components of burnout. As burnout is measured on three
separate subscales (EE, DP and PA), three separate multiple
regression analyses were performed. In all cases, both empow-
erment and burnout were signiﬁcant predictors of job satis-
faction; however, empowerment was the stronger of the two.
Sixty percentage of the variance in job satisfaction was
explained by the combination of empowerment and EE [F (1,
86) ¼ 25Æ01; b ¼ 0Æ489, t ¼ 6Æ14, P ¼ 0Æ0001 and b ¼
0Æ398, t ¼5Æ00, P ¼ 0Æ0001, for empowerment and EE,
respectively]. Similarly, 55% of the variance in job satisfaction
was explained by the combination of empowerment and DP [F
(1, 86) ¼ 13Æ12, P ¼ 0Æ0001; b ¼ 0Æ578, t ¼ 7Æ32, and
b ¼0Æ287, t ¼3Æ63, P ¼ 0Æ0001, respectively]. Finally,
the combination of empowerment and PA explained 51% of
the variance in job satisfaction [F (1, 86) ¼ 4Æ67, P ¼ 0Æ033;
b ¼ 0Æ625, t ¼ 7Æ62, P ¼ 0Æ0001 and b ¼0Æ177, t ¼2Æ16,
P ¼ 0Æ033, respectively]. To determine the effects of individual
components of burnout in combination with empowerment,
an additional hierarchical multiple regression was conducted
in which the three burnout components were entered as a
block. In this analysis, although the three burnout scales added
a signiﬁcant change in explained variance in job satisfaction
change ¼ 0Æ129, F change (3, 84) ¼ 9Æ21], only EE was
found to add unique explained variance beyond that explained
by empowerment (b ¼0Æ339, t ¼3Æ5, P ¼ 0Æ001). In this
model, empowerment was the strongest predictor of job
satisfaction (b ¼0Æ46, t ¼ 5Æ6, P ¼ 0Æ0001). Neither DP
nor PA was signiﬁcant (b ¼0Æ068, t ¼0Æ685, P ¼ 0Æ495
and b ¼ 0Æ083, t ¼ 1Æ003, P ¼ 0Æ319, respectively). The total
explained variance was 60Æ8% [R
¼ 0Æ608, F (4, 84) ¼ 32Æ57,
P ¼ 0Æ0001].
Additional correlational analyses were conducted to fur-
ther examine the relationships between speciﬁc empower-
ment dimensions and burnout and job satisfaction. Overall
empowerment and satisfaction were strongly related
(r ¼ 0Æ69, P ¼ 0Æ01). Job satisfaction was most strongly
related to access to support (r ¼ 0Æ610, P ¼ 0Æ0001), fol-
lowed by access to resources (r ¼ 0Æ57, P ¼ 0Æ01), informa-
tion (r ¼ 0Æ52, P ¼ 0Æ01), and opportunity (r ¼ 0Æ493,
P ¼ 0Æ01) (see Table 4). These ﬁndings are similar to those
of Whyte (1995), Laschinger and Havens (1996, 1997) and
Casier (2000), who found that access to support had the
strongest relationship with staff nurse job satisfaction. Job
satisfaction was also signiﬁcantly related to formal and
informal power (r ¼ 0Æ54, P ¼ 0Æ01; r ¼ 0Æ43, P ¼ 0Æ01).
Finally, all burnout subscales were strongly related to job
satisfaction: EE (r ¼0Æ65, P ¼ 0Æ01), DP (r ¼0Æ52,
P ¼ 0Æ01) and PA (r ¼ 0Æ42, P ¼ 0Æ01).
Educational level, years of teaching experience, length of
employment, and amount of courses taught per year were not
signiﬁcantly related to any of the major study variables.
Empowerment was signiﬁcantly (<0Æ05) related to the
number of classroom students taught (r ¼0Æ23), as was
EE (r ¼ 0Æ38), DP (r ¼ 0Æ38), and job satisfaction (r ¼ 0Æ30).
EE and job satisfaction were also signiﬁcantly related
(P < 0Æ05) to hours worked per week (r ¼ 0Æ30 and
r ¼0Æ22, respectively).
The ﬁndings of this study support Kanter’s theoretical
contention that organizational factors within the workplace
are important in shaping organizational behaviours and
attitudes. Kanter’s belief that employees’ access to the
information, opportunity, support and resources necessary
for their work has positive effects on employees, such as
lower degrees of burnout and greater amounts of job
satisfaction was supported in the nurse educator population.
College educators perceived themselves to be only moderately
empowered, consistent with previous studies of college
educators (Erwin 1999) and staff nurses (Whyte 1995,
Hatcher & Laschinger 1996). Although more empowered
than staff nurses, it is surprising that the difference was not
greater, although the fact that both work in hierarchical
organizations may account for this ﬁnding.
College educators felt they had more access to opportunity
and the least access to resources. This is likely to be related to
the nature of their roles. Educators are expected to attend
professional conferences to remain up-to-date. These confer-
ences provide them with opportunities to develop new
knowledge and also to network with others within and
Table 4 Correlations between job satisfaction, empowerment and
Empowerment variable Global job satisfaction
Overall empowerment (total CWEQ) 0Æ69*
Formal power (JAS) 0Æ54*
Informal power (ORS) 0Æ43*
Global empowerment 0Æ81*
Emotional exhaustion 0Æ65*
Personal accomplishment 0Æ42*
*P ¼ 0Æ01.
CWEQ, Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire; JAS, Job
Activities Scale; ORS, Organizational Relationship Scale; MBI,
Maslach Burnout Inventory.
T.P. Sarmiento et al.
140 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 46(2), 134–143