’s Life Skills Education (LSE) programme, which will be freely available for teachers to download. Discussion This paper presents Dove Confident Me Indonesia: Single Session, a culturally adapted school-based intervention designed to improve Indonesian adolescents’ body image. It details the plan for evaluation, highlighting the strengths and limitations of the proposed study design. It will be informative for others aiming to adapt evidence-based school curricula to promote well-being among adolescents in LMICs. Trial registration NCT04665557 . Registered 11th December 2020.
... Relatedly, the SATAQ assesses the importance of looking thin and the internalization of pressures felt from family, peers, and the media to achieve a certain body type (example items are "I want my body to look very lean," and "I get pressure from my peers to decrease my level of body fat"). Two studies evaluating the IBSS and SATAQ identified that, despite the perceived interchangeability of the measures, they assess slightly different constructs (Thompson, Schaefer, & Dedrick, 2018;Thompson et al., 2004). Via a confirmatory factor analysis, the IBSS and SATAQ both loaded onto the same factor evaluating awareness of appearance ideals, but the SATAQ also loaded onto a factor evaluating the internalization of the thin ideal. ...
Article
Thin ideal internalization is a risk factor for disordered eating behaviors, poor body image, and eating disorders (EDs). This paper evaluated the psychometric properties of a novel measure, the Perceived Benefits of Thinness Scale (PBTS), which assesses how individuals feel being thinner would affect various aspects of their lives. Three separate studies with unique samples of college-aged women over 18 years were conducted to assess reliability and validity. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested all PBTS items loaded onto one factor that was distinct from a measure of weight and shape concerns. A large correlation between changes in PTBS scores and changes in ED psychopathology scores over 8 months (r = .57, p < .01) suggested sensitivity to change. Greater severity in ED pathology was also associated with higher scores on the PBTS. In Study 2, the PBTS showed good test-retest reliability (r = .84, p < .001) and, in Study 3, expected correlations with existing measures of thin ideal internalization (rs = .38–.60, ps < .001). Overall, the PBTS displayed good factor structure, reliability, concurrent validity, and sensitivity to change. By emphasizing social, emotional, and quality of life benefits, the PBTS may serve clinicians, researchers, and patients in understanding thin ideal internalization and associated ED risk.
... Large-scale surveys that involve validated scales are typical in the psychology literature that has broadly informed our understanding of how body image is experienced by many different groups of people. Scales include the Socio-cultural Attitudes toward Appearance Questionnaire Internalisation Subscale (Heinberg et al., 1995); the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (Thompson et al., 2004); the Appearance Conversation Scale ; and the Body Image and Body Change Inventory (Ricciardelli and McCabe, 2002). These studies and their instruments lay the foundational understandings for a range of issues that pertain to body image. ...
... Peer impact was measured using Peer Impact Scale in the Tripartite In uence Scale (Thompson et al.,2004). The scale consists of 13 items, which are translated and revised into 12 items. ...
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Background Negative body image is a common psychological phenomenon among Chinese college students, which should arouse our attention. Peers and media are important factors that influence personal negative body image. This study explores the mechanism of media and peers on the negative body image of Chinese college students. Methods 461 college students (173 identifying as male, 234 identifying as female) were investigated by using the Revised Social and Cultural Attitude Questionnaire of Appearance, Appearance Comparison Scale, Peer Impact Scale and Negative Body Image Scale. Results The results are as follows: (1) Correlation analysis shows that except media attention is not significantly correlated with negative body images, all other variables are significantly positively correlated; (2) Path analysis shows that the direct effect of media attention on negative body image is not significant, while the direct effect of peer impact is significant, and both of them have indirect effects through the mediate role of appearance comparison and internalization of the thin-ideal. Additionally, appearance comparison and internalization of the thin-ideal act as a chain mediation between negative body image and media attention, peer impact. Conclusions The research shows just paying attention to the information of the perfect body in the media will not produce negative body image, but paying attention to the media and peer talks about the body may cause college students to compare appearances and internalize the standards for a good shape, leading to their negative evaluation of themselves.
... Se detectó que, a mayor nivel de influencia del patrón de belleza, mayor es el nivel de insatisfacción con la propia imagen. Estos resultados permiten hipotetizar que ambas variables funcionan como factores predisponentes y aportan evidencia a las teorías que consideran los TCA como síndromes ligados a la cultura Thompson et al. (2004) 1º Estudio Dos muestras independientes de mujeres universitarias 6. Argentina, España y Brasil, son los países que más lo refieren en sus estudios, especialmente los dos últimos, al igual que el CIMEC, su finalidad es conocer las relaciones de las influencias socioculturales en relación a la insatisfacción corporal, o variables relacionadas a los trastornos como anorexia o bulimia nerviosas, aunque ha sido usado mayormente en mujeres jóvenes, también hay estudios como adolescentes (Dunker, Fernandes y Carreira, 2009), y deportistas (Mockdece, Fernandes, Berbert, Sousa ...
Article
El interés por la imagen corporal tiene cerca de cien años, ya en 1920, Mead (como se citó en Cash y Pruzinsky, 2002), mencionaba que ésta podría definirse como la “habilidad del cerebro para detectar peso, limitar forma y tamaño e incorporar éstos dentro de los esquemas mentales “(pág. 3). Dicho interés por la imagen corporal se acentuó en la década de 1970 cuando se observó que la interiorización de un modelo corporal predominante puede estar asociado a psicopatologías como la anorexia y bulimia nerviosas en las mujeres. En el caso de los varones la preocupación generalizada por el cuerpo o cierto tipo de figura es más reciente, hace 20 años aproximadamente; no obstante, también tiene consecuencias graves en algunos casos, como el desarrollo del trastorno dismórfico corporal.Bajo el concepto de influencias socio-culturales se estudia una serie de factores culturales y sociales que han promovido y validado valores estéticos como la delgadez para mujeres y la musculatura para varones, por lo que es importante la construcción de medidas o instrumentos que valoren este constructo, por ello, el objetivo de esta investigación fue describir y analizar la utilización de los dos cuestionarios más conocidos en la literatura que tienen como finalidad medir las influencias culturales en la asimilación de los modelos estéticos; el CIMEC y el SATAQ.
... The shaping of one's body image is influenced by attitudes and beliefs regarding one's body (subjective opinions and perceptions, such as satisfaction or dissatisfaction with one's looks), physical factors (objective body measurements, proportions, body mass, height), interpersonal factors (opinions from one's environment; e.g., family members, peers), and cultural factors (e.g., from the media) (1,22). The latter have a huge influence over the "ideal" an individual tries to attain, because they play a significant role in the acceptance and construction of standards for bodies (23). Western culture promotes body ideals characterised by tall, slim female bodies (24,25), with constant breasts-to-waist ratio and a low hip-towaist ratio (26,27), while perfect male bodies are muscular and mesomorphic (V-shaped, with broad shoulders and a narrow waist) (28,29). ...
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The goal of this study was to investigate the role of the subjective assessment of one’s body image in the relationship between objective indices of appearance and perceived stigma in young women affected by obesity and psoriasis. These are chronic diseases that decrease one’s physical attractiveness and are associated with stigmas related to body defects. A total of 188 women in early adulthood took part in the study (M = 25.58; SD =2.90), including obese women (n = 54), women suffering from psoriasis (n = 57), and a control group (n = 77). The participants completed the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Anthropometric data were gathered using a body composition analyzer. Objective parameters of body shape were calculated (WHR and ICO). Subjective assessment of one’s body and attitudes towards one’s body were found to influence perceived stigma, independently of the condition causing the stigma and of the objective appearance of the participant. This study did not support the existence of a relationship between parameters regarding body shape and sense of stigma, even when subjective body assessment acted as a moderator. At the same time, body mass was a strong predictor of levels of perceived stigma. Women affected with obesity perceived a higher level of stigma than the other groups. The severity of psoriasis did not impact the perceived stigma. Moreover, women with psoriasis assessed their health – as a part of the assessment of their bodies – the highest, which may explain the lower perceived stigma in this group.
... Participaram dos estudos técnico administrativo, atletas de ginástica artísticas, estudantes e professores. 53,85% foram realizados apenas com estudantes (BATISTA et al., 2015;ALVARENGA et al., 2010;FORTES et al., 2013;LIRA et al., 2017;FORTES et al., 2015a;CAMPOS et al., 2016;GONÇALVES;MARTINEZ, 2014) O SATAQ-3 é um instrumento tipo Likert com 30 questões e tem como objetivo avaliar a influência da mídia sobre a imagem corporal a partir da análise de quatro dimensões: a internalização geral de padrões pré-estabelecidos pela mídia, a internalização do corpo atlético que representa a influência da mídia sobre corpo ideal, a pressão que a mídia impõe ao sujeito para que esse persiga o corpo perfeito e a mídia como fonte de informação importante sobre como ser atraente (THOMPSON et al., 2004;AMARAL et al., 2011). Etcoff, Orbach e Dagostino (2004), em um estudo Global sobre a beleza encomendado pela Dove (marca da Unilever), com 3.200 mulheres em idades de 18 a 64 anos, revelou que entre as brasileiras apenas 6% das mulheres escolheram a palavra "bonita" para definir sua aparência. ...
Article
RESUMO A imagem corporal é uma construção social e a mídia, por sua vez, apresenta-se como grande in-fluenciadora no que diz respeito à percepção das mulheres sobre o próprio corpo. O objetivo do ar-tigo é revisar publicações científicas que avaliem a influência da mídia na concepção e/ou insatisfação corporal de indivíduos do sexo feminino. Este estu-do é uma revisão sistemática realizada nos bancos de dados: Lilacs, SciELO, Directory of open Access Journal e Pepsic, os descritores utilizados foram: imagem corporal e mídia. Foram selecionados 13 artigos publicados em português. Diante de tantas ocorrências causadas pela mídia, observa-se que ela tem grande influência na insatisfação corporal. A maioria dos estudos é realizado nos âmbitos edu-cacionais. E há uma prevalência de jovens adultos. Dado que a mídia apresenta influências positivas e negativas para a sociedade, os resultados obtidos nesta revisão mostram que a mídia tem influência negativa na concepção corporal das mulheres.
... Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ; Thompson et al., 2004) was used to assess negative media messages, and it includes 30 items and four scales summed from items, which are internalization-general (e.g., I compare my body to the bodies of people who are on TV; alpha = 0.91 and 0.92 for women and men), internalization-athlete (e.g., I compare my body to that of people in "good shape"; alpha = 0.93 for women and men), pressures (e.g., I've felt pressure from TV or magazines to lose weight; alpha = 0.93 and 0.94 for women and men), and information (e.g., TV commercials are an important source of information about fashion and "being attractive"; alpha = 0.95 and 0.92 for women and men). Cronbach's alphas for the scales range from 0.92 to 0.96 and correlations among the subscales indicate excellent convergent validity in past studies . ...
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Previous research has shown the effect of both media messages and parental feedback on emerging adult body esteem. However, not much research has examined the combined effects of these types of feedback on emerging adult body esteem. Previous research has also shown that mothers and fathers can affect their children differently. Thus, the current study examined the interaction effects of maternal and paternal feedback and media messages on emerging adult body esteem. Participants included 555 college-attending emerging adults (72.1% women). Participants completed an online survey measuring negative media messages, negative maternal and paternal feedback, and body esteem. Results indicated significant negative main effects of media messages and maternal and paternal feedback on emerging adult body esteem Furthermore, results indicated a significant three-way interaction effect of media messages and maternal and paternal feedback on body esteem in emerging adult women. Findings from this study can be used to inform interventions addressing body image in emerging adults.
... We used two subscales from the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3), Pressures and Information, that measure the extent to which individuals use the unrealistic body image promoted by the media as a body standard under the influence of the sociocultural context [52]. All items are scored on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 = 'definitely disagree' to 5 = 'definitely agree'. ...
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A strong sociocultural context could affect an individual’s aesthetic standards. In order to achieve a socially recognized ideal appearance, obligatory exercisers might increase dieting behavior when exercise actions are disturbed, thereby placing the individual at risk of eating disorders. The current study mainly examined the relationship between obligatory exercise and eating attitudes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and considered the mediating role of externalized sociocultural attitudes towards appearance between the two. A total of 342 participants (175 females, 167 males) from various regions of China were invited to fill out the questionnaires including the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire, the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3, and the Eating Attitudes Test. In total, 51.5% of the participants presented symptoms of an obligatory exercise behavior. Among them, males, young adults, and the participants with lower BMI had higher OEQ scores, whereas females and young adults had higher EAT-26 scores. Meanwhile, 9.4% of the participants might have had an eating disorder. The OEQ score was positively correlated with the EAT-26 total score as well as SATAQ-3 ‘Pressures’ and ‘Information’ subscales. In addition, the EAT-26 total score was positively correlated with the SATAQ-3 ‘Pressures’ and ‘Information’ subscales. Externalized sociocultural attitudes towards appearance served as a mediator between obligatory exercise behavior and eating attitudes, and the mediation effect accounted for 56.82% of the total effect. Obligatory exercise behavior may have an indirect effect on eating attitudes through sociocultural attitudes towards appearance. Given the sociocultural information and pressures, in order to maintain or pursue an ideal appearance, many people tend to keep a pathological diet. Thus, forming a positive and healthy social aesthetic orientation is beneficial in helping obligatory exercisers to develop reasonable eating habits.
... Three studies used the Perceived Sociocultural Influences Questionnaire (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001) to assess peer and family influences. One study used the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (Thompson et al., 2004), which measures internalization of body ideals endorsed by traditional media platforms, such as TV and magazines. One study assessed parental influence using the Parental Psychological Control Scale-Youth Self Report (Barber & Buehler, 1996). ...
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Compulsive exercise commonly coexists with eating psychopathology. While the impact of sociocultural influences on disordered eating has been identified in young people, sociocultural influences on compulsive exercise are yet to be systematically synthesized. This systematic review therefore aimed to synthesize literature examining sociocultural influences from peers, family and media on compulsive exercise, to explore the potential importance of such influences on the development and maintenance of compulsive exercise in young people. A systematic literature search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines in PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science databases up to November 2021. Seven quantitative studies were included (five cross-sectional, two prospective). The review highlighted three key factors underpinning the relationship between sociocultural influences and compulsive exercise in young people: body-related messages from significant others, and unfavorable comparisons with, and pressure to conform to, body image ideals. The findings support the notion that compulsive exercise behaviors and attitudes can be socially determined. However, the limited research with young people necessitates further exploration of sociocultural influences on the development and onset of compulsive exercise in adolescence/young adulthood to develop robust conclusions. It is also crucial that research remains up to date with changing technological influences on exercise behaviors.
... Peer impact was measured using the Peer Impact Scale in the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale-3 [39]. The scale comprises 13 items, translated and revised into 12 items, such as, "Have your friends or classmates ever commented about or laughed at your appearance?" Answers were rated on a five-point scale (1 = never, 5 = always). ...
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Background Negative body image is a common psychological phenomenon among Chinese college students meriting investigation. Peers and the media are important factors that negatively influence body image. This study explored the mechanisms of media and peers promoting negative body image among Chinese college students. Method Data from 407 college students (173 men and 234 women) were collected using the Revised Social and Cultural Attitude Questionnaire of Appearance, Appearance Comparison Scale, Peer Impact Scale, and Negative Body Image Scale. Results Correlational analysis results demonstrated that media attention was not significantly correlated with negative body image. All other variables were significantly positively correlated. Path analysis results indicated that the direct effect of media attention on negative body image was not significant, while the direct effect of peer impact was significant. In addition, appearance comparison and internalization of the thin ideal acted as a chained indirect effect between negative body image, media attention, and peer impact. Conclusions The research revealed that focusing on perfect bodies displayed in the media did not produce a negative body image. However, focusing on the media and peer conversations regarding the body caused the participants to compare appearances and internalize ideal body shape standards, leading to negative self-evaluations.
... This study used the Chinese version (Liu, 2009) of the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) which was developed by Thompson et al. (2004) to measure media internalized pressure. This scale has 15 items, including a media attention subscale and an internalization subscale. ...
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Background Restrained eating behavior has become the norm in college students' lives, and considering the harm it causes to college students, it is necessary to explore the factors associated with it. The aim of this study was to explore the association between media internalized pressure, body esteem, social physique anxiety, and restrained eating behavior.Methods The participants in this study were 1,032 Chinese college students (439 males and 593 females) and had a mean age of 20.22 years (SD = 1.277). They completed the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3, Body Esteem Scale (BES), Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ).ResultsThe results showed that media internalized pressure was significantly and positively associated with college students' restrained eating behavior, that body esteem and social physique anxiety played a mediating role between media internalized pressure and restrained eating behavior, respectively, and that body esteem and social physique anxiety can also play a chained mediating role.Conclusion This study reveals the relationship between media internalized pressure and restrained eating behavior, and the important role played by body esteem and social physique anxiety. Future interventions targeting restrained eating should focus on the aspects of body esteem and social physique anxiety.
... The Cronbach's alpha coefficient in our sample (α) was 0.94. The Hungarian, validated version [30] of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale (SATAQ) is a 30-item measure used to assess internalization of sociocultural appearance standards [31]. The scale contains items on the endorsement and acceptance of unrealistic ideal images and athletic body idea, importance of various forms of media for obtaining information, and perceived pressure to achieve the media body ideal. ...
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Background. University years often are accompanied by dramatic lifestyle changes resulting in an elevated risk of disordered eating among females. We examined the associations of disordered eating with body image, weight and media-related variables. Methods. Hungarian female university students (n = 261, mean age = 22.0 years; SD = 2.2 years) were the study participants using online data collection. The Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) was used to assess levels of and risk for disordered eating. Results. Twenty-four percent of the sample displayed disordered eating: students with family’s eating disorders (OR = 4.73 [1.34– 16.67], p < 0.05), body satisfaction (OR = 0.23 [0.07-0.70], p < 0.01), engagement in sporting (OR = 4.46[1.77-11.27], p < 0.01) and past slimming (OR = 5.63 [2.07-15.27], p < 0.001) were particularly at risk. Multiple linear regression indicated that dieting was associated with a higher score among sporting students (β = 0.18, p < 0.001) and internalization of media messages (β = 0.18, p < 0.001). BMI was a predictor of dieting (β = 0.15, p < 0.01) and oral control (β = -0.34, p < 0.001); social media addiction for bulimia (β = 0.17, p < 0.01). Conclusions. Our paper highlights the role of body dissatisfaction, sporting and slimming tendencies, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, and family’s eating pathology in understanding female university students’ disordered eating. There is a limited role that social media plays in part, due to possible age-related experiences and skills related to coping with a variety of social pressures.
... The remaining factors were assessed using the Body Areas Satisfaction Subscale (appearance satisfaction; Brown, Cash, & Mikulka, 1990;Cash, 2000), Internalisation General and Internalisation Athlete Subscales (appearance-ideal internalisation; Thompson, van den Berg, Roehrig, Guarda, & Heinberg, 2004) Mahalik et al., 2003). Individual items were used to assess media consumption (television, magazines, internet; Hatoum & Belle, 2004;Slater & Tiggemann, 2006) and frequency of physical activity (Prichard & Tiggemann, 2008). ...
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Emerging research suggests that positive body image—an overall love and respect for one’s body— may be a protective factor for eating disorder (ED) symptoms. This study aimed to explore the relationships between positive body image, ED symptoms, and related factors among men across time. A community sample of 440 British men completed questionnaires at Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year later). Linear models showed that, unexpectedly, positive body image at Time 1 did not predict change in ED symptoms at Time 2, and ED symptoms at Time 1 did not predict change in positive body image at Time 2. However, positive body image at Time 1 did predict increased appearance satisfaction and decreased appearance-ideal internalisation at Time 2. Increased positive body image at Time 2 was only predicted by appearance satisfaction at Time 1. Although no evidence for a longitudinal relationship between positive body image and ED symptoms was found, positive body image did predict change in established risk factors for disordered eating among men. Future research on positive body image and eating behaviour among men could be improved by including assessments of muscularity-oriented and adaptive eating behaviours.
... To capture both social pressures and internalisation the third edition of the sociocultural attitudes towards appearance was utilised (SATAQ; [36]). The SATAQ internalisation dimension has both general and athlete subscales and has exhibited good measurement properties in previous studies [37]. Likewise, the SATAQ subscales of Pressures and Information [along with the social media questions] were used to measure the risk factor Social Pressures in Petrie and Greenleaf's model, alongside additional questions that the research team developed in an attempt to modernise the scale by capturing social media pressures. ...
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Disordered eating and eating disorders have huge impact on athletic health and performance. Understanding risk factors for disordered eating development is paramount to protecting the health and performance of these athletes. This project tested a model longitudinally to test whether body dissatisfaction (mediated by negative affect) and societal pressures (mediated by internalisation) predicted bulimic symptomatology at 1 year. The study recruited 1017 male and female athletes in a range of sports at three time points over a year. Cross-lag meditation modelling in MPLUS was utilised to test the hypothesised model. Results indicated that societal pressures mediated by general internalisation led to bulimic symptomatology and that gender and sport type do moderate the relationships. However, measurement issues indicate that scales not originally created for athletes may not reliably measure athletes’ experience. This research highlights how understanding how to better assess risk factors and disordered eating related concepts in athletes is a key next step. The study is unique in its longitudinal design and in its sampling of a wide range of sports in both male and female athletes.
... Peer influences, body-image dissatisfaction, eating dysfunction, and self-esteem in adolescent girls. Appearance-ideal internalization refers to the acceptance of culturally endorsed appearance ideals (e.g., thinness for females and muscularity for males) as one's personal appearance standard (45), whereas perceived pressures can be defined as the feeling of being encouraged to modify one's physical appearance to reach such ideals (46). A meta-analysis revealed that the emphasis of mass media on the beauty of being slim is significantly related to body image disorder in college students (especially women) (47). ...
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Objective Body-image disturbance and eating disorders are significant physical and mental health problems in China. Attitudes toward the body are thought to work in conjunction with other established risk factors for dietary pathology, which include body dissatisfaction, dieting, and negative effects. Negative appearance evaluation may be valuable for extending our understanding of measuring factors and potential causal relationships associated with body image and eating problems. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between negative appearance evaluation and a combination of eating attitudes and sociocultural attitudes toward appearance and the mediating effect of negative appearance evaluation on the relationship between eating attitudes and sociocultural attitudes toward appearance. Methods We invited 339 Chinese adults to undergo the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale (FNAES), and the Sociocultural Attitudes toward Appearance (SATAQ-3) scale, and used AMOS 24.0 for model construction and mediating effects testing. Results There was a significant positive correlation between EAT-26 scores and FNAES ( p < 0.001) and SATAQ-3 scores ( p < 0.001), and all dimensions except internalization general were significantly positively correlated ( p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between FNAES and SATAQ-3 scores for all dimensions ( p < 0. 01). There was no significant direct effect of eating attitude on sociocultural attitude toward appearance; however, there was a significant mediating effect of fear of negative appearance evaluation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that negative appearance evaluation fully mediates the relationship between eating attitudes and sociocultural attitudes toward appearance. An individual’s attitude toward eating affects negative body perceptions and thus their perception of their own body shape. Our exploration of the specific effects of eating attitudes on body perception provides a psychological basis for guidance and developing interventions regarding attitudes toward the body.
... Pasman andThompson 1988); ORQ, Obligatory Running Questionnaire (Blumenthal et al. 1984). Measures of ED risk: BSQ, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ; Cooper et al. 1987); BSRQ, Body Self Relations Questionnaire (Noles et al. 1985); EAT, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40, Garner and Garfinkel 1979;EAT-26, Garner et al. 1982); EDE-Q, Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (Fairburn and Beglin 2008); EDI, Eating Disorder Inventory (Garner et al. 1983); EDI-2, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (Garner 1991); EEE-C, Eating and Exercise Examination-Computerized (Abraham and Lovell 1999); EPSI, Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (Forbush et al. 2013); GFFS, Goldfarb Fear of Fat Scale (Goldfarb et al. 1985); SATAQ-3, Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3 ( Thompson et al. 2004); SEED, The search terms used in equations incorporating AND and OR as logical operators were as follows: "exercise addiction," "exercise dependence," "abusive exercise," "compulsive exercise," "obligatory exercise," "excessive exercise," "exercise abuse," "overtraining," "eating disorder*," "disordered eating," "dysfunctional eating," "eating pathology," "athlet*," and "sport*" in the title, keywords, and/or abstract. A further specific search was conducted with Records screening for title/abstract (n=461) Records identified through database searching (n=462) Additional records identified through manual search (n=7) Records excluded due to language (n=8) ...
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Exercise addiction (EA) affects a considerable number of individuals who regularly perform exercise-sport activities. The co-occurrence of EA manifestations and the continuum of disordered eating-eating disorders (EDs) is so common in sports that a deeper understanding of them as comorbidities is warranted. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview and synthesis of the research on the relationship between maladaptive exercise and dysfunctional eating in the sport context. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 22 empirical studies (23 articles) with young and adult female and male athletes from several sports and competition levels was included. EA in conjunction with eating disturbances is frequent among athletes, yet the prevalence rates are inconsistent. Existing evidence suggests that EA is a relevant outcome of ED pathology among athletes, supporting the classical secondary type of EA. However, research also reveals that excessive exercising plays a central role in the psychopathology of disordered eating. There is a need for further quantitative research addressing the features and correlates of the EA-EDs dyad, qualitative research on the subjective experiences of athletes with disordered exercise and eating, longitudinal and experimental research to establish possible causal paths and attempts to develop comprehensive conceptual models of EA and its co-occurrence with EDs, in order to improve the identification, prevention, and management of this dyadic condition in the sport context.
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Excessive physical activity (PA) has been linked to increased risk for disordered eating behaviours and eating disorders. This study investigates the relationship between PA and disordered eating behaviours and attitudes (DEBAs) among Jamaican adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 521 adolescents, 12–19 years. Anthropometric measurements were collected, and adolescents completed questionnaires on disordered eating behaviours (EAT-26), physical activity, self-esteem and affect. Associations were assessed using sex-specific mixed-effect linear and logistic regression models. Participants reported exercising an average of 3 days per week. Adolescents who exercised for a longer duration had greater odds of having elevated EAT-26 scores (at least 1 hour-OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.03, 4.06; p = .042), while a higher exercise frequency among males (3–5 days per week) was protective against DEBAs (OR 0.38; 95% CI = 0.16, 0.88; p = .025). Female adolescents reported higher prevalence of elevated EAT-26 scores than males (p < .01). Increased negative affect increased odds of an elevated EAT-26 score. Exercise duration and frequency play a role in disordered eating behaviours in Jamaican adolescents and vary by gender. Our findings have implications for weight management interventions and policies, encouraging healthcare providers to monitor PA levels as well as negative affect in adolescents who display disordered eating behaviours.
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Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the food and nutrition environment of a Southwest state college campus and to determine whether there is an association between the food and nutrition environment, food choices and body image. Methods: Four surveys were used to collect all data: NEMS-P, SATAQ-3, SA-TAQ-4, and a demographic survey. NEMS-P was used to assess the food and nutrition environment, SATAQ-3 was used to assess societal influences on body image and SATAQ-4 was used to assess internalization of appearance ideals and appearance pressures (n=188). Results: There was a significant association between college students being both unhappy with their shape and weight and grocery shopping with weight control in mind (p < 0.05). There was a significant association between freshmen and sophomore students being unhappy with their weight and higher occurrences of eating at "healthier" restaurants (p<0.01). Students having more fruit, vegetables and whole grains available and less occurrences of trying to cut down on food to control weight or shape was statistically significant at 10% but was not statistically significant at 5% (p=0.48). Conclusion: Assessing the campus food and nutrition environment identifies opportunities for improvement and begins a planning process for creating a nutrition environment that supports students in making healthy choices, identify weight management opportunities and potentially reduce barriers to healthy behaviors on the college campus.
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Bu araştırmada, Lichtenstein ve ark. (2018) tarafından geliştirilen Gençlere Yönelik Egzersiz Bağımlılığı Ölçeğinin İngilizceden Türkçe ‘ye uyarlaması yapılmıştır. Ölçek geliştirme sürecinde araştırma grubunu 253 aktif sporcu oluşturmuştur. Ölçeğin dil geçerliliğinin sağlanmasında, ölçek öncelikle ölçeğin orijinal diline ve Türkçe ’ye hâkim en az iki dil ve çeviri uzmanı tarafından Türkçeye çevrilmiştir. İkinci aşamada ölçekler arası karşılaştırma yapılmış olup en uygun çeviri ve ortak noktalar göz önüne alınmıştır. Üçüncü aşamada ise oluşan form ile ölçme aracının orijinal formu karşılaştırılmıştır. Yabancı dil alanında deneyim sahibi olan iki uzman görüşü alınmıştır. Son olarak dördüncü aşamada ise ölçeğin özgün Türkçe formu bir spor psikolojisi, psikolojik rehberlik alanında uzman öğretim elemanları tarafından değerlendirilmiş ve ölçeğin dil geçerliliğinin sağlandığına karar verilmiştir. Kapsam geçerliğinin sağlanmasında uzman görüşleri, yapı geçerliğinde ise hem açıklayıcı hem de doğrulayıcı faktör analizi aracılığıyla sağlanmıştır. Yapılan geçerlik çalışmaları neticesinde ölçeğin tek faktörlü toplam 5 maddeden oluştuğu ve açıklanan varyansın %61,048’ini açıkladığı tespit edilmiştir. Ölçeğin güvenirlik çalışmaları ölçeğin tamamı ve alt faktörleri için hesaplanan iç tutarlık katsayıları ile belirlenmiştir. Ölçeğe ait Cronbach alfa (α) değeri 0,71 olarak bulunmuştur. Bu sonuç ölçme aracının güvenilir olduğunu göstermektedir. Daha sonra ölçeğin zaman geçerliliğinin sağlanması amacıyla tekrar test yöntemi uygulanmış ve zaman geçerliliğinin sağlandığı görülmüştür (r= ,702 p
Thesis
Hintergrund und Ziele: Ein Kernkriterium des Krankheitsbildes Anorexia nervosa (AN) ist die Körperschemastörung. Bei Betroffenen ist meist eine ausgeprägte Unzufriedenheit mit dem eigenen Körper festzustellen, zudem besteht eine eingeschränkte Fähigkeit die Körperfigur richtig einzuschätzen. Körperbildstimuli können diese Schemata triggern und negative Emotionen hervorrufen. Die vorliegende Studie hatte zum Ziel, anhand der Herzrate (HR) die physiologischen Reaktionen auf Körperbildstimuli an AN-Patientinnen und einer gesunden Kontrollgruppe (KO) zu untersuchen. In beiden Gruppen wurden jugendliche und erwachsene Probandinnen gesondert betrachtet. Zudem wurde eine weitere Untersuchung der AN-Patientinnen im Verlauf der stationären Therapie durchgeführt, um mögliche Therapieeffekte auf die HR-Reaktion aufzeigen zu können. Methoden: Die Stichprobe bestand aus 37 AN-Patientinnen und 43 KO- Probandinnen, insgesamt nahmen 43 Erwachsene und 37 Jugendliche an der Studie teil. Mit Hilfe verschiedener Fragebögen und Inventaren wurde das Ausmaß der Essstörungspathologien, sowie die Ausprägung der Körperbildstörung evaluiert. Den Probandinnen wurden am Bildschirm jeweils acht Körperbilder von Frauen aus fünf verschiedenen Gewichtskategorien (extrem untergewichtig, untergewichtig, normalgewichtig, übergewichtig und extrem übergewichtig) präsentiert. Diese sollten von den Probandinnen anschließend mit Hilfe von Ratingskalen hinsichtlich des Gewichtes und der Attraktivität eingeschätzt werden. Zudem erfolgte eine Einschätzung des eigenen Gewichtes und der eigenen Attraktivität. Während der Präsentation der Körperbilder wurde kontinuierlich ein Elektrokardiogramm aufgezeichnet und anschließend mit Softwareunterstützung die HR berechnet. Ergebnisse und Beobachtungen: AN-Patientinnen und KO-Probandinnen schätzten die Körperbilder der verschiedenen Kategorien bezüglich des Gewichts und der Attraktivität unterschiedlich ein. Besonders deutlich zeigten sich die Gruppenunterschiede bei der Einschätzung der Bilderkategorie „extrem untergewichtig“, der Einschätzung des eigenen Gewichts und der eigenen Attraktivität. Je nach gezeigter Bilderkategorie unterschieden sich die Herzraten bei der gesamten Stichprobe (AN-Patientinnen und KO-Probandinnen) signifikant. Die Herzraten der beiden Gruppen verhielten sich in verschiedenen Zeitabschnitten (Baseline, 0-4 s, 2- 3 6 s und 4-8 s nach Bildpräsentation) signifikant unterschiedlich. Zudem ergaben Berechnungen zur Veränderung der HR im Vergleich zur Baseline einen hoch signifikanten Gruppenunterschied und eine signifikante Interaktion der Faktoren Zeitabschnitt x Gruppe. Anschließende T-Tests zeigten ein höchst signifikantes Ergebnis für die Herzraten im zweiten Zeitabschnitt beim Betrachten der Bilderkategorie „extrem untergewichtig“. Es konnten Korrelationen mit der Einschätzung der eigenen Attraktivität und mit Fragebögen-Subskalenwerten, die die Unzufriedenheit mit dem eigenen Körper bzw. die Beeinflussbarkeit des eigenen Körperbildes abbilden, nachgewiesen werden. Zwischen erstem und zweitem Messzeitpunkt ergaben sich bei AN-Patientinnen keine signifikanten Veränderungen der HR. Schlussfolgerungen: Es konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sich die HR-Reaktivität auf Körperbildstimuli zwischen gesunden Probandinnen und AN-Patientinnen signifikant unterscheidet. Hier fiel vor allem der zweite Zeitabschnitt beim Betrachten der Körperbilder der Kategorie „extrem untergewichtig“ auf. Zudem besteht ein Zusammenhang zwischen HR-Reaktionen auf Körperbildstimuli und der subjektiv gemessenen Unzufriedenheit mit dem eigenen Körper bzw. der Beeinflussbarkeit des eigenen Körperbildes. Die HR scheint demnach als Marker für die emotionale Verarbeitung störungsspezifischer Stimuli geeignet zu sein. Um bei AN-Patientinnen Therapieeffekte im Verlauf an Hand der HR-Reaktivität auf Körperbildstimuli feststellen zu können, war der Zeitraum in der vorliegenden Arbeit vermutlich zu kurz gefasst. Es besteht also noch weiterer Forschungsbedarf, auch zur genauen Bedeutung der Akzelerationsphase (zweiter Zeitabschnitt in der vorliegenden Studie) des HR-Verlaufs für die Emotionsforschung.
Article
Background: Despite the prevalence of body dissatisfaction among young Indonesian women and its consequential negative impacts, there are currently no evidence-based, culturally appropriate interventions to tackle this issue. Therefore, there is a need to develop scalable, cost-effective, and accessible interventions to improve body image among this population. Objective: This paper describes the study protocol of a parallel randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Warna-Warni Waktu, a social media-based intervention that aims to reduce state and trait body dissatisfaction and improve mood among young Indonesian women aged 15-19 years. Methods: The trial will take place online. Approximately 1800 young women from 10 cities in Indonesia, evenly split across the ages of 15-19 years, will be recruited via a local research agency's established research panel. Participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention condition or a waitlist control condition. The intervention consists of six 5-minute videos, with each video supplemented with up to five brief interactive activities. The videos (and associated activities) will be delivered at a rate of one per day across 6 days. All participants will complete three self-report assessments: at baseline (Day 1), 1 day following the intervention (Day 9), and 1 month following the intervention (Day 36). The primary outcome will be change in trait body dissatisfaction. Secondary outcomes include change in internalization of appearance ideals, trait mood, and skin shade satisfaction. Intervention effectiveness on these outcomes will be analyzed using linear mixed models by a statistician blinded to the randomized condition. Intervention participants will also complete state measures of body satisfaction and mood before and after watching each video to assess the immediate impact of each video. This secondary analysis of state measures will be conducted at the within-group level. Results: Recruitment began in October 2021, with baseline assessments underway shortly thereafter. The results of the study will be submitted for publication in 2022. Conclusions: This is the first study to evaluate an eHealth intervention aimed at reducing body dissatisfaction among young Indonesian women. If effective, the intervention will be disseminated to over half a million young women in Indonesia via Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05023213; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05023213. International registered report identifier (irrid): PRR1-10.2196/33596.
Article
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Background A growing number of digital interventions have been developed to address a range of mental health issues including body image. Identifying effective interventions for body image is important given the prevalence of body image concerns and their associated negative outcomes among young women. This review aimed to critically evaluate current evidence on the use of digital interventions for adolescent and young adult women's body image. Methods A literature search was performed in November 2021 across three databases, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Pubmed to identify studies published with keywords and synonyms of “body image” and “digital interventions” that have been conducted with girls/women aged 10–25 years. Studies were included if they assessed a universal body image intervention delivered through a digital platform (e.g., web-based, mobile phone) and if they reported body image outcomes using validated measures. Two authors independently screened studies extracted data and assessed the quality of studies. Results Nine of 15 interventions were effective in improving at least one body image outcome from pre-post intervention; however, effect sizes were mostly small-medium, and few effects were maintained at follow-up. Studies were heterogeneous in terms of delivery format, duration, sample characteristics, quality, and outcomes. Discussion Findings suggest that digitally delivered interventions can effectively improve some body image outcomes in young women. Characteristics of effective studies are discussed and suggestions for future work on intervention development in this field are provided. Systematic Review Registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021281435 , identifier CRD42021281435.
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Today, the excessive use of cosmetics among Iranian women and girls has become a critical psycho-social issue. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the media use model to use cosmetics concerning the mediating role of internalization of media patterns, beliefs about appearance, and body image concerns. For this purpose, 324 female students of the University of Isfahan were selected as the research sample using cluster sampling method and responded to the Media Consumption (Revised) and Beliefs about Appearance Scales, Body Image Concerns Inventory, and Socio-Cultural Attitudes to Appearance (Third Edition) and Compensatory Tendencies and Behaviors for Beauty and Fitness Questionnaires. The research model tested using structural equation modeling analysis, and the significance of the model effects evaluated using the bootstrap method. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS software. Testing the model showed that the size of the fit indices for the model is desirable and this model has a good fit with the experimental data. Also, bootstrap results showed that all model effects are significant. In general, the results of the present study support the importance of the role of internalizing media patterns and body image concern in the tendency of Iranian women to use cosmetics.
As part of objectification processes, individuals engage in body surveillance, whereby they constantly assess the extent to which their external appearance conforms to culturally valued ideals. Mass media play a key role in fostering the objectification and internalization of media beauty standards and increases body surveillance. At the individual level, the literature has largely demonstrated that body surveillance leads to a variety of negative psychological outcomes, but little research has focused on the consequences of body surveillance in the context of romantic relationships. Using dyadic data from couples who identified as heterosexual, the present study examined relations among internalization of media standards, body surveillance, surveillance of the partner's body, surveillance from the partner, and relationship satisfaction. There were 438 participants (219 couples) recruited using snowball sampling. They were surveyed with an anonymous online questionnaire. Results showed that internalization of media standards was related to body surveillance in both men and women, and to surveillance of the partner's body and relationship satisfaction in men only. For both sexes, surveillance of the partner's body was negatively associated with relationship satisfaction. For women only, surveillance from the partner was also negatively related to relationship satisfaction. Implications are discussed.
Article
Background Women from countries with conflicting views on cosmesis may avoid these procedures for the fear of being rejected by the community. Understanding the motives that drive patients from these countries to seek cosmetic procedures helps discern possible causes of postoperative dissatisfaction, which can be prevented by careful selection of patients and individualizing their management protocols. Objectives This study helps identify the factors that affect Egyptian Muslim women’s attitude toward cosmetic procedures. The main factors tested were female gender role stress (FGRS), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and religious attitude. The secondary factors investigated were health evaluation, life satisfaction, self-satisfaction, social media use, TV exposure, spouse/friends/family influence, and internalization of beauty standards. Methods Women willing to undergo cosmetic procedures were compared with those who were not. A survey exploring demographics and the different motives were posted for the public online. Results Among 502 participants, 288 were willing to undergo cosmetic procedures and 214 were not. Our findings showed a statistically significant difference for the degree of BDD, FGRS, and religiousness between willing and unwilling groups. Moreover, greater pressure from partner to change appearance, influence of friends and family on opinion regarding beauty of oneself, internalization of beauty standards, and lower ratings of life and self-satisfaction showed statistically significant association with willingness to undergo cosmetic treatment. Conclusion BDD, FGRS, and religious attitude are among the highest predictors of the willingness of women to undergo cosmetic procedures together with many other factors. This study is the first of its kind to evaluate several unexplored motives and opens the door for future research. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Article
Past research has shown that Asian American women are subject to distinct forms of sexism and racism that can influence culture-specific appearance evaluations. However, no studies have examined within-group differences in self-objectification processes. To address this gap, we used latent class analysis. Our study had three aims: (a) identify subgroups (e.g., latent classes) of Asian American women ( N = 554) based upon their general and group-specific self-objectification processes, (b) examine the racial objectification predictors (e.g., general racism, gendered racial microaggressions, and racial identity) of latent class membership, and (c) examine the relation between the classes and disordered eating and depression. Results of the latent class analysis yielded four classes: (a) High Self-Objectification class (37.2%), (b) Moderate Self-Objectification class (40.1%), (c) Body Conscious class (7.3%), and (d) Appearance Acceptance class (15.5%). The High Self-Objectification class reported significantly higher rates of disordered eating and depression. Women were more likely to be in the High Self-Objectification class if they experienced higher levels of gendered racial microaggressions and racial dissonance. Results can advance the literature by demonstrating significant within-group variability in self-objectification processes among Asian American Women and offer valuable clinical implications for targeting high-risk groups.
Article
Background Cosmetic and social aspects of breast anomalies in Poland syndrome are not negligible. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic timing may have a positive impact on quality of life. Methods Females affected by Poland syndrome, who had breast reconstruction between 2014 and 2018, were asked to complete the Body Uneasiness Test and the postoperative Breast-Q. Correlation between scores was evaluated. Correlation between scores was statistically evaluated. Results Thirty patients who had completed breast reconstruction at 20.9 ± 6.5 yo fulfilled the questionnaires at the average age of 26.5 ± 8.1 yo. BUT scores were similar to healthy population considering different age groups, with the exception of Compulsive Self-Monitoring subscale for 16–17-year age group. A correlation between Depersonalization and “Thighs” and “Legs” was present. On average, satisfaction with breast resulted 79.1%, satisfaction with surgical outcome was 94.9%, psychosocial well-being was 78.5%, sexual well-being was 75.3%, and relative physical well-being in chest and upper body was 36.9%. Global Uneasiness, Avoidance, Weight Phobia, Body Image Concern and Depersonalization were significantly correlated with lower psychosocial well-being. Avoidance was significantly correlated with lower sexual well-being. Conclusions Breast reconstruction in Poland syndrome can help to improve quality of life. However, general body uneasiness can affect satisfaction with the final result. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://www.springer.com/00266 .
Article
Feminist beliefs have been identified as a potential protective factor in the relationship between media awareness and thin-ideal internalization; however, the precise reason why feminist beliefs serve this role is unclear. A series of three studies examined the reasons why feminist beliefs may be protective in non-student samples, considering as possible explanations open-minded thinking, critical thinking, and media attitudes and literacy. Study 1 showed that the moderating role of feminist beliefs on the relationship between media awareness and thin-ideal internalization held in a non-undergraduate sample. Study 2 found that feminist beliefs and self-identifying as a feminist were related to open-minded thinking, critical thinking, and media attitudes and literacy. Study 3 found that most of these constructs did not serve the same moderating role as feminist beliefs. However, a complex relationship emerged when both feminist self-identification and media attitudes and literacy were considered simultaneously as moderators, adding to the literature emphasizing that self-identifying as a feminist has a protective role over and above that of merely holding feminist beliefs. These results suggest that feminist beliefs may be a unique combination of these constructs or that there may be yet a different reason why feminist beliefs are protective against thin-ideal internalization.
Article
What felt like a scientific earthquake in the 60’s, namely placing cognitive phenomena and processes at center-stage in a science-informed psychological therapy, has now become a central part of many psychotherapies, most obviously Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Cognitive Therapy (CT). Responsible for this earthquake is Dr. Aaron T. Beck, the focus of this commemorative special issue. The aim of the present commentary is to give a brief overview of the innovations in Beck's work on how to conceptualize, identify, and assess biased interpretational processes, and how this has inspired both clinical treatment and research.
Article
The authors conducted a study to examine women’s body dissatisfaction, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalization in relation to exposure to social networking sites. Additionally, women’s body dissatisfaction, social comparison, thin-ideal internalization, and exposure to social networking sites were examined in relation to their ethnic backgrounds. A survey was completed by 725 females enrolled in undergraduate programs at California State University. Participants showed higher body dissatisfaction, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalization if they were more exposed to social media sites. Differences were also found based on ethnic backgrounds; results showed that African American and Middle Eastern/Arab women’s body satisfaction was not as low as that of white and Asian women.
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This book is about current research subjects (25 research topics) in the field of marketing.
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O estudo avaliou a produção científica em periódicos brasileiros das Ciências da Saúde em relação à bulimia e ao corpo sob a ótica das Ciências Humanas. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura, na qual se acessou a base eletrônica da Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) para a coleta de dados. Os termos “transtornos alimentares and corpo”, “transtornos do comportamento alimentar and corpo”, “bulimia and corpo” foram utilizados na busca dos artigos, que incluiu na amostra estudos publicados entre 2013 e 2017, disponíveis na íntegra e publicados em periódicos brasileiros. A amostra consistiu em 19 artigos os quais foram lidos na íntegra. Os resultados demonstraram que a produção científica sobre bulimia e corpo, embora interdisciplinar, possui enlace com as Ciências Naturais. Nesse sentido, conclui-se que há um limite na compreensão do fenômeno sob a ótica da cultura no campo das Ciências da Saúde, e que, um avanço no debate com as Ciências Humanas gerará potencial de abrir novos caminhos interpretativos.
Conference Paper
Autistic women are overrepresented among individuals with restrictive eating disorders (REDs), such as Anorexia Nervosa, and commonly available eating disorder treatments tend to lack efficacy in this client group. This PhD employed a mixed-method approach with the aim of contributing evidence that can inform the improvement of eating disorder service provision for autistic women. Specifically, this thesis sought to generate a better understanding of (1) women’s experiences of REDs, (2) the mechanisms that might link autism and REDs in women, and (3) the ways in which mental health services function for their autistic clients. Three studies were undertaken. In Study 1 we conducted semi-structured interviews with autistic women with experience of Anorexia Nervosa, parents, and healthcare professionals (N=45) to identify potential causal and maintaining factors of Anorexia Nervosa in autistic women. Based on these findings, we developed a theoretical model of restrictive eating difficulties in autistic individuals. Study 2 further examined the clinical presentation of autistic women with REDs and tested elements of the model developed in Study 1. Study 2 compared the presentation of autistic traits, disordered eating-related symptoms and sensory sensitivities, measured using self-report questionnaires, in autistic women with and without REDs and non-autistic women with REDs (N=210). Autistic women with REDs presented with similar levels of autistic traits and sensory sensitivities to autistic women without REDs. They presented with: (i) significantly lower levels of traditional disordered eating symptoms, traditionally associated with Anorexia Nervosa, than non-autistic women with REDs, although these were still evident compared to autistic women without REDs, and (ii) significantly higher levels of autism-specific unusual eating behaviours than both other groups. These findings suggest that while core autism characteristics and sensory sensitivities are unlikely to directly contribute to REDs in autistic women, there might be other autism-related difficulties that make some autistic women more vulnerable to developing REDs than others. Study 2 also identified a subset of women with REDs who did not have an autism diagnosis, but had very high autistic traits (n=36). These presented similarly to formally diagnosed autistic women with REDs on measures of autistic traits, autism-specific unusual eating behaviours and sensory sensitivities, suggesting a significant proportion could be undiagnosed autistic women. Study 3 was systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research on autistic adults’ experience of accessing and receiving support for mental health difficulties. This study elucidated perceived barriers for autistic adults in mental health services and ways to overcome them. The current thesis increases our understanding of the clinical presentation for autistic women with REDs and can help eating disorder services to become more autism friendly, by informing treatment adaptations to better meet their needs. In the long-term, the current thesis may contribute to the development of new autism-informed eating disorder treatments and interventions to prevent of development of restrictive eating disorders in autistic individuals.
Thesis
Hintergrund: Die Anorexia nervosa (AN) ist eine psychische Erkrankung, die häufig chronisch oder auch lebensgefährlich verläuft. Die 12-Jahres-Letalität ist mit ca. 10 % höher als bei Depression und Schizophrenie (Herpertz et al., 2011). Die Behandlung der AN ist komplex und es existieren bisher nicht ausreichend genug kontrollierte Studien (Herpertz-Dahlmann et al., 2015), so dass die Behandlungsempfehlungen in den meisten Fällen auf der breiten klinischen Meinung basieren (Herpertz-Dahlmann et al., 2015). Zu den häufigsten Symptomen der AN zählen neben dem selbst herbeigeführten Untergewicht (BMI unter 17.5) auch hormonelle Störungen sowie eine Störung des Körperbilds. Letzteres ist eines der Hauptsymptome der AN. Der Zusammenhang zwischen einem negativen Körperbild und einem gestörten Essverhalten kann in mehreren Studien nachgewiesen werden (Cash & Pruzinsky, 1990; Cash & Smolank, 2012). Die Körperbildstörung ist ein wesentlicher Ansatzpunkt für die Psychotherapie der AN (Legenbauer & Vocks, 2014; Vocks & Legenbauer, 2010). Die Möglichkeiten der datenbasierten Erfassung der individuellen Einflüsse auf das Körperbild werden bisher kaum erforscht, auch nicht, um diese Daten in eine personalisierte Behandlung einzubringen. In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird ein Körperbildmodell entwickelt, welches individuelle Einflüsse auf das Körperbild bei AN erfasst, um daraus einen personalisierten Körperbildscore zu berechnen. Diese Arbeit bewegt sich dabei im Schnittfeld von Psychologie und Informatik und greift zum erweiterten Verständnis des Körperbilds bei AN ebenso auf philosophische Diskurse zurück. Das Körperbild wird auf Basis dieser Ergebnisse für die vorliegende Arbeit nicht nur als Symptom, sondern als (eine mögliche) Ursache einer AN betrachtet. Methode: Auf Basis der wissenschaftlichen Literatur wird zunächst ein Modell zu den Einflüssen auf das Körperbild bei AN entwickelt und für die einzelnen Einflussgrößen die Berechnung des personalisierten Körperbildscores anhand eines Werts im Bereich zwischen 0-100 vorgenommen (in Anlehnung an eine T-Wert Skala). Die Berechnung der Scores der Einflussgrößen sowie im Ergebnis des Körperbildscores erfolgt mittels normalisierter gewichteter Summen unter Verwendung eines eigenen Algorithmus. Das Modell wird anschließend einer zweistufigen Plausibilitätsprüfung unterzogen: Die erste Überprüfung erfolgt anhand von 3 Biografien Betroffener einer AN, indem mittels qualitativer Inhaltsanalyse (κ = 1) teilsynthetische Fälle zur Berechnung eines Körperbildscores auf Basis des erstellten Körperbildmodells abgeleitet werden. Daran schließen sich zur zweiten Überprüfung 4 vollstrukturierte Interviews mit Expertinnen und Experten aus dem Bereich der Psychotherapie für eine klinische Urteilsbildung an. Körperbildmodell Anorexia nervosa. Auf Grundlage eines eigenen Fragebogens, welcher die Einflussfaktoren des entwickelten Körperbildmodells verkürzt abfragt, geben die Expertinnen und Experten in den Interviews insgesamt 6 Fälle von Betroffenen an. Zu jedem Fall erfolgt eine Schätzung des Körperbildscores, welchen der Algorithmus berechnen müsste. Die anschließende Berechnung der Fälle zur Modellüberprüfung beinhaltet ebenfalls den Vergleich der Angaben zum Körperbildscore der Expertinnen und Experten zum Ergebnis des Algorithmus. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt 9 Einflussfaktoren auf das Körperbild wurden anhand der gesichteten Literatur identifiziert, welche sich auch gegenseitig beeinflussen können und jeweils eigene Abhängigkeiten besitzen. Die Überprüfungen der Plausibilität des entwickelten Körperbildmodells und Algorithmus anhand der 3 ausgewerteten Biografien von Betroffenen einer AN und den 6 Fällen, basierend auf den Angaben von Expertinnen und Experten, zeigen, dass die Ergebnisse des Modells in Form eines Körperbildscores plausibel sind. Es findet jeweils die richtige Zuordnung eines negativen, durchschnittlichen oder positiven Körperbilds statt. In 3 Fällen der Expertinnen und Experten stimmte die Berechnung mit dem vermuteten Körperbildscore überein, in 3 Fällen beträgt die Differenz eine Standardabweichung (weit unterdurchschnittliches Körperbild vs. unterdurchschnittliches Körperbild). Das Körperbildmodell kann die angenommenen individuellen Einflüsse auf das Körperbild bei Betroffenen einer AN berechnen und mittels personalisierten Körperbildscore zwischen einem negativen, durchschnittlichen oder positiven Körperbild unterscheiden. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird daher die Machbarkeit der Entwicklung und Berechnung eines datenbasierten Körperbildmodells und in der Folge eines individuellen Körperbildscores gezeigt. Ausblick: Das entwickelte Körperbildmodell kann als eine Grundlage für die Reflexion des individuellen Verlaufs einer AN in der psychotherapeutischen Behandlung verwendet und weiterentwickelt werden. Diskutiert wird in diesem Zusammenhang die Unterstützung von Verstehensprozessen in der Behandlung des Körperbilds bei AN anhand datenbasierter Erkenntnisse sowie die Grenzen des hier gewählten Ansatzes. Weitere Forschung sollte die Weiterentwicklung des Körperbildmodells in Form eines Machine Learning (ML) Ansatzes beinhalten, um diesen in einer klinischen Studie zu überprüfen.
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Adolescents in India experience body dissatisfaction, however, empirically supported interventions are lacking. This paper describes the protocol for the development, acceptability testing, and cluster rando-mized controlled trial (RCT) of a six-session comic-based intervention, which aims to improve body image and related outcomes among adolescents in semi-rural Indian schools. If found to be acceptable and effective , UNICEF will disseminate the intervention across schools in eight states of India. The acceptability study will be conducted with 24 students in Classes 6-8 (age 11-14) and nine teachers from Hindi-medium government schools using interviews and focus groups. The subsequent RCT will be conducted with 2400 students, with schools randomized to either the comic-based intervention or lessons-as-usual (control) groups. The primary outcome is body esteem, and secondary outcomes are disordered eating, appearance ideal internalization, body-image-related life disengagement, self-esteem, negative affect, and positive affect. Additional exploratory outcome measures are skin colour dissatisfaction, body hair dissatisfaction, appearance-based teasing, and endorsement of traditional gender roles. These outcomes will be examined at three timepoints: baseline (T1), 1 week-post-intervention (T2), and 12-weeks follow-up (T3). Analyses will compare outcomes in the intervention with the control group. This will be the first study to evaluate a body image intervention for adolescents in semi-rural Indian schools.
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Background: In China, people pay more and more attention to their body image, and most people have a negative attitude towards their appearance. This study aimed to explore the relationship of self-control, intuitive eating, and sociocultural attitudes towards appearance among Chinese college students. We further aimed to assess whether intuitive eating mediates the association between research self-control and sociocultural attitudes towards appearance. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1510 college students in a medical university during September–December 2020. Self-administered questionnaires including Self-control Scale (SCS), Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2), and Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) were completed by students. Correlation, multiple linear regression, and structural equation modeling were used in data analyses. Results:The mean sociocultural attitude towards appearance score was 43.91±7.74 among the participants. After adjusting for the demographic factors, self-control accounted for 17.4% of the variance in sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, while intuitive eating explained an additional 2.6% of the variance. Self-control had a direct effect(λ=-0.57,P<0.01)and an indirect effect(λ=-0.11,P<0.01) on sociocultural attitudes towards appearance. Intuitive eating functioned as a partial mediator in the relationship between self-control and sociocultural attitudes towards appearance among Chinese students. The mediation role accounted for 16.41% of the total effect. Conclusions:Improving self-control is good for adjusting appearance attitudes, and one way to do this is to suppress intuitive eating. College students should improve their self-control and use it in ways other than suppressing intuitive eating.
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Three hundred and eighty-five girls ages 10 through 14 years were surveyed about eating behavior, body satisfaction, concern with being slender, and cues from parents, peers, and magazines in regard to weight management techniques and the importance of slenderness. A majority reported receiving a clear message from fashion magazines and peers or family members that slenderness is important and attainable through dieting and other methods. Two strong correlates of drive for thinness and disturbed patterns of eating were (a) reading magazines that contain information and ideas about an attractive body shape and about weight management, and (b) weight/shape-related teasing and criticism by family. This study indicates that body dissatisfaction and weight concerns reflect adoption of a socially approved female role. It also raises the possibility that some young adolescent girls live in a subculture of intense weight and body-shape concern that places them at risk for disordered eating behavior:
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The EDI-2 manual is currently out of print but the attached file provides the table of contents for the EDI-3 which includes all of the EDI-2 items as well as the updated scale structure and scoring system for the EDI-3
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This chapter extends our reviews of theory and research concerning media influences on weight and body shape in girls and women. There is no doubt that mass media are important sources of what we think about, how we evaluate what we think about, what we overlook and ignore, and how we interact with important people in our lives. There is also no doubt that media portrayals of attractiveness, gender, and technologies of health both reflect and contribute to body dissatisfaction, unhealthy eating and weight management, and disordered eating in females and males who are vulnerable to these influences. We are gratified to see that many first-rate researchers around the world are turning their attention to the developmental interactions and transactions among mass media, other sociocultural factors, and personal factors that increase vulnerability or resistance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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To assess the influence of the media on girls' weight concerns, weight control/loss behaviors, and perceptions of body weight and shape. Cross-sectional survey completed in school. The questionnaire assessed body weight, dissatisfaction with body weight and shape, exposure to fashion magazines, the impact of media on feelings about weight and shape, attributes of and preferences for body types, and whether subjects had gone on a diet to lose weight or initiated exercise because of an article in a magazine. Mandatory physical education class in public elementary, junior high, and high schools. Subjects included 548 5th- through 12th-grade girls in a working-class suburb in the northeastern United States. Perceived influence of fashion magazines on body dissatisfaction, idea of the perfect body shape, dieting to lose weight, and initiating an exercise program. Pictures in magazines had a strong impact on girls' perceptions of their weight and shape. Of the girls, 69% reported that magazine pictures influence their idea of the perfect body shape, and 47% reported wanting to lose weight because of magazine pictures. There was a positive linear association between the frequency of reading women's magazines and the prevalence of having dieted to lose weight because of a magazine article, initiating an exercise program because of a magazine article, wanting to lose weight because of pictures in magazines, and feeling that pictures in magazines influence their idea of the perfect body shape. In multivariate logistic regression models controlling for weight status (overweight vs not overweight), school level (elementary vs junior high school, elementary vs high school), and race/ethnic group, girls who were frequent readers of fashion magazines were two to three times more likely than infrequent readers to diet to lose weight because of a magazine article (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-3.75); to exercise to lose weight because of a magazine article (OR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.77-5.17); and to feel that magazines influence what they believe is the ideal body shape (OR = 2.81; 95% CI: 1.72-4.58). In addition, moderate-frequency readers were more likely than infrequent readers of fashion magazines to report exercising because of a magazine article (OR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.14-3.30) and feeling that magazines influence what they believe is the ideal body shape (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.30-3.15). The majority of the preadolescent and adolescent girls in this school-based study were unhappy with their body weight and shape. This discontentment was strongly related to the frequency of reading fashion magazines. Although previous studies have concluded that the print media promotes an unrealistically thin body ideal, which in turn is at least partially responsible for promoting eating disorders, the present study is the first that we are aware of to assess directly the impact of the print media on the weight and body shape beliefs of young girls. We observed that the frequency of reading fashion magazines was positively associated with the prevalence of having dieted to lose weight, having gone on a diet because of a magazine article, exercising to lose weight or improve body shape, and deciding to exercise because of a magazine article. Given the substantial health risk associated with overweight and the fact that during the past 2 decades the prevalence of overweight has increased sharply among children and adolescents, it is not prudent to suggest that overweight girls should accept their body shape and not be encouraged to lose weight. However, aspiring to look like underweight models may have deleterious psychological consequences. The results suggest that the print media aimed at young girls could serve a public health role by refraining from relying on models who are severely underweight and printing more articles on the benefits of physical
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Using data from a longitudinal community study (N = 231), the authors tested whether body-image and eating disturbances might partially explain the increase in depression observed in adolescent girls. Initial pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and bulimic symptoms, but not body mass, predicted subsequent increases in depressive symptoms, as did increases in these risk factors over the study. There was also prospective support for each of the hypothesized mediational relations linking these risk factors to increases in depressive symptoms. Effects remained significant when other established gender-nonspecific risk factors for depression (social support and emotionality) were statistically controlled. Results provide support for the assertion that body-image and eating disturbances, operating above and beyond gender-nonspecific risk factors, contribute to the elevated depression in adolescent girls.
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The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) was developed to assess women's recognition and acceptance of societally sanctioned standards of appearance. In Study 1, factor analyses revealed two clearcut factors: awareness/acknowledgment of a societal emphasis on appearance and an internalization/acceptance of these standards. These findings were cross-validated in Study 2, resulting in a six-item Awareness subscale (alpha = .71) and an eight-item Internalization subscale (alpha = .88). Study 3 obtained good convergence between both scales and multiple indices of body image and eating disturbance. Regression analyses indicated that both factors accounted for unique variance associated with body image and eating dysfunction, however, internalization of standards was a stronger predictor of disturbance. The SATAQ should prove useful for researchers and clinicians interested in body image and eating disorders. © 1995 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Objective: This study examined the importance of potential risk factors for eating disorder onset in a large multiethnic sample followed for up to 3 years, with assessment instruments validated for the target population and a structured clinical interview used to make diagnoses. Method: Participants were 1,103 girls initially assessed in grades 6-9 in school districts in Arizona and California. Each year, students completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey, had body height and weight measured, and underwent a structured clinical interview. The McKnight Risk Factor Survey, a self-report instrument developed for this age group, includes questions related to risk factors for eating disorders. Results: During follow-up, 32 girls (2.9%) developed a partial- or full-syndrome eating disorder. At the Arizona site, there was a significant interaction between Hispanics and higher scores on a factor measuring thin body preoccupation and social pressure in predicting onset of eating disorders. An increase in negative life events also predicted onset of eating disorders in this sample. At the California site, only thin body preoccupation and social pressure predicted onset of eating disorders. A four-item screen derived from thin body preoccupation and social pressure had a sensitivity of 0.72, a specificity of 0.80, and an efficiency of 0.79. Conclusions: Thin body preoccupation and social pressure are important risk factors for the development of eating disorders in adolescents. Some Hispanic groups are at risk of developing eating disorders. Efforts to reduce peer, cultural, and other sources of thin body peeoccupation may be necessary to prevent eating disorders.
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Recent theoretical approaches to the etiology of eating disorders and body image disturbances have begun to focus on multifactorial models. In the current study, the Tripartite Influence model was examined in a large sample of college females (ages 18–22). This model proposes that three primary core sources of influence—parents, peers and media—contribute to the development of body image and eating disturbances. Additionally, the model suggests that at least two factors mediate the relationship between influences and disturbance—appearance comparison and internalization of media information. In this study, appearance comparison was examined as a mediational link between peer, family and media influence variables and the outcome disturbance measures of eating dysfunction and body image dissatisfaction. Covariance structure modeling (CSM) was used to test the proposed pathways. The results indicated that appearance comparison mediated the effects of family and media influences on body dissatisfaction, which in turn influenced restrictive and bulimic behaviors. In addition, peer influences had a direct influence on restriction. Perfectionism was hypothesized to relate to body dissatisfaction, but was in fact found to influence appearance comparison. The findings were limited by the necessity of several modifications to the originally proposed models, yet offer replication and extension of previous work with appearance comparison and support for further testing of the Tripartite Influence model.
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(Publisher-supplied data) The classic text is Psychometric Theory. Like the previous edition, this text is designed as a comprehensive text in measurement for researchers and for use in graduate courses in psychology, education and areas of business such as management and marketing. It is intended to consider the broad measurement problems that arise in these areas and is written for a reader who needs only a basic background in statistics to comprehend the material. It also combines classical procedures that explain variance with modern inferential procedures.
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Body image issues are at the core of major eating disorders. They are also important phenomena in and of themselves. Kevin Thompson and his colleagues provide an overview of a wide variety of body image issues, ranging from reconstructive surgery to eating disorders. The book will be a valuable resource for even the most established researchers in the field, as it is filled with data, information about assessment tools, and a thorough treatment of virtually all major theoretical perspectives on the development of body image and their implications for treatment and prevention. At the same time, the authors' decision to include numerous experiential anecdotes makes the book easily accessible to those just entering the field who are trying to understand the nature of these phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Body-image disturbance and eating disorders are a significant physical and mental health problem in Western countries. We describe emerging work on one newly identified variable that appears to be a potent risk factor for the development of these problems internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Work conducted independently in our labs over the past decade has included scale development, correlational studies, prospective risk-factor studies, randomized experiments, and randomized prevention trials. Findings collectively suggest that internalization is a causal risk factor for body-image and eating disturbances, and that it appears to operate in conjunction with other established risk factors for these outcomes, including dieting and negative affect. Future research is needed to examine the specific familial, peer, and media influences that promote internalization and to replicate and extend our prospective and experimental studies.
Article
Three aspects of a sociocultural influence on appearance--media exposure, awareness of societal ideals, and internalization of sociocultural messages--were assessed in college females (75% White, 7% Black, 10% Hispanic, 7% Asian or Pacific Islander, and 1% other) and related to measures of body image disturbance, eating dysfunction, and overall self-esteem. The exposure variable consisted of an empirically derived index of coded body shape images from magazines specifically selected because of their high readership in the tested sample of females. Awareness of societal pressures regarding appearance and internalization of these messages were measured with the two subscales of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire. Correlational and regression analyses failed to find any relationship between simple exposure and indices of body image, eating dysfunction, and self-esteem. Awareness of societal pressures was a significant predictor in regression analyses; however, internalization of social standards of appearance accounted for significant and substantial levels of variance beyond that explained by awareness. The findings are discussed in light of recent cognitive-behavioral and psychoeducational for body image disturbance.
Article
Because research has not examined the predictors of the onset and cessation of specific bulimic behaviors, the present study tested whether a series of putative risk factors predicted the onset and cessation of binge eating and compensatory behaviors over a 9-month period in a community sample of female adolescents (N = 218). Greater perceived social pressure to be thin, internalization of the thin-ideal, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and negative affect predicted the onset of binge eating and compensatory behaviors. Further, lower thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and dieting predicted the cessation of these behaviors. Multivariate analyses suggested that this set of risk factors predicted the onset of binge eating and compensatory behaviors, but showed weaker relations to the cessation of these behaviors. Results support the assertion that these variables constitute risk factors for the development of bulimic behaviors, but suggest that somewhat different processes may serve to maintain bulimic symptoms.
Article
The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) was developed to assess women's recognition and acceptance of societally sanctioned standards of appearance. In Study 1, factor analyses revealed two clearcut factors: awareness/acknowledgment of a societal emphasis on appearance and an internalization/acceptance of these standards. These findings were cross-validated in Study 2, resulting in a six-item Awareness subscale (alpha = .71) and an eight-item Internalization subscale (alpha = .88). Study 3 obtained good convergence between both scales and multiple indices of body image and eating disturbance. Regression analyses indicated that both factors accounted for unique variance associated with body image and eating dysfunction, however, internalization of standards was a stronger predictor of disturbance. The SATAQ should prove useful for researchers and clinicians interested in body image and eating disorders.
Article
The quest to achieve the ideal weight comes with notable costs. Dieting carries the financial costs of professional consulting, low-calorie foods, books and materials, and diet programming. Club memberships, clothing, equipment, and time all contribute to the cost of exercise. Cosmetic surgery to achieve the desired physique carries a significant financial, and sometimes psychological, burden. Women often pursue thinner bodies despite already being at a healthy weight. This pursuit is motivated primarily to enhance appearance. The ideal body portrayed in the media has stabilized in thinness, but it is becoming increasingly tubular, i.e., taller with slimmer hips and thicker waist. This ideal is presented to adult and adolescent women in their popular magazines, and to little girls with their dolls. Exercise is promoted as an optimal means to achieve the ideal physique. Young American women tend to idealize an athletic body shape, especially with upper-body muscularity. This shape can be attained only through sustained exercise and upper-body strength training. High-level exercise may be a precursor to eating disorders. Women who exercise to excess, who are highly preoccupied with weight, and who are characterized by perfectionism and an obsessive compulsive personality are at risk for eating disorders. When body weight and shape are kept in perspective and realistic goals are set, the physical, psychological, and financial costs of achieving or maintaining a healthy weight may be minimized.
Article
Because there have been few longitudinal investigations of integrative etiological theories of bulimia nervosa, this study prospectively tested the dual-pathway model using random regression growth curve models and data from a 3-wave community sample of adolescent girls (N = 231). Initial pressure to be thin and thin-ideal internalization predicted subsequent growth in body dissatisfaction, initial body dissatisfaction predicted growth in dieting and negative affect, and initial dieting and negative affect predicted growth in bulimic symptoms. There was prospective evidence for most of the hypothesized mediational effects. Results are consistent with the assertion that pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and negative affect are risk factors for bulimic pathology and provide support for the dual-pathway model.
Article
Predictors of change in body satisfaction, depressed mood, anxiety and anger, were examined following exposure to idealized female advertising images in Grades 7 and 10 girls. Stable body dissatisfaction, physical appearance comparison tendency, internalization of thin ideal, self-esteem, depression, identity confusion and body mass index (BMI) were assessed. One week later, participants viewed magazine images, before and after which they completed assessments of state body satisfaction, state depression, state anxiety and state anger. Participants were randomly allocated to view either images of idealized females (experimental condition) or fashion accessories (control condition). For both grades, there was a significant decrease in state body satisfaction and a significant increase in state depression attributable to viewing the female images. In Grade 7 girls in the experimental condition, decrease in state body satisfaction was predicted by stable body dissatisfaction and BMI, while significant predictors of decreases in the measures of negative affect included internalization of the thin-ideal and appearance comparison. In Grade 10 girls, reduction in state body satisfaction and increase in state depression was predicted by internalization of the thin-ideal, appearance comparison and stable body dissatisfaction. These findings indicate the importance of individual differences in short-term reaction to viewing idealized media images.
Article
Recent findings implicate body dissatisfaction in the development and maintenance of eating pathology. This paper reviews theory and empirical findings regarding the putative origins and consequences of body dissatisfaction because recent findings have not been synthesized or critically evaluated and because these findings have key etiologic and prevention implications. A computer-assisted literature review was conducted to locate relevant prospective and experimental studies. There is evidence that perceived pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization and elevated body mass, but not early menarche, increase the risk for subsequent body dissatisfaction. There is also consistent support for the assertion that body dissatisfaction is a risk factor for eating pathology and that this relation is mediated by increases in dieting and negative affect. This review provides support for the claim that sociocultural processes foster body dissatisfaction, which in turn increase the risk for bulimic pathology, and suggests that prevention and treatment interventions might be enhanced by focusing greater attention on body image disturbances.
Article
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the importance of potential risk factors for eating disorder onset in a large multiethnic sample followed for up to 3 years, with assessment instruments validated for the target population and a structured clinical interview used to make diagnoses. METHOD: Participants were 1,103 girls initially assessed in grades 6-9 in school districts in Arizona and California. Each year, students completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey, had body height and weight measured, and underwent a structured clinical interview. The McKnight Risk Factor Survey, a self-report instrument developed for this age group, includes questions related to risk factors for eating disorders. RESULTS: During follow-up, 32 girls (2.9%) developed a partial- or full-syndrome eating disorder. At the Arizona site, there was a significant interaction between Hispanics and higher scores on a factor measuring thin body preoccupation and social pressure in predicting onset of eating disorders. An increase in negative life events also predicted onset of eating disorders in this sample. At the California site, only thin body preoccupation and social pressure predicted onset of eating disorders. A four-item screen derived from thin body preoccupation and social pressure had a sensitivity of 0.72, a specificity of 0.80, and an efficiency of 0.79. CONCLUSIONS: Thin body preoccupation and social pressure are important risk factors for the development of eating disorders in adolescents. Some Hispanic groups are at risk of developing eating disorders. Efforts to reduce peer, cultural, and other sources of thin body preoccupation may be necessary to prevent eating disorders.
Article
The Appearance Schemas Inventory (ASI) is a 14-item instrument that assesses body image investment in relation to certain beliefs or assumptions about the importance, meaning, and influence of appearance in one's life. Despite empirical support of the ASI, critical examination evinces several limitations of this assessment. These problems entail the inclusion of explicitly self-evaluative items and social stereotypes, few behavioral items, and a repeated failure to find expected gender differences on the ASI. We initially constructed a 45-item measure (40 new items plus 5 original items) and administered it, along with the original ASI and other validational assessments, to 603 college students (468 women and 135 men). The end result was a 20-item revision of the inventory (ASI-R), which included two factors: Self-Evaluative Salience and Motivational Salience. For both genders, the composite ASI-R and its two factors had high internal consistency and were significantly convergent with other pertinent measures of body image and psychosocial functioning. The ASI-R and its two subscales showed significant gender differences, whereas the original ASI did not. We also examined racial differences on the ASI-R, its correlations with body mass, and its unique contribution to the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes. We offer this measure as an improved, psychometrically sound replacement for the ASI.
Article
The tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance is a recent theoretical approach that includes a test of direct (peer, parental, and media factors) and mediational links (internalization of societal appearance standards, appearance comparison processes) as factors potentially leading to body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance. The theory was evaluated in the current study in a sample of 391 adolescent females. A structural equation model that evaluated the tripartite model replicated previous findings reported by Keery, van den Berg and Thompson (2004) [Keery, H., van den Berg, & Thompson, J. K. (2004). A test of the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance in adolescent girls. Body Image: An International Journal of Research, 1, 237-251.]. Additionally, a second model extended these findings, suggesting that peer and media influences are more important than parental influences. The results are discussed in light of the need for prevention programs to incorporate formative influences and mediational processes in the construction of intervention strategies.
Sociocultural attitudes predict partial hospitalization weight gain. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Development and validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ)
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Heinberg, L.J., Guarda, A.S., & Haug, N.A. (2001). Sociocultural attitudes predict partial hospitalization weight gain. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Eating Disorders Research Society (December), Albuquerque, NM. Heinberg, L.J., Thompson, J.K., & Stormer, S. (1995). Development and validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ). International Journal of Eating Disorders, 17, 81–89.
A test of the Tripartite Influence Model of Body Image and Eating Disturbance in an adolescent sample. Unpublished manuscript A prospective test of the dual-pathway model of bulimic pathology: Mediating effects of dieting and negative affect
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Shroff, H., & Thompson, J.K. (2003). A test of the Tripartite Influence Model of Body Image and Eating Disturbance in an adolescent sample. Unpublished manuscript. Stice, E. (2001). A prospective test of the dual-pathway model of bulimic pathology: Mediating effects of dieting and negative affect. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 124–135.
Risk factors for eating disorders: An evaluation of the evidence Handbook of eating disorders and obesity
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Field, A. (2004). Risk factors for eating disorders: An evaluation of the evidence. In J.K. Thompson (Ed.), Handbook of eating disorders and obesity. New York: Wiley.
Sociocultural attitudes predict partial hospitalization weight gain
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Heinberg, L.J., Guarda, A.S., & Haug, N.A. (2001). Sociocultural attitudes predict partial hospitalization weight gain. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Eating Disorders Research Society (December), Albuquerque, NM.
Eating disorder prevention programs Handbook of eating disorders and obesity
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Stice, E., & Hoffman, E. (2004). Eating disorder prevention programs. In J.K. Thompson (Ed.), Handbook of eating disorders and obesity. New York: Wiley.
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A test of the tripartite model of body image and eating disturbance with adolescent females
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Keery, H., & Thompson, J.K. (2003). A test of the tripartite model of body image and eating disturbance with adolescent females. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Heinberg
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