Article

Prevalence of cognitive disorders differs as a function of age in HIV virus infection. AIDS

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
AIDS (Impact Factor: 5.55). 02/2004; 18 Suppl 1(Supplement 1):S11-8. DOI: 10.1097/00002030-200401001-00003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Ten per cent of all new cases of AIDS in the United States are in persons older than 50 years. This is particularly problematical in the case of the neuropsychiatric consequences of HIV, because there are neuropsychiatric disorders which become common in older individuals in the absence of HIV. The purpose of this report is to describe the prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment in HIV-infected individuals enrolled in a community-based study.
The study consisted of community-based, sentinel survey physician referrals of HIV-infected patients, with volunteer recruitment of risk-appropriate seronegative controls. One-year longitudinal follow-up study.
Detailed neuropsychiatric evaluations were performed at study entry and after one year. A brief, interim visit tracked incident change. Each subject's neuropsychological test performance was classified as normal, demented, or cognitive impairment (not demented).
The prevalence of cognitive disorder among HIV-positive individuals over 50 years was significantly greater than in individuals younger than 50 years. Among older participants, dementia was the more common classification (23%), whereas among younger participants, a milder form of cognitive impairment was more prevalent (22%). Alcohol abuse/dependence was a significant risk factor for a disorder, whereas greater education was a protective factor. The one-year incidence of disorder in the sample overall was low (7.3%), and age was not a significant risk factor. However, HIV viral load at study entry was significantly higher among those participants who had developed cognitive impairment one year later.
Age is a significant risk modifier for prevalent neuropsychological disorder.

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    • "This is important because of the increasing evidence of the progressive breakdown in neuronal networks during the course of progressive neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Zamrini et al. 2011). In the context of HIV disease, not only is it possible to identify HIV-infected individuals based on the pattern of neuronal networks, but also network abnormalities " normalize " in the face of effective antiretroviral therapy (Sacktor et al. 1999; Becker et al. 2012b; Cysique et al. 2004; Sacktor et al. 2001). Thus, the finding that IIV d is not particularly well Fig. 2 Results of regression-based analyses of the relationships among outcome and predictor variables. "
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the relationship between dispersion-based intra-individual variability (IIVd) in neuropsychological test performance and brain volume among HIV seropositive and seronegative men and to determine the effects of cardiovascular risk and HIV infection on this relationship. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to acquire high-resolution neuroanatomic data from 147 men age 50 and over, including 80 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 67 seronegative controls (HIV-) in this cross-sectional cohort study. Voxel Based Morphometry was used to derive volumetric measurements at the level of the individual voxel. These brain structure maps were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2). IIVd was measured by computing intra-individual standard deviations (ISD's) from the standardized performance scores of five neuropsychological tests: Wechsler Memory Scale-III Visual Reproduction I and II, Logical Memory I and II, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Letter Number Sequencing. Total gray matter (GM) volume was inversely associated with IIVd. Among all subjects, IIVd -related GM atrophy was observed primarily in: 1) the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left inferior temporal gyrus extending to the supramarginal gyrus, spanning the lateral sulcus; 2) the right superior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus; and, 3) dorsal/ventral regions of the posterior section of the transverse temporal gyrus. HIV status, biological, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) variables were not linked to IIVd -related GM atrophy. IIVd in neuropsychological test performance may be a sensitive marker of cortical integrity in older adults, regardless of HIV infection status or CVD risk factors, and degree of intra-individual variability links with volume loss in specific cortical regions; independent of mean-level performance on neuropsychological tests.
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    • "In early initiators of HIV therapy and the HIV negative cohorts, the risk for non-AIDS related mortality was comparable [117]. As longevity with HIV infection improves with earlier treatment, the neurocognitive disorder burden will not only increase but may also evolve differently with longer durations of immune activation [40,118119120121. The pathophysiology of age-related neurocognitive disorders may be similar to and synergistic with those in HIV, including chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune senescence. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) will undoubtedly increase with the improved longevity of HIV-infected persons. HIV infection, itself, as well as multiple physiologic and psychosocial factors can contribute to cognitive impairment and neurologic complications. These comorbidities confound the diagnosis, assessment, and interventions for neurocognitive disorders. In this review, we discuss the role of several key comorbid factors that may contribute significantly to the development and progression of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment, as well as the current status of diagnostic strategies aimed at identifying HIV-infected individuals with impaired cognition and future research priorities and challenges.
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    • "Resulting neurocognitive impairment has been shown to affect up to 52% of people living with HIV [7,8]. There also appears to be an age effect of neurocognitive impairment, with a larger proportion of those affected aged 50 years and over [9]. Criteria for HAND were established by the American Academy of Neurology and include three conditions: Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (ANI), Mild Neurocognitive Impairment (MNI) and HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD) [10]. "
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