Article

Suppression of HIV-1 viral replication and cellular pathogenesis by a novel p38/JNK kinase inhibitor

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  • Gene One Life Science Inc
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Abstract

To analyze a novel compound, which inhibits serine-threonine protein kinase p38, for its possible bioactivity against HIV-1 infection. Proteins involved in cellular signal transduction pathways represent a novel class of host therapeutic targets for infectious diseases. In this regard the serine/threonine kinase p38 MAPK, a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily of signal transduction molecules may play an important role in HIV-1 infection. We analyzed the ability of this compound (RWJ67657) to inhibit HIV replication in primary T cells and monocytes. Cellular expression of phospho-p38MAPK was studied by Western blot analysis. Blockade of HIV infection induced apoptosis was measured by Annexin V staining. p38 inhibitor RWJ67657 was effective in inhibiting HIV-1 replication in both T-cell and monocyte cell lines, irrespective of the coreceptor used by the virus for entry into the cell. Importantly, both reverse transcriptase and protease resistant escape mutant viruses were effectively suppressed by RWJ67657. In addition, the tested compounds block HIV-induced T-cell apoptosis, a critical means of T-cell depletion linked to AIDS progression. Several steps in the HIV-1 virus life cycle appear to depend on cellular activation, including activation of the p38 pathway. Without activation virus replication is thought to be blocked due to incomplete reverse transcription and a lack of proviral DNA integration. The data collectively illustrate that inhibition of the p38 pathway can affect HIV-1 replication. Interruption of HIV infection by p38 inhibitors underscores the value of exploring antiviral drugs that target host cellular proteins.

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... The p38 inhibitors SB203580 and RWJ67657 have been previously described. 13,14 The wild-type Nef (pNef) or pNef (PxxPxR) alanine substitution plasmids were amplified by single-round polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Nef-specific primers or overlap extension PCR and subcloned into the pVax vector (Invitrogen, Frederick, MD). The wild-type p38 MAP kinase, dominant-negative p38 (KM mutant; K to M mutation at the adenosine triphosphate [ATP]binding site), was constructed. ...
... Activation of p38 kinase following HIV infection in some target cells has been previously demonstrated. 14,20 Activation was not a result of virus binding to the cell surface but apparently occurs after virus internalization. We sought to gain insight into the molecular interactions responsible for this activation; therefore, we examined the effect of HIV-1 infection on p38 phosphorylation, a major indicator of p38 kinase activity. ...
... Human PBMCs were infected with NL4-3 virus at a concentration of 100 TCID 50 /10 6 cells per milliliter and tested for apoptosis under various conditions, including in the presence or absence of known specific p38 inhibitors designated as inhibitor-I or inhibitor-II (SB203580 or RWJ67657, respectively) at 1 M as described. 14 Cells were collected 2 days after infection from each treatment group and analyzed for apoptosis induction in HIV-infected cells. HIV-1 infection promoted significant apoptosis in target cells ( Figure 1B). ...
Article
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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been reported to target noninfected CD4 and CD8 cells for destruction. This effect is manifested in part through up-regulation of the death receptor Fas ligand (FasL) by HIV-1 negative factor (Nef), leading to bystander damage. However, the signal transduction and transcriptional regulation of this process remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is required for this process. Loss-of-function experiments through dominant-negative p38 isoform, p38 siRNA, and chemical inhibitors of p38 activation suggest that p38 is necessary for Nef-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, as inhibition leads to an attenuation of AP-1-dependent transcription. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the FasL promoter reveals that its AP-1 enhancer element is required for Nef-mediated transcriptional activation. Therefore, a linear pathway for Nef-induced FasL expression that encompasses p38 and AP-1 has been elucidated. Furthermore, chemical inhibition of the p38 pathway attenuates HIV-1-mediated bystander killing of CD8 cells in vitro.
... As cocaine treatment potentiated the HIV-1 LTR promoterdriven transcription, we sought to understand the underlying mechanistic details. We focused on the p38 MAPK pathway based on two lines of published data showing that: (1) cocaine activates p38 MAPK in neurons and astrocytes (Yao et al., 2009;Yang et al., 2010), and (2) p38 MAPK activates HIV-1 LTRdriven transcription in monocytic cell lines and macrophages (Muthumani et al., 2004;Horie et al., 2007;Kadoki et al., 2010;Sahu et al., 2015). To test this, first we investigated whether cocaine activates p38 MAPK in macrophages. ...
... Cocaine is known to target several signaling pathways including MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and MSK1, which can modulate transcription of cellular genes (Yao et al., 2009;Yang et al., 2010;Mannangatti et al., 2015). Importantly, MAPK and MSK1 signaling has also been shown to modulate HIV-1 replication, by stimulating transcription from the viral LTR promoter (Muthumani et al., 2004;Horie et al., 2007;Herbein et al., 2010). For instance, HIV-1 transcription is induced by an activated p38 MAPK in macrophages (Kadoki et al., 2010), while inhibition of p38 MAPK in PBMCs and chronically infected monocytic cell lines diminished HIV-1 production (Shapiro et al., 1998). ...
Article
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Cocaine is a commonly used illicit drug among HIV-1 infected individuals and is known to increase HIV-1 replication in permissive cells including PBMCs, CD4+ T cells, and macrophages. Cocaine’s potentiating effects on HIV-1 replication in macrophages- the primary targets of the virus in the central nervous system, has been suggested to play an important role in HIV-1 neuro-pathogenesis. However, the mechanism by which cocaine enhances HIV-1 replication in macrophages remain poorly understood. Here we report the identification of cocaine-induced signaling events that lead to enhanced HIV-1 transcription in macrophages. Treatment of physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine enhanced HIV-1 transcription in a dose-dependent manner in infected THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1macs) and primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Towards decoding the underlying mechanism, results presented in this report demonstrate that cocaine induces the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), a known activator of HIV-1 transcription. We also present data suggesting that the p38 MAPK-driven HIV-1 transcription is dependent on the induction of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). Consequently, MSK1 mediates the phosphorylation of serine 10 residue of histone 3 (H3 Ser10), which is known to activate transcription of genes including that of HIV-1 in macrophages. Importantly, our results show that inhibition of p38 MAPK/MSK1 signaling by specific pharmacological inhibitors abrogated the positive effect of cocaine on HIV-1 transcription. These results validate the functional link between cocaine and p38 MAPK/MSK1 pathways. Together, our results demonstrate for the first time that the p38 MAPK/MSK1 signaling pathway plays a critical role in the cocaine-induced potentiating effects on HIV-1 infection, thus providing new insights into the interplay between cocaine abuse and HIV-1 neuro-pathogenesis.
... Activation of the p38-MAPK pathway during HIV-1 infection has been described by several groups [129][130][131][132][133][134][135][136][137][138][139]. However, studies on the p38-MAPK/ERK pathway have generally focused on the direct effect of HIV-1 gp120 singalling via engagement of CD4 or the coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 [129,[136][137][138][139], rather than IFN-I production. ...
... However, studies on the p38-MAPK/ERK pathway have generally focused on the direct effect of HIV-1 gp120 singalling via engagement of CD4 or the coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 [129,[136][137][138][139], rather than IFN-I production. In particular, activation of p38-MAPK/ERK has been studied in reference to its role in modulating cell activation and HIV-1 replication [129][130][131][132][133][134][135]. ...
Article
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Type I interferon (IFN-I) play a critical role in the innate immune response against viral infections. They actively participate in antiviral immunity by inducing molecular mechanisms of viral restriction and by limiting the spread of the infection, but they also orchestrate the initial phases of the adaptive immune response and influence the quality of T cell immunity. During infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the production of and response to IFN-I may be severely altered by the lymphotropic nature of the virus. In this review I consider the different aspects of virus sensing, IFN-I production, signalling, and effects on target cells, with a particular focus on the alterations observed following HIV-1 infection.
... Three studies investigating the mechanism of HIV-1 infection have found that inhibition of p38 MAPK suppresses viral replication and cytopathic effects in T-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages possibly by preventing the activation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, impairing reverse transcription and compromising proviral integration (Kumar et al. 1996;Cohen et al. 1997;Muthumani et al. 2004). Accordingly, in an HIV-1 JR-CSF transgenic mouse model, in which monocytic cells produce infectious virus, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) in combination with granulocyte/macrophage colonystimulating factor increases viral expression in a p38 MAPK-dependent fashion (Osiecki et al. 2005), and a different HIV-transgenic mouse model carrying a polymerase-deficient viral genome of the strain NL-4-3 confirms these findings (Kadoki et al. 2010). ...
Article
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) often leads to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) prior to the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). At the cellular level, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) provide a family of signal transducers that regulate many processes in response to extracellular stimuli and environmental stress, such as viral infection. Recently, evidence has accumulated suggesting that p38 MAPK plays crucial roles in various pathological processes associated with HIV infection, ranging from macrophage activation to neurotoxicity and impairment of neurogenesis to lymphocyte apoptosis. Thus, p38 MAPK, which has generally been linked to stress-related signal transduction, may be an important mediator in the development of AIDS and HAND.
... An abundance of scientific literature exists demonstrating that oxidative stress influences several signaling pathways [25,[93][94][95], among which the two mostly affected, MAPK (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase) and PI3K/Akt pathways, have a pivotal role on replication of several viruses, such as influenza A virus [96][97][98], HIV [99], human cytomegalovirus [100], varicella-zoster [101] and also HCV [15,17]. MAP kinases (comprising the three best characterized members ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK) and Akt are activated by general induction of intracellular ROS [93,94,102] and are inhibited by the antioxidants [17,76,103]. ...
Article
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects approximately 3% of the world’s population. Currently licensed treatment of HCV chronic infection with pegylated-interferon-α and ribavirin, is not fully effective against all HCV genotypes and is associated to severe side effects. Thus, development of novel therapeutics and identification of new targets for treatment of HCV infection is necessary. Current opinion is orienting to target antiviral drug discovery to the host cell pathways on which the virus relies, instead of against viral structures. Many intracellular signaling pathways manipulated by HCV for its own replication are finely regulated by the oxido-reductive (redox) state of the host cell. At the same time, HCV induces oxidative stress that has been found to affect both virus replication as well as progression and severity of HCV infection. A dual role, positive or negative, for the host cell oxidized conditions on HCV replication has been reported so far. This review examines current information about the effect of oxidative stress on HCV life cycle and the main redox-regulated intracellular pathways activated during HCV infection and involved in its replication.
... 61 The amount of Bax is found to be increased in the mitochondrion-enriched heavy membrane fraction of HIV-infected CD4 þ T cells as compared to uninfected controls. 45,67 In vitro, pharmacological inhibition of Cdk1 (with roscovitine), 55,62 mTOR (with rapamycin), 55,62 p38 MAPK (with SB203580 or other inhibitors), 66,70 or p53 (with cyclic pifithrin-a) 61,62 suppresses the apoptosis induced by HIV-1 infection, while caspase inhibition (with Z-VAD.fmk) has no or little cytoprotective effects. 45,68 Altogether, these data suggest that the cascade of events delineated above (cell fusion-activation of Cdk1/cyclin B-p53 phosphorylation on serine 15 and serine 46 by mTOR and p38 MAPKtranscriptional activation of p53 target genes such as Bax and Puma-Bax translocation to mitochondria with consequent MMP-caspase independent cell death) is induced by HIV-1 infection in vitro. ...
Article
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The envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) can induce apoptosis by a cornucopia of distinct mechanisms. A soluble Env derivative, gp120, can kill cells through signals that are transmitted by chemokine receptors such as CXCR4. Cell surface-bound Env (gp120/gp41), as present on the plasma membrane of HIV-1-infected cells, can kill uninfected bystander cells expressing CD4 and CXCR4 (or similar chemokine receptors, depending on the Env variant) by at least three different mechanisms. First, a transient interaction involving the exchange of lipids between the two interacting cells ('the kiss of death') may lead to the selective death of single CD4-expressing target cells. Second, fusion of the interacting cells may lead to the formation of syncytia which then succumb to apoptosis in a complex pathway involving the activation of several kinases (cyclin-dependent kinase-1, Cdk1; checkpoint kinase-2, Chk2; mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, p38 MAPK; inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase, IKK), as well as the activation of several transcription factors (NF-kappaB, p53), finally resulting in the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Third, if the Env-expressing cell is at an early stage of imminent apoptosis, its fusion with a CD4-expressing target cell can precipitate the death of both cells, through a process that may be considered as contagious apoptosis and which does not involve Cdk1, mTOR, p38 nor p53, yet does involve mitochondria. Activation of some of the above- mentioned lethal signal transducers have been detected in patients' tissues, suggesting that HIV-1 may indeed trigger apoptosis through molecules whose implication in Env-induced killing has initially been discovered in vitro.
... Results indicate the dynamic temporal response by macrophages to HIV-1. HIV-1 activates the MAPK pathway MAPK activation is triggered in response to soluble Env gp120 engagement with surface receptor complex and is required for efficient production of infectious viral particles in primary Tlymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages [41][42][43]. In our studies, virus treatment of macrophages had a global effect on MAPK signaling that extended from cell-surface receptors to transcription factors (Fig. 4A). ...
Article
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Macrophages provide an interface between innate and adaptive immunity and are important long-lived reservoirs for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1). Multiple genetic networks involved in regulating signal transduction cascades and immune responses in macrophages are coordinately modulated by HIV-1 infection. To evaluate complex interrelated processes and to assemble an integrated view of activated signaling networks, a systems biology strategy was applied to genomic and proteomic responses by primary human macrophages over the course of HIV-1 infection. Macrophage responses, including cell cycle, calcium, apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and cytokines/chemokines, to HIV-1 were temporally regulated, in the absence of cell proliferation. In contrast, Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways remained unaltered by HIV-1, although TLRs 3, 4, 7, and 8 were expressed and responded to ligand stimulation in macrophages. HIV-1 failed to activate phosphorylation of IRAK-1 or IRF-3, modulate intracellular protein levels of Mx1, an interferon-stimulated gene, or stimulate secretion of TNF, IL-1beta, or IL-6. Activation of pathways other than TLR was inadequate to stimulate, via cross-talk mechanisms through molecular hubs, the production of proinflammatory cytokines typical of a TLR response. HIV-1 sensitized macrophage responses to TLR ligands, and the magnitude of viral priming was related to virus replication. HIV-1 induced a primed, proinflammatory state, M1(HIV), which increased the responsiveness of macrophages to TLR ligands. HIV-1 might passively evade pattern recognition, actively inhibit or suppress recognition and signaling, or require dynamic interactions between macrophages and other cells, such as lymphocytes or endothelial cells. HIV-1 evasion of TLR recognition and simultaneous priming of macrophages may represent a strategy for viral survival, contribute to immune pathogenesis, and provide important targets for therapeutic approaches.
... HCV E2 envelope protein activates the MAP kinase pathway (Zhao, 2005Zhao, , 2006Zhao, , 2007). MAP kinase inhibitors block HIV-1 viral replication in T cells and in a monocyte cell line (Muthumani, 2004). HIV-1 viral proteins also regulate MAP kinase activity (Kumar, 1998; Robichaud, 2000; Rusnati, 2001; Kan, 2004). ...
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Drug abuse has become a global health concern. Understanding how drug abuse modulates the immune system and how the immune system responds to pathogens associated with drug abuse, such hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), can be assessed by an integrated approach comparing proteomic analyses and quantitation of gene expression. Two-dimensional (2D) difference gel electrophoresis was used to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the proteomic changes that alter normal biological processes when monocyte-derived mature dendritic cells were treated with cocaine or methamphetamine. Both drugs differentially regulated the expression of several functional classes of proteins including those that modulate apoptosis, protein folding, protein kinase activity, and metabolism and proteins that function as intracellular signal transduction molecules. Proteomic data were validated using a combination of quantitative, real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. These studies will help to identify the molecular mechanisms, including the expression of several functionally important classes of proteins that have emerged as potential mediators of pathogenesis. These proteins may predispose immunocompetent cells, including dendritic cells, to infection with viruses such as HCV and HIV-1, which are associated with drug abuse.
... Previous studies have shown that MAPK inhibitors, includ- ing those for p38 MAPK, may suppress replication of encephalomyocarditis virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by different mechanisms (15,26). However, whether the effects of kinase inhibitors occur at the early stage of viral infection is not clear. ...
Article
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Avian influenza A virus subtype H5N1 can infect humans to cause a severe viral pneumonia with mortality rates of more than 30%. The biological basis for this unusual disease severity is not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that in contrast to human influenza A virus subtypes including H1N1 or H3N2, the H5N1 virus associated with the “bird flu” outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997 (H5N1/97) hyperinduces proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in primary human macrophages in vitro. To delineate the molecular mechanisms involved, we analyzed the role of transcription factor NF-κB and cellular kinases in TNF-α dysregulation. H5N1 and H1N1 viruses did not differ in the activation of NF-κB or degradation of IκB-α in human macrophages. However, we demonstrated that unlike H1N1 virus, H5N1/97 strongly activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), including p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Specific inhibitors of p38 MAPK significantly reduced the H5N1/97-induced TNF-α expression in macrophages. Taken together, our findings suggest that H5N1/97-mediated hyperinduction of cytokines involves the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These results may provide insights into the pathogenesis of H5N1 disease and rationales for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
... Like leptomycin B, PKF050-638 also targets CRM1, yet its cytotoxicity was much lower than that of leptomycin B. The serine/threonine kinase p38 MAPK, a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily, is assumed to play an important role in HIV-1 replication. In fact, the p38 MAPK inhibitor RWJ67657 (Fig. 2) was effective in inhibiting HIV-1 replication in cell cultures (Muthumani et al., 2004). It is likely that RWJ67657 acts as an HIV-1 transcription inhibitor, yet further studies are required to prove this hypothesis . ...
Article
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression and transcription is a crucial step in the viral replication cycle, which is considered to be a potential target for inhibition of HIV-1. Among the factors involved in this step, the cellular protein nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB is the most powerful inducer of HIV-1 gene expression. On the other hand, the viral protein Tat plays a central role in sustaining a high level of HIV-1 replication. Several compounds have been reported to selectively inhibit the functions of Tat and NF-kappaB. Tat inhibitors target either the Tat/TAR RNA interaction or the Tat cofactor cyclin-dependent kinase 9/cyclin T1. Antioxidants, protein kinase C inhibitors, and IkappaB kinase inhibitors are known to suppress the activation of NF-kappaB. Although some of the compounds inhibit HIV-1 replication in cell cultures at low concentrations, they also have considerable toxicity to the host cells. Considering the increase of treatment failure cases in highly active antiretroviral therapy due to the emergence of multidrug resistance, HIV-1 gene expression inhibitors should be extensively studied as alternative approach to effective anti-HIV-1 chemotherapy.
... Since replication-deficient RV14 did not trigger late p38-K-stimulation, it might be involved in the replication cycle, although this has to be proven. The notion that p38-K might be involved in RV-replication is consistent with previous findings on Herpes simplex type 1 [24], Rabies virus [25], encephalomyocarditis virus [13], HIV [26], varicella-zoster virus [27] or Hepatitis C [28] to name a few examples. Collectively, these studies indicate a stimulation of p38-K by these viruses that is directly or indirectly involved in and critical for viral replication. ...
Article
Rhinoviral infections belong to the most frequent human infections characterized by common cold, chronic bronchitis, exacerbations of asthma, otitis media and sinusitis. Here, we define molecular mechanisms that mediate infections of human epithelial cells with human rhinovirus strain 14 (RV14). We demonstrate that RV14 activates p38-MAPKinase (p38-K) in a biphasic time course. Early stimulation of p38-K by RV14 was observed a few minutes after initiation of the infection, while the late increase of p38-K activity occurred 7-12 hrs upon infection. The stimulation of p38-K was mediated by the small G-protein RhoA,which was activated by RV14. Transfection of a genetic construct preventing RhoA activation blocked RV14-induced p38-K activation. Further, integrity of cholesterol and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains was required for RV14-mediated p38-K activation, which was inhibited by destruction of membrane rafts. The data indicate that RV employs a signaling cascade from membrane rafts via the small G-protein RhoA to p38-K to infect human cells.
... Functional responses involving p38 include respiratory burst activity, chemotaxis, granular exocytosis, adherence and apoptosis (Ono & Han, 2000). Activation of p38 kinase has also been associated with HIV replication (Muthumani et al., 2004) and thus, it is proposed that R5 envelopes induce genes that may facilitate replication of virus in resting CD4 + T cells, contributing to the establishment and/or maintenance of viral reservoirs, and the productive infection at mucosal surfaces, favoring transmission (Cicala et al., 2006a). Other studies also shown that R5 and X4 Gp120 can activate NFATs and induce their translocation into the nucleus. ...
Chapter
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Current notions on the pathogenesis of the HIV-induced disease sustain that progressive immunodeficiency results from a combination of the cell cytotoxicity produced by infection and replication of the virus in the target cells, mainly immune system cells, and of the indirect, harmful effects mediated by two main mechanisms: a sustained, chronic activation of the immune system that turns into immune dysfunction with the progressive degradation of lymphoid tissues, and the immunoregulatory and toxic properties of extracellular viral proteins on bystander cells (Choudhary et al., 2007; Moir et al., 2011). Bystander, non infected cells that show altered function and death, include cells with null or low expression of the CD4 receptor, such as CD8+ T and B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, neurons and tumor cells. The HIV-1 Gp120 protein has properties that maintain resemblance with animal toxins. Active forms of free Gp120 can be found at nanomolar concentrations in the plasma of a considerable proportion of HIV infected individuals (Rychert et al., 2010; Gilbert et al., 1991; Santosuosso et al., 2009). A number of in vitro and in vivo activities have been described for the extracellular form of this molecule, indicating that it may contribute to deregulation of immune function and damage to several tissues during HIV infection. Activation, apoptosis, chemotaxis and impaired cellular function are the most frequently reported effects of Gp120 in the absence of HIV infection. Gp120 interacts with chemokine receptors (mainly CXCR4 and CCR5) which are expressed by different cells and tissues, besides the immune system, thus providing a range of possible target cells for toxic effects. However, the high structural variability of Gp120, absorption by host’s glycan-binding compounds, and the complexity of the regulation processes involved in chemokine receptor function, have made difficult to asses the actual significance of the free form of this molecule for AIDS pathogenesis. On the other hand, soluble Gp120 or peptides derived of active portions of the molecule may be considered as potential therapeutic agents to target undesirable cells, i.e., tumor cells. This article provides a review of the main factors influencing the biological outcome of the interaction of the soluble form of Gp120 with cells and tissues, and a selection of recent literature illustrating the diversity of the effects induced by this molecule.
... Furthermore, phosphorylation of ERα by p38 enhances ERα mediated growth and signaling. 5,12,36,37 We show here, similar to other reports, that E 2 is also a potent activator of the p38α MAPK pathway. Therefore, targeting the p38 MAPK pathway represents a potential therapeutic treatment option in the treatment of ER + breast cancer. ...
Article
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The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) is known to promote cell survival, endocrine therapy resistance and hormone independent breast cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, we utilized the novel p38 inhibitor RWJ67657 to investigate the relevance of targeting this pathway in the ER (+) breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Our results show that RWJ67657 inhibits both basal and estrogen stimulated phosphorylation of p38α, resulting in decreased activation of the downstream p38α targets hsp27 and MAPAPK. Furthermore, inhibition of p38α by RWJ67657 blocks clonogenic survival of MCF-7 cells with little effect on non-cancerous breast epithelial cells. Even though p38α is known to phosphorylate ERα at residue within ER's hinge region at Thr311, resulting in increased ERα transcriptional activation, our results suggest RWJ67657 inhibits the p38α-induced activation of ER by targeting both the AF-1 and AF-2 activation domains within ERα. We further show that RWJ67657 decreases the transcriptional activity of the ER coactivators SRC-1, SRC-2 and SRC-3. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that in addition to phosphorylating Thr311 within ERα, p38α indirectly activates the ER by phosphorylation and stimulation of the known ERα coactivators, SRC-1, -2 and-3. Overall, our data underscore the therapeutic potential of targeting the p38 MAPK pathway in the treatment of ER (+) breast cancer.
... JNK is known to modulate the replication of certain viruses. Herpes simplex virus (49), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (50), rhesus rotavirus (51), and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (52) are all suppressed by JNK inhibition, while inhibitors of JNK enhance replication of influenza virus (53) and varicellazoster virus (54). In contrast, coxsackievirus B3 yields are not altered by JNK inhibition with SP600125 (55). ...
Article
The human kinome comprises over 800 individual kinases. These contribute in multiple ways to regulation of cellular metabolism and may have direct and indirect effects on virus replication. Kinases are tempting therapeutic targets for drug development, but achieving sufficient specificity is often a challenge for chemical inhibitors. While using inhibitors to assess whether c-Jun N-terminal (JNK) kinases regulate hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication, we encountered unexpected off-target effects that led us to discover a role for a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related kinase, MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 (MKNK1), in viral entry. Two JNK inhibitors, AS601245 and SP600125, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of JNK1 and JNK2, enhanced replication of HCV replicon RNAs as well as infectious genome-length RNA transfected into Huh-7 cells. JNK knockdown also enhanced replication following infection with cell-free virus, suggesting that JNK actively restricts HCV replication. Despite this, AS601245 and SP600125 both inhibited viral entry. Screening of a panel of inhibitors targeting kinases that are potentially modulated by off-target effects of AS601245 and SP600125 led us to identify MKNK1 as a host factor involved in HCV entry. Chemical inhibition or siRNA knockdown of MKNK1 significantly impaired entry of genotype 1a HCV and HCV-pseudotyped lentiviral particles (HCVpp) in Huh-7 cells, but had only minimal impact on viral RNA replication, or cell proliferation and viability. We propose a model by which MKNK1 acts to facilitate viral entry downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), both of which have been implicated in the entry process.
... It is important to note that p38 MAPK is a pleiotropic kinase that, in the context of HIV-1 infection, is not only in-volved in the apoptotic cascade triggered by syncytium formation. It has been shown that pharmacological inhibition of p38 can actually reduce HIV-1 replication in vitro, via an unknown mechanism (50,51). The data contained in this paper suggest that, in addition, p38 may be cardinal for the transmission of lethal signals elicited by Env, even in the absence of a virus, that is in the context of bystander killing. ...
Article
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The proapoptotic activity of the transcription factor p53 critically depends on the phosphorylation of serine 46 (p53S46P). Here, we show that syncytia containing p53S46P could be detected in lymph node biopsies from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 carriers, in the brain of patients with HIV-1-associated dementia and in cocultures of HeLa expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) with HeLa cells expressing CD4. In this latter model, cell death was the result of a sequential process involving cell fusion, nuclear fusion (karyogamy), phosphorylation of serine 15 (p53S15P), later on serine 46 (p53S46P), and transcription of p53 target genes. Cytoplasmic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was found to undergo an activating phosphorylation (p38T180/Y182P [p38 with phosphorylated threonine 180 and tyrosine 182]) before karyogamy and to translocate into karyogamic nuclei. p38T180/Y182P colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with p53S46P. Recombinant p38 phosphorylated recombinant p53 on serine 46 in vitro. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by pharmacological inhibitors, dominant-negative p38, or small interfering RNA, suppressed p53S46P (but not p53S15P), the expression of p53-inducible genes, the conformational activation of proapoptotic Bax and Bak, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and consequent apoptosis. p38T180/Y182P was also detected in HIV-1-induced syncytia, in vivo, in patients' lymph nodes and brains. Dominant-negative MKK3 or MKK6 inhibited syncytial activation of p38, p53S46P, and apoptosis. Altogether, these findings indicate that p38 MAPK-mediated p53 phosphorylation constitutes a critical step of Env-induced apoptosis.
... MAP kinases play central roles in gene transcription and IL-2 expression upon TCR activation [6]. In addition, HIV-1 gene expression and replication require the activation of MAPKs [28]. Among the MAPKs, p38 and JNK play important roles in HIV-1 gene expression from the provirus form through the phosphorylation of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB [29]. ...
... Viruses have been known to utilize various cellular signaling pathways to achieve infection and replication (Nguyen et al., 2007). Recently, the JNK signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in various viral infections, such as Rotavirus (Holloway and Coulson, 2006), Coxsackievirus B3 (Si et al., 2005), Human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) (Muthumani et al., 2004), Influenza virus (Hrincius et al., 2010), varicella-zoster virus (Zapata et al., 2007), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (McLean and Bachenheimer, 1999), Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus (Katsuma et al., 2007), Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (Stahl et al., 2012), and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) (Huang et al., 2011a). SGIV is a major cause of mortality in fishes, such as grouper and seabass (Qin et al., 2003;Huang et al., 2004). ...
Article
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c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates cellular responses to various extracellular stimuli, environmental stresses, pathogen infections, and apoptotic agents. Here, a JNK1, Ec-JNK1, was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-JNK1 has been found involving in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis in vitro. SGIV infection activated Ec-JNK1, of which phosphorylation of motif TPY is crucial for its activity. Over-expressing Ec-JNK1 phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and promoted the infection and replication of SGIV, while partial inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 showed the opposite effects by over-expressing the dominant-negative EcJNK1-△183-185 mutant. Interestingly, SGIV enhanced the viral infectivity by activating Ec-JNK1 which in turn drastically inhibited the antiviral responses of type 1 IFN, indicating that Ec-JNK1 could be involved in blocking IFN signaling during SGIV infection. In addition, Ec-JNK1 enhanced the activation of AP-1, p53 and NF-κB, and resulted in increasing the levels of SGIV-induced cell death. The caspase 3-dependent activation correlated with the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 and contributed to SGIV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, SGIV modulated the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 to inactivate the antiviral signaling, enhance the SGIV-induced apoptosis and activate transcription factors for efficient infection and replication. The “positive cooperativity” molecular mechanism mediated by Ec-JNK1 contributes to the successful evasion and infection of iridovirus pathogenesis.
... The JNK pathway has been implicated in multiple diseases, including infectious diseases [48]. The JNK pathway has been shown to be required for the viral replication of herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, rotavirus, HIV-1 and human cytomegalovirus [49][50][51][52][53][54]. In addition, EV71 infection has been reported to activate the JNK pathway in immature dendritic cells and to promote the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, whereas inhibition of this pathway results in the suppression of viral replication and the reduced secretion of cytokines [55]. ...
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Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe hand, foot and mouse disease, accompanied by neurological complications. During the interaction between EV71 and the host, the virus subverts host cell machinery for its own replication. However, the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this process remain obscure. Results In this study, we found that the miRNA hsa-let-7c-5p was significantly upregulated in EV71-infected rhabdomyosarcoma cells. The overexpression of hsa-let-7c-5p promoted replication of the virus, and the hsa-let-7c-5p inhibitor suppressed viral replication. Furthermore, hsa-let-7c-5p targeted mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) and inhibited its expression. Interestingly, downregulation of MAP4K4 expression led to an increase in EV71 replication. In addition, MAP4K4 knockdown or transfection with the hsa-let-7c-5p mimic led to activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, whereas the hsa-let-7c-5p inhibitor inhibited activation of this pathway. Moreover, EV71 infection promoted JNK pathway activation to facilitate viral replication. Conclusions Our data suggested that hsa-let-7c-5p facilitated EV71 replication by inhibiting MAP4K4 expression, which might be related to subversion of the JNK pathway by the virus. These results may shed light on a novel mechanism underlying the defense of EV71 against cellular responses. In addition, these findings may facilitate the development of new antiviral strategies for use in future therapies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13578-017-0135-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Another p38 inhibitor RWJ67657, which is structurally different from SB203580, also significantly enhanced the LPS/IFN-γinduced increase in JNK phosphorylation. RWJ67657 is rather known to have aspects as a JNK inhibitor (Muthumani et al., 2004), then we can suggest that potentiation of JNK phosphorylation in this study is not at least an off-target effect. These findings suggest that p38 activation negatively regulates activation of JNK in HPMVECs stimulated with LPS and IFN-γ. ...
Article
Pulmonary endothelial injury is central in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). The MAPK signaling cascades are generally thought to be involved in the molecular mechanism underlying the ALI development, but their roles in pulmonary endothelial injury is poorly understood. We thus examined the involvement of the MAPK family member in inflammatory responses of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMVECs) stimulated with LPS and IFN-γ. HPMVECs were found to exhibit the upregulation of expression of Toll-like receptor 4 by IFN-γ, resulting in potentiation of inflammatory cytokine release by LPS stimulation. All MAPKs, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38, were activated by simultaneous stimulation with LPS/IFN-γ. JNK activation in cells stimulated with LPS/IFN-γ was significantly potentiated by the two different p38 inhibitors, SB203580 and RWJ67657, suggesting the negative regulation of JNK activation by p38 in HPMVECs. The mRNA and protein expression levels of ICAM-1 were eliminated by the JNK inhibitor, suggesting that ICAM-1 expression is positively regulated by JNK. The p38 inhibitor significantly enhanced ICAM-1 expression. ERK1/2 activation was not responsible for the LPS/IFN-γ-induced ICAM-1 upregulation in HPMVECs. THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HPMVECs under LPS/IFN-γ stimulation was inhibited by the JNK inhibitor and enhanced by the p38 inhibitor. We conclude that, in HPMVECs stimulated with LPS/IFN-γ, JNK mediates ICAM-1 expression that can facilitate leukocyte adherence and transmigration, while p38 MAPK negatively regulates the upregulation of ICAM-1 through inhibition of JNK activation.
... Among them, Cohen et al. 1997 have shown that HIV-1 CXCR4 strain infection of both primary human T lymphocytes and T cell lines immediately stimulates the cellular p38 MAPK pathway, which remains activated throughout the experimental conditions. Inclusion of an antisense oligonucleotides to p38 MAPK expressly inhibited viral replication [70,[77][78][79]. Blockade of p38 MAPK by addition of CNI-1493 also inhibited HIV-1 viral replication of primary T lymphocytes in a dose-and time-dependent manner. ...
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Background and objectives: To enter the target cell, HIV-1 binds not only CD4 but also a co-receptor β-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) or α chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Limited information is available on the impact of co-receptor usage on HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and on the homeostasis of this important cellular reservoir. Materials and Methods: Replication (measured by p24 production) of the CCR5-tropic 81A strain increased up to 10 days post-infection and then reached a plateau. Conversely, the replication of the CXCR4-tropic NL4.3 strain (after an initial increase up to day 7) underwent a drastic decrease becoming almost undetectable after 10 days post-infection. The ability of CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic strains to induce cell death in MDM was then evaluated. While for CCR5-tropic 81A the rate of apoptosis in MDM was comparable to uninfected MDM, the infection of CXCR4-tropic NL4.3 in MDM was associated with a rate of 14.3% of apoptotic cells at day 6 reaching a peak of 43.5% at day 10 post-infection. Results: This suggests that the decrease in CXCR4-tropic strain replication in MDM can be due to their ability to induce cell death in MDM. The increase in apoptosis was paralleled with a 2-fold increase in the phosphorylated form of p38 compared to WT. Furthermore, microarray analysis showed modulation of proapoptotic and cancer-related genes induced by CXCR4-tropic strains starting from 24 h after infection, whereas CCR5 viruses modulated the expression of genes not correlated with apoptotic-pathways. Conclusions: In conclusion, CXCR4-tropic strains can induce a remarkable depletion of MDM. Conversely, MDM can represent an important cellular reservoir for CCR5-tropic strains supporting the role of CCR5-usage in HIV-1 pathogenesis and as a pharmacological target to contribute to an HIV-1 cure.
... Ensuite, si la fusion est complète avec caryogamie, d'autres protéines proapoptotiques vont être activées en cascade, activant finalement aussi les caspases (Ferri et al., 2000a(Ferri et al., , 2000bPerfettini et al., 2005). Les premières protéines mises en jeux sont la p38 et cdk1B qui activent à leur tour la protéine mTOR qui phosphoryle p53 (Castedo et al., 2001(Castedo et al., , 2002Kaul and Lipton, 1999;Muthumani et al., 2004). p53 phosporylée active la voie mitochondriale pro-apoptotique, impliquant notamment les protéines Bax et Bak. ...
Thesis
Le réservoir VIH-1 des lymphocytes T CD4+ quiescents présente seulement une faible proportion de génomes intacts. La fonctionnalité des protéines virales codées par ces séquences n’a pas encore été complétement élucidée. Lors de cette étude, je me suis concentrée sur l’expression et la fonctionnalité de la glycoprotéine d’enveloppe du VIH, qui est une cible majeure du système immunitaire et un important agent pathogène. Les lymphocytes T CD4+ quiescents ont été isolés à partir de prélèvements sanguins de patients sous traitement antirétroviral dont la charge virale était contrôlée depuis plus de 4 ans. Les séquences du gène env ont été obtenues à partir de deux sources : soit les cellules ont été stimulées et cultivées en condition de dilution limite avec des cellules cibles pour permettre la propagation de virus clonaux en culture (VOA), soit les ARN viraux produits par les cellules après stimulation ont été extraits et amplifiés par RT-PCR. Les gènes env ont été clonés dans un plasmide d’expression et séquencés. L’expression des protéines a été quantifiée par Western Blot, cytométrie, et immunofluorescence. La fonctionnalité des glycoprotéines d’enveloppe a été mesurée par un test de fusion cellule-cellule et un test d’infectivité de pseudo-particules virales. Toutes les séquences env issues des VOA sont intacts alors que 26% de celles dérivées des ARNm des LT CD4+ quiescents présentent des mutations. Plus le patient est traité précocement, plus la diversité virale de son réservoir est restreinte. Pour les tests de fusion et d’infectivité, seules les séquences intactes ont été testées. Les enveloppes du réservoir VIH-1 ne sont pas toutes fonctionnelles : une grande proportion des Envs dérivées des ARNm (27.5%) sont peu fonctionnelles par rapport au contrôle positif (< 25%) et 14% ne présentent aucune activité fusogénique détectable. Les enveloppes des virus de VOA sont plus fusogéniques que celles dérivées des ARNm : 90% des enveloppes des virus de VOA sont au dessus de 50% de la fonctionnalité du contrôle positif contre seulement 41% pour les enveloppes dérivées des ARNm. L’étude des glycoprotéines d’enveloppe par Western Blot et par cytométrie a permis d’établir respectivement une corrélation entre leur niveau d’expression et leur fonctionnalité ainsi qu’entre le nombre de cellules les exprimant à leur surface et leur fonctionnalité. Les défauts de fusogénicité et d’infectivité des Env du réservoir sont essentiellement dus à un problème d’expression, de maturation, de stabilité et/ou d’adressage à la surface cellulaire. Ces défauts pourraient contribuer à l’accumulation de séquences apparemment intactes mais défectueuses au sein du réservoir VIH-1. En outre, ces glycoprotéines d’enveloppe pourraient échapper à l‘immunité lors des stratégies de « kick and Kill ».
... Given divergent signalling pathways for RANKL and IL-2 we explored the possibility that these cytokines would synergize in augmentation of HIV replication. HIV infects resting T cells but, due to incomplete reverse transcription and a block to proviral DNA integration, cannot replicate in such cells [16]. As shown in Fig. 2, HIV replication was not detected in unactivated PBMC exposed to RANKL (25 ng/ml) alone, consistent with the paucity of RANK receptors on these cells. ...
Article
We reported recently that exposure of human T cells to soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induced biologically active tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-related cytokine receptor of activated NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), the primary drive to osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Furthermore, certain anti-HIV protease inhibitors linked clinically to accelerated bone loss in HIV disease blocked the physiological control of RANKL activity by interferon (IFN)-gamma through inhibition of degradation of the RANKL nuclear adapter signalling protein, TNF receptor associated protein 6 (TRAF6). We now report a series of reciprocal interactions among HIV-1, RANKL and IFN-gamma. RANKL augmented HIV replication in acutely and chronically infected cells of T lymphocyte and monocyte lineage, effects which occurred at a transcriptional level in conjunction with activation of NF-kappaB. TNF-alpha and RANKL were markedly synergistic in induction of HIV. Low pharmacological levels of IFN-gamma (0.75-3 ng/ml) suppressed RANKL-driven enhancement of HIV replication, as did L-T6DP-1, a cell-permeable peptide inhibitor of TRAF6. In contrast, HIV replication induced by TNF-alpha and phorbol ester were not inhibited, and in some cases augmented, by IFN-gamma. We conclude that a positive feedback loop exists between RANKL production and HIV replication, which may be relevant to both the pathophysiology of HIV-linked osteopenia and control of HIV growth. This pathway appears distinct from those of other cytokine activators of HIV, with respect to its utilization of TRAF6 and its suppression by IFN-gamma. These data raise the possibility that TRAF-specific inhibitory peptides, alone or in conjunction with IFN-gamma, could be used to regulate HIV activation in vivo.
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accessory protein viral protein R (Vpr) plays a key role in virus replication and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various cell types including T cells and neuronal and tumor cells following infection with Vpr-expressing HIV isolates or exposure to the extracellular Vpr protein. The C-terminal Vpr peptide encompassing amino acids 52-96 (Vpr-(52-96)) is required for exerting the apoptotic effects, whereas the N-terminal Vpr-(1-45) peptide is responsible for virus transcription. We demonstrate that Vpr-(52-96) induced apoptosis in human promonocytic THP-1 cells and primary monocytes through the mitochondrial pathway in a caspase-dependent manner. To understand the regulation of Vpr-induced apoptosis, we investigated the signaling pathways, particularly the MAPKs, and the transcription factors involved. Although both Vpr-(52-96) and Vpr-(1-45) peptides induced phosphorylation of all the three members of the MAPKs, Vpr-(52-96)-activated JNK selectively induced apoptosis in monocytic cells through the mitochondrial pathway as determined by using JNK inhibitors SP60025, dexamethasone, curcumin, and JNK-specific small interfering RNAs. Furthermore Vpr-(52-96)-induced apoptosis was mediated by inhibition of downstream antiapoptotic Bcl2 and c-IAP1 genes whose expression could be restored following pretreatment with JNK-specific inhibitors. Overall the results suggest that Vpr-(52-96)-activated JNK plays a key role in inducing apoptosis through the down-regulation of antiapoptotic Bcl2 and c-IAP1 genes.
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In 1997-1998, the pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (PCIs) were independently discovered to inhibit replication of human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and HIV-1. The results from small clinical trials against cancer were then suggesting that PCIs could be safe enough to be used clinically. It was thus hypothesized that PCIs could have the potential to be developed as novel antivirals targeting cellular proteins. Consequently, Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy published in 2001 the first review on the potential of CDKs, and cellular proteins in general, as potential targets for antivirals. The viral functions inhibited by PCIs, or their cellular targets, were then just starting to be characterized. The antiviral spectrum of PCIs and their effects on viral disease were still mostly untested. Even their actual specificity was not yet completely characterized. In addition, cellular proteins were not accepted as valid targets for antivirals. Significant progress has been made in the last 5 years in understanding the antiviral activities of PCIs and the potential roles of cellular proteins in general as targets for antivirals. The first clinical trials of the antiviral activities of PCIs and other inhibitors of cellular protein kinases have now been scheduled. Herein, we review the progress made since the publication of the first review on PCIs as potential antiviral drugs and on CDKs, and cellular proteins in general, as potential targets for antiviral drugs. We also highlight the major issues that still need to be addressed before PCIs or other drugs targeting cellular proteins can be developed as clinical antivirals.
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The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway provides cells with the means to interpret external signal cues or conditions, and respond accordingly. This cascade regulates many cell functions such as differentiation, proliferation and migration. Through modulation of both the amplitude and duration of MAPK signalling, cells can control their responses to the multiple activators of the pathway. In addition, recent work has highlighted the importance of the cellular compartment from which the signalling occurs. Cells have developed intricate systems that enable them to localise MAPK components to specific subcellular domains in response to a particular stimulus. Consequently, different factors can activate the same kinase in separate locations. Crucial to this ability are molecular scaffolds, which act as signalling modules for MAPKs, confining them to the desired compartment. The participation of the MAPK network in fundamental physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and inflammation, and the derangement of the homeostasis that occurs in disease processes, renders MAPK a highly desirable target for therapeutic intervention. As we enhance our comprehension of scaffolds and other regulatory molecules, novel targets for drug design may be discovered that will afford selective and specific MAPK modulation.
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Many PTMs dysregulation is known to be the major cause of many cancers including HCV induced HCC. PTMs of hepatitis C virus (HCV) regions NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B are crucial for proper protein functions and replication that directly affect the generation of infectious virus particles and completion of its life cycle. In this study, we have performed comprehensive analysis of PTMs within HCV non-structural proteins (NS3/4A, NS5A and NS5B) through bioinformatics analysis to examine post-translational crosstalk between phosphorylation, palmitoylation, methylation, acetylation and ubiquitination sites in selected viral proteins. Our analysis has revealed many highly putative PTMs sites that are also conserved among major genotypes conferring the importance of these sites. We have also analysed viral 3D structures in their modified and unmodified forms to address extent and signatures of structural changes upon PTM. This study provides evidence that PTMs induce significant conformational changes and make viral proteins more stable. To find the potential role of PTMs in HCV induced HCC, docking analysis between selected viral proteins and p38-MAPK has been performed which also confirms their strong association with HCV induced HCC. The major findings proposed that PTMs at specific sites of HCV viral proteins could dysregulate specific pathways that cause the development of HCC.
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Monocytes/macrophages are known to represent a potential reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which ensures continuous replication of the virus in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Infected macrophages are a highly productive source of HIV-1 during infections with common opportunistic pathogens. Previous studies report that toll like receptors (TLR)s play a role in HIV-1 replication in macrophages. Here, we investigate the three main pathways activated through TLR4 and the interactions with the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), using human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing TLR4 and transfected with a luciferase reporter under the control of the HIV-1 LTR. Here, we demonstrate, that TLR4-mediated activation of HIV-LTR is largely governed by the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway. Neither of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2, JNK, or p38 nor the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 were involved in the direct transactivation of HIV-LTR through stimulation of TLR4.
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Although a lot of progress has been made in development of lentiviral vectors for gene therapy, the interactions of these vectors with cellular factors have not been explored adequately. Here we show that lentivirus infection phosphorylates JNK and that blocking the kinase activity of JNK decreases gene transfer in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of the viral envelope glycoprotein. Knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) revealed that JNK1 but not JNK2 was required for productive gene transfer. The effect of JNK on gene transfer was not due to changes in the cell cycle, as JNK knockdown did not affect the cell cycle profile of target cells and even increased cell proliferation. In addition, confluent cell monolayers also exhibited JNK phosphorylation upon lentivirus infection and a dose-dependent decrease in gene transfer efficiency upon JNK inhibition. On the other hand, JNK activation was necessary for lentivirus internalization into the cell cytoplasm, while inhibition of JNK activity decreased virus entry without affecting binding to the cell surface. These experiments suggest that JNK is required for lentivirus entry into target cells and may have implications for gene transfer or for development of antiviral agents.
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Hijacking of the host cell's signal transduction machinery has been increasingly regarded as an important strategy for facilitating virus propagation. The positive-transcription elongation factor (P-TEFb) complex, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)9/cyclin T1, is an example of such an attack by HIV Upon infection of cells, the HIV protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) forms a highly specific complex with the two host cell proteins CDK9 and cyclin T1. This complex ensures phosphorylation of the native CDK9 substrate, RNA polymerase 11, leading to productive elongation of viral RNA in the host cell. Although challenging, inhibition of CDK9 activity with small molecules is a therapeutically valid strategy to inhibit HIV replication. Other than direct antiviral agents, that inhibit HIV replication through a direct interaction with viral proteins, CDK9 inhibitors might not suffer from the emergence of resistant virus strains. This review outlines the advantages and prospects of selective CDK9 inhibitors in the management of HIV infections.
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The intracellular signalling field is dominated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and its control, which involves the small GTPase Ras and sequential kinase activation. Until recently, ERK1 and ERK2 were the only cloned and well-characterized mammalian MAPKs; diverse ligand-stimulated, proline-directed protein phosphorylation events were attributed to these kinases. The recent discovery of two other MAPK subtypes, the JNK/SAPK subfamily and p38/RK (mammalian equivalents of HOG1 in yeast), reveals extreme complexity within the family and, most intriguingly, the existence in mammalian cells of parallel MAPK cascades that can be activated simultaneously.
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Eukaryotic cells respond to extracellular stimuli by recruiting signal transduction pathways, many of which employ protein Ser/Thr kinases of the ERK(1) family. The ubiquity of ERKs and their upstream activators, the MEKs, in signal transduction was first appreciated from studies of yeast (1, 2). Although a 54-kDa rat liver c-Jun kinase (SAPK-p54 alpha 1) with properties similar to the Ras-regulated MAPKs had been characterized (3-5), the physiologic roles and regulation of this and related mammalian enzymes have emerged only recently. Molecular cloning of the SAPKs and p38s, together with the paradigms derived from the ''classical'' MAPKs and work in lower eukaryotes has enabled rapid elucidation of the regulation and cellular functions of these newer mammalian ERK pathways. Although architecturally homologous to the Ras/MAPK pathway, the SAPK and p38 pathways are not activated primarily by mitogens but by cellular stresses and inflammatory cytokines, which stimuli result in growth arrest, apoptosis, or activation of immune and reticuloendothelial cells.
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The human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) promoter is known to be activated by proinflammatory cytokines and UV light. These stimuli also activate various members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, including JNK/SAPK and CSBP/p38. In HeLa cells containing an integrated HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) -driven reporter, we now show that the specific p38 inhibitor, SB203580, inhibits activation of the HIV-1 LTR by interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, UV light, and osmotic stress. Inhibition was 70-90% in all but the case of tumor necrosis factor stimulation, where inhibition was 50%. Each of these stimuli activated p38, which was inhibited by SB203580 in vitro and in vivo with an IC50 (between 0.1 and 1 microM) similar to that required to inhibit transcription. In contrast, SB203580 had no effect on JNK, which was also activated by these stimuli. The NFkappaB sites in the HIV-1 LTR were required for a response to cytokines but not to UV, and SB203580 remained capable of inhibiting UV activation in the absence of the NFkappaB sites. Studies in which SB203580 was added at different times relative to UV stimulation suggested that the critical p38-mediated phosphorylation event occurred between 2 and 4 h after UV treatment. These data indicate that p38 is required for HIV-1 LTR activation but that the action of p38 is delayed, presumably due to substrate unavailability or inaccessibility.
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Replication of HIV-1 in human T lymphocytes requires the activation of host cellular proteins. This study identifies p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as one such kinase necessary for HIV-1 replication in T cells. Primary human T lymphocytes were infected with the LAI strain of HIV-1 and Jurkat cells were infected with the RF strain of HIV-1. HIV replication was measured by reverse transcriptase activity. Cellular expression of endogenous p38 MAPK protein was analyzed using immunoprecipitation. Blockade of p38 MAPK expression was achieved using antisense oligonucleotides to p38 MAPK and the guanylhydrazone compound CNI-1493, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK activation. HIV-1 infection of both primary human T lymphocytes and a T cell line rapidly activated the cellular p38 MAPK pathway, which remained activated for the duration of the culture. Addition of phosphothioated antisense oligonucleotides to p38 MAPK specifically inhibited viral replication. Blockade of p38 MAPK activation by addition of CNI-1493 also inhibited HIV-1 viral replication of primary T lymphocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Stimulation of p38 MAPK activation did not occur with the addition of heat-inactivated virus, suggesting that viral internalization, and not just membrane binding, is necessary for p38 MAPK activation. These results indicate that activation of the p38 MAPK cascade is critical for HIV-1 replication in primary T lymphocytes, and that blockade of this signal transduction pathway may be a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
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Signal transduction via MAP kinase pathways plays a key role in a variety of cellular responses, including growth factor-induced proliferation, differentiation and cell death. In mammalian cells, p38 MAP kinase can be activated by multiple stimuli, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. Although p38 MAP kinase is implicated in the control of inflammatory responses, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Upon activation, CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th2 cells, which potentiate the humoral immune response or pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. Here, we show that pyridinyl imidazole compounds (specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase) block the production of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by Th1 cells without affecting IL-4 production by Th2 cells. These drugs also inhibit transcription driven by the IFNgamma promoter. In transgenic mice, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase results in selective impairment of Th1 responses. In contrast, activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of constitutivelyactivated MAP kinase kinase 6 in transgenic mice caused increased production of IFNgamma during the differentiation and activation of Th1 cells. Together, these data demonstrate that the p38 MAP kinase is relevant for Th1 cells, not Th2 cells, and that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase represents a possible site of therapeutic intervention in diseases where a predominant Th1 immune response leads to a pathological outcome. Moreover, our study provides an additional mechanism by which the p38 MAP kinase pathway controls inflammatory responses.
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The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) promote HIV type 1 viral replication in vitro. In the present studies, HIV production was increased in the macrophagic U1 cell line expressing the HIV genome after exposure to IL-1beta, osmotic stress, or surface adhesion, suggesting a confluence of signaling pathways for proinflammatory cytokines and cell stressors. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mediates both cytokine and stress responses; thus the role of this kinase in HIV production was investigated. HIV production as measured by p24 antigen correlated with changes in the expression of a specific (non-alpha) isoform of p38 MAPK. In the presence of a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor (p38 inh), IL-1beta-induced HIV production was suppressed by more than 90% and IL-1beta-induced IL-8 production was suppressed completely, both with IC50 of 0.01 microM. p38 inhibition blocked cell-associated p24 antigen and secreted virus to a similar extent. The p38 inh also decreased constitutive HIV production in freshly infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells by up to 50% (P < 0.05). Interruption of p38 MAPK activity represents a viable target for inhibition of HIV.
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Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), which are the natural ligands of the CC-chemokine receptor CCR5, inhibit replication of MT-2- negative strains of HIV-1 by interfering with the ability of these strains to utilize CCR5 as a coreceptor for entry in CD4(+) cells. The present study investigates the capacity of natural killer (NK) cells isolated from HIV-infected individuals to produce CC-chemokines and to suppress HIV replication in autologous, endogenously infected cells as well as to block entry of MT-2-negative HIV into the CD4(+) T cell line PM-1. NK cells freshly isolated from HIV-infected individuals had a high number of mRNA copies for MIP-1alpha and RANTES. NK cells produced significant amounts of RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta constitutively, in response to stimulation with IL-2 alone and when they were performing their characteristic lytic activity (K562 killing). After CD16 cross-linking and stimulation with IL-2 or IL-15 NK cells produced CC-chemokines to levels comparable to those produced by anti-CD3-stimulated CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, CD16 cross-linked NK cells suppressed (49-97%) viral replication in cocultures of autologous CD8/NK-depleted PBMC to a degree similar to that of PHA or anti-CD3-stimulated CD8(+) T cells. In 50% of patients tested, NK-mediated HIV suppression could be abrogated by neutralizing antibodies to MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES; in contrast, CD8(+) T cell-mediated suppression was not significantly overcome upon neutralization of CC-chemokines. Supernatants derived from cultures of CD16 cross-linked NK cells stimulated with IL-2 or IL-15 dramatically inhibited entry of a MT-2-negative strain of HIV, BaL, in the CD4(+)CCR5(+) PM-1 T cell line. These data suggest that activated NK cells may be an important source of CC-chemokines in vivo and may suppress HIV replication by CC-chemokine-mediated mechanisms in addition to classic NK-mediated lytic mechanisms.
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We have previously shown that binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions to CD4 receptors stimulates association of Lck with Raf-1 and results in the activation of Raf-1 kinase in a Ras-independent manner. In the present study, we demonstrate that HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins of both T-cell-tropic and macrophagetropic strains rapidly activate the ERK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway and the binding of nuclear transcription factors (AP-1, NF-kappaB, and C/EBP) and stimulate expression of cytokine and chemokine genes. The activation of this signaling pathway requires functional CD4 receptors and is independent of binding to CXCR4. Binding of the natural ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) to CXCR4, which inhibits entry of T-cell-tropic HIV-1, activates also the ERK/MAP kinase pathway. However, SDF-1 did not affect the CD4-mediated expression of cytokine and chemokine genes. These results provide firm molecular evidence that binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins to CD4 receptor initiates a signaling pathway(s) independent of the binding to the chemokine receptor that leads to the aberrant expression of inflammatory genes and may contribute significantly to HIV-1 replication as well as to deregulation of the immune system.
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Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are the first targets of HIV-1 in patients and also serve as reservoirs for the virus during the course of infection. We investigated the effects of cell activation on early events of HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages. Addition of LPS, a potent stimulator of macrophages, at the time of infection stimulated entry of HIV-1 into monocyte-derived macrophages, as judged by accumulation of early products of RT, but inhibited the synthesis of late RT products and strongly repressed nuclear import of the viral DNA, resulting in protection from infection. This effect was mediated by the CD14 receptor and involved activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Disruption of this signaling pathway using a specific inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (SB203580) restored HIV-1 infection in the presence of LPS. These results suggest a novel view of the role of macrophage activation in anti-HIV responses of the immune system.
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ERK1 and ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) play a critical role in regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in response to mitogens and other extracellular stimuli. Mitogens and cytokines that activate MAPK in T cells have been shown to activate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Little is known about the signal transduction pathways that activate HIV-1 replication in T cells upon activation by extracellular stimulation. Here, we report that activation of MAPK through the Ras/Raf/MEK signaling pathway enhances the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. Virus infectivity was enhanced by treatment of cells with MAPK stimulators, such as serum and phorbol myristate acetate, as well as by coexpression of constitutively activated Ras, Raf, or MEK (MAPK kinase) in the absence of extracellular stimulation. Treatment of cells with PD 098059, a specific inhibitor of MAPK activation, or with a MAPK antisense oligonucleotide reduced the infectivity of HIV-1 virions without significantly affecting virus production or the levels of virion-associated Gag and Env proteins. MAPK has been shown to regulate HIV-1 infectivity by phosphorylating Vif (X. Yang and D. Gabuzda, J. Biol. Chem. 273:29879-29887, 1998). However, MAPK activation enhanced virus infectivity in some cells lines that do not require Vif function. The HIV-1 Rev, Tat, p17(Gag), and Nef proteins were directly phosphorylated by MAPK in vitro, suggesting that other HIV-1 proteins are potential substrates for MAPK phosphorylation. These results suggest that activation of the ERK MAPK pathway plays a role in HIV-1 replication by enhancing the infectivity of HIV-1 virions through Vif-dependent as well as Vif-independent mechanisms. MAPK activation in producer cells may contribute to the activation of HIV-1 replication when T cells are activated by mitogens and other extracellular stimuli.
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Antigen-specific T cell immunity is HLA-restricted. Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) mutations that allow escape from host immune responses may therefore be HLA allele-specific. We analyzed HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences from a large HLA-diverse population of HIV-1-infected individuals. Polymorphisms in HIV-1 were most evident at sites of least functional or structural constraint and frequently were associated with particular host HLA class I alleles. Absence of polymorphism was also HLA allele-specific. At a population level, the degree of HLA-associated selection in viral sequence was predictive of viral load. These results support a fundamental role for HLA-restricted immune responses in driving and shaping HIV-1 evolution in vivo.
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Human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), vpr gene encodes a 14-kDa virion-associated protein, which exhibits significant effects on human cells. One important property of Vpr is its ability to induce apoptosis during infection. Apoptotic induction is likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of AIDS. However, the pathway of apoptosis is not clearly defined. In this report we investigate the mechanism of apoptosis induced by HIV-1 Vpr using a Vpr pseudotype viral infection system or adeno delivery of Vpr in primary human lymphoid cells and T-cells. With either vector, HIV-1 Vpr induced cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase and apoptosis in lymphoid target cells. Furthermore, we observed that with both vectors, caspase 9, but not caspase 8, was activated following infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell with either Vpr-positive HIV virions or adeno-delivered Vpr. Activation of the caspase 9 pathway resulted in caspase 3 activation and apoptosis in human primary cells. These effects were coincident with the disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and induction of cytochrome c release by Vpr. The Vpr-induced signaling pathway did not induce CD95 or CD95L expression. Bcl-2 overexpressing cells succumb to Vpr-induced apoptosis. These studies illustrate that Vpr induces a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway that is distinct from apoptosis driven by the Fas-FasL pathway.
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The capacity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to induce intracellular signals is thought to contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Here, we report that gp120 binding resulted in activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in CD4(+) lymphocytes prestimulated through their T-cell receptor (TCR). However, gp120 did not activate this pathway in either freshly isolated quiescent T cells or nonproliferating CD4(+) lymphocytes prestimulated with the interleukin-7 (IL-7) cytokine. This response was not solely dependent on proliferation per se because proliferating IL-7-prestimulated umbilical cord (UC)-derived T lymphocytes did not exhibit significant MAPK activation upon gp120 binding. Nevertheless, like peripheral blood lymphocytes, MAPK recruitment was induced by gp120 in UC T cells following TCR prestimulation. The lack of a gp120-mediated signaling response was not due to decreased gp120 receptor levels; CD4 expression was modified neither by IL-7 nor by TCR engagement, and high levels of functional CXCR4 were present on IL-7-treated lymphocytes. In addition to CD4 and CXCR4, recent evidence suggests that glycosphingolipids in raft microdomains serve as cofactors for HIV-1 fusion. The ganglioside GM1, a marker of rafts, was augmented in TCR-stimulated but not IL-7-stimulated T lymphocytes, and disruption of rafts inhibited gp120-induced signaling. Thus, stimulation of a mitogenic pathway by gp120 appears to require receptor binding in the context of membrane microdomains. These studies reveal a mechanism via which gp120 may differentially modulate the fate of activated and quiescent T cells in vivo.
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Quantitative methods to measure human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration promise to be important tools in dissecting the mechanisms whereby latent reservoirs of provirus are established, most notably in the resting T cells of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Here we describe a fluorescence-monitored, nested PCR assay that is able to quantify the relatively rare integration events that occur within these cells. Following DNA extraction, a nonkinetic preamplification step is performed with primers that bind genomic Alu elements and HIV-1 gag sequences, under conditions where primers, deoxynucleoside triphosphates, and enzyme are not limiting. This is followed by a kinetic PCR that quantitates HIV-1 long terminal repeat sequences. A T-cell-based integration standard which reflects the randomness of HIV-1 integration is also described. The assay is 10 to 100 times more sensitive than previously reported quantitative Alu PCR-based integration assays. It is specific for integration events, since no proviruses are detected in cells infected either in the presence of an integrase inhibitor or with an integrase-deficient virus. This method promises to provide important new insights into the processes underlying the accumulation and persistence of latent HIV-1 reservoirs and may eventually be useful clinically in monitoring the eradication of latent virus by novel therapies.
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All primate lentiviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, SIV) encode Nef proteins, which are important for viral replication and pathogenicity in vivo. It is not known how Nef regulates these processes. It has been suggested that Nef protects infected cells from apoptosis and recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Other studies suggest that Nef influences the activation state of the infected cell, thereby enhancing the ability of that cell to support viral replication. Here we show that macrophages that express Nef or are stimulated through the CD40 receptor release a paracrine factor that renders T lymphocytes permissive to HIV-1 infection. This activity requires the upregulation of B-cell receptors involved in the alternative pathway of T-lymphocyte stimulation. T lymphocytes stimulated through this pathway become susceptible to viral infection without progressing through the cell cycle. We identify two proteins, soluble CD23 and soluble ICAM, that are induced from macrophages by Nef and CD40L, and which mediate their effects on lymphocyte permissivity. Our results reveal a mechanism by which Nef expands the cellular reservoir of HIV-1 by permitting the infection of resting T lymphocytes.
Article
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) uses the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 as coreceptors for entry. It was recently demonstrated that HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120) elevated calcium and activated several ionic signaling responses in primary human macrophages, which are important targets for HIV-1 in vivo. This study shows that chemokine receptor engagement by both CCR5-dependent (R5) and CXCR4-dependent (X4) gp120 led to rapid phosphorylation of the focal adhesion-related tyrosine kinase Pyk2 in macrophages. Pyk2 phosphorylation was also induced by macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) and stromal cell–derived factor-1α, chemokine ligands for CCR5 and CXCR4. Activation was blocked by EGTA and by a potent blocker of calcium release–activated Ca⁺⁺(CRAC) channels, but was insensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), implicating CRAC-mediated extracellular Ca⁺⁺ influx but not Gαi protein-dependent mechanisms. Coreceptor engagement by gp120 and chemokines also activated 2 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, gp120-stimulated macrophages secreted the chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and MIP-1β in a manner that was dependent on MAPK activation. Thus, the gp120 signaling cascade in macrophages includes coreceptor binding, PTX-insensitive signal transduction, ionic signaling including Ca⁺⁺ influx, and activation of Pyk2 and MAPK pathways, and leads to secretion of inflammatory mediators. HIV-1 Env signaling through these pathways may contribute to dysregulation of uninfected macrophage functions, new target cell recruitment, or modulation of macrophage infection.
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This chapter discusses that the network of immune and inflammatory responses is comprised of a variety of cell types. Coordination of this network occurs through both direct cell–cell contact and by way of intercellular signalling molecules. These signalling molecules regulate the growth, differentiation and function of a variety of target cells. Understanding the structure and function of these molecules has provided new and important insights into the fundamental biology of immunity and inflammation, and has led to the identification of new strategies for the development of more effective medicines for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The chapter reviews that the pluripotent pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) appear to play particularly important roles in disease. Although, these proteins and their cellular receptors are structurally unrelated, they elicit a similar profile of pro-inflammatory responses. Because IL-1 and TNF are produced early in response to pro-inflammatory signals, and because of their central role in mediating this response, they have often been termed the master cytokines. While the success of these therapies has validated the importance of IL-1 and TNF in promoting disease, they also highlight the need for improved therapies that do not suffer from the disadvantages of proteinaceous macromolecules, which must be administered parenterally and are inherently more expensive to produce than small molecule drugs. To date, no orally active low molecular weight cytokine receptor antagonist has emerged from clinical trials. However, in the last decade several new strategies to interrupt the synthesis and signalling of these cytokines have emerged. One of the first of these targets to be elucidated is the stress-activated protein kinase, p38.
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Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity®, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 2F5, 2G12, Abetimus sodium, ABI-007, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, AE-941, alefacept, altropane, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, aminopterin, anakinra, aprinocarsen sodium, atazanavir, atlizumab, atomoxetine hydrochloride; B7-1 vaccine, bevacizumab, biricodar dicitrate, BMS-188667, brasofensine sulfate, bryostatin 1; Cantuzumab mertansine, CHS-828, cinacalcet hydrochloride, cipamfylline, creatine, CVT-3146; Darbepoetin alfa, DITPA, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride; Edatrexate, efalizumab, ENMD-0997, epoetin, erlosamide, esomeprazole magnesium, etiprednol dicloacetate, etoricoxib, everolimus, ezetimibe; Fampridine, fenretinide, FTY-720; IGF-I/IGFBP-3 IL-1 cytokine trap, ilodecakin, interferon beta, ISIS-104838, ISIS-2503, ISIS-5132, ivabradine hydrochloride; Lafutidine, lanthanum carbonate, L-Arginine hydrochloride, LEA29Y, lerdelimumab, levetiracetam, levobupivacaine hydrochloride, levosimendan, lopinavir; Melagatran, mibefradil hydrochloride, miglustat, morphine-6-glucuronide; Nesiritide; Omalizumab, omapatrilat; p24-VLP, parecoxib sodium, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, pegsunercept, pitavastatin calcium, plevitrexed, prasterone, pregabalin, PRO-2000, prucalopride; Rapacuronium bromide, rebimastat, RGA-0853, rubitecan, ruboxistaurin mesilate hydrate, RWJ-67657; S-16020-2, sarizotan, SLV-306, stiripentol; TA-CIN, tenecteplase, teriparatide, tezacitabine, tipifarnib, trabectedin, troglitazone; Valdecoxib, vardenafil; Z-338, ziconotide.
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Antigen-specific T cell immunity is HLA-restricted. Human immunodeficiency virus–type 1 (HIV-1) mutations that allow escape from host immune responses may therefore be HLA allele–specific. We analyzed HIV-1 reverse transcriptase sequences from a large HLA-diverse population of HIV-1–infected individuals. Polymorphisms in HIV-1 were most evident at sites of least functional or structural constraint and frequently were associated with particular host HLA class I alleles. Absence of polymorphism was also HLA allele–specific. At a population level, the degree of HLA-associated selection in viral sequence was predictive of viral load. These results support a fundamental role for HLA-restricted immune responses in driving and shaping HIV-1 evolution in vivo.
Article
Serial human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) isolates were obtained from five individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who changed therapy to 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) after at least 12 months of treatment with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine, AZT). The in vitro sensitivity to ddI decreased during the 12 months following ddI initiation, whereas AZT sensitivity increased. Analysis of the reverse transcriptase coding region revealed a mutation associated with reduced sensitivity to ddI. When this mutation was present in the same genome as a mutation known to confer AZT resistance, the isolates showed increased sensitivity to AZT. Analysis of HIV-1 variants confirmed that the ddI resistance mutation alone conferred ddI and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine resistance, and suppressed the effect of the AZT resistance mutation. The use of combination therapy for HIV-1 disease may prevent drug-resistant isolates from emerging.
Article
The drug sensitivities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates from a group of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC) who were receiving zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoythymidine, AZT) therapy were tested by means of a newly developed plaque assay in CD4+ HeLa cells. Fifty percent inhibitory dose (ID50) values of 18 isolates from untreated individuals ranged between 0.01 microM and 0.05 microM. In contrast, most isolates from patients who had received zidovudine for 6 months or more exhibited decreased sensitivity characterized by changes in ID50 or ID95 values (or both), with isolates from several patients (5/15) showing 100-fold increases in ID50. The latter isolates were also insensitive to 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyuridine; however, the isolates were still sensitive to 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine, or phosphonoformate. It cannot be determined from this small sample of patients whether development of a less sensitive virus phenotype results in clinical resistance. Appearance of such variants was not associated with a consistent increase in viral p24 concentrations in patient plasma and did not herald any sudden deterioration in clinical status. More extensive studies are required to determine the clinical significance. Thus, it would be premature to alter any treatment protocols for HIV-infected individuals at present.
Article
A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variant with highly reduced susceptibility to Ro 31-8959, an inhibitor of the viral proteinase, has been selected by repeated passage of wild-type virus in CEM cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of the inhibitor. Peptide sequences of the proteinase of selected virus were obtained from proviral DNA. Sequence comparison to wild-type (wt) proteinase demonstrated two amino acid substitutions in the resistant virus, a Gly to Val exchange at position 48 and a Leu to Met exchange at position 90. Furthermore, sequences of intermediate passage virus suggest contributions from positions 12, 36, 57, and 63 in early steps of resistance development. The selected virus showed a ca. 40-fold increase in 50% inhibitory concentration of Ro 31-8959. Growth kinetics of resistant virus were comparable to wild-type virus and the resistant genotype proved to be stable in the absence of inhibitor. Directed mutagenesis of the HIV-1 HXB2 proteinase at positions 48 and 90 suggested that each mutation alone led to a moderate decrease in sensitivity of the recombinant virus to proteinase inhibitor. However, a recombinant virus carrying both mutations in the proteinase gene showed a significant reduction in its sensitivity to Ro 31-8959 thus proving the importance of these exchanges for the resistance phenotype.
Article
SB 203580 [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4- pyridyl)imidazole], a selective cytokine suppressive binding protein/p38 kinase inhibitor, was evaluated in several models of cytokine inhibition and inflammatory disease. It was demonstrated clearly to be a potent inhibitor of inflammatory cytokine production in vivo in both mice and rats with IC50 values of 15 to 25 mg/kg. SB 203580 possessed therapeutic activity in collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/LACJ mice with a dose of 50 mg/kg resulting in significant inhibition of paw inflammation and serum amyloid protein levels. Antiarthritic activity was also observed in adjuvant-induced arthritis in the Lewis rat when SB 203580 was administered p.o. at 30 and 60 mg/kg. Evidence for disease-modifying activity in this model was indicated by an improvement in bone mineral density and by histological evaluation. Additional evidence for beneficial effects on bone resorption was provided in the fetal rat long bone assay in which SB 203580 inhibited 45Ca release with an IC50 of 0.6 microM. In keeping with the inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mice, SB 203580 was found to reduce mortality in a murine model of endotoxin-induced shock. In immune function studies in mice treated with SB 203580 (60 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks), there was some suppression of an antibody response to ovalbumin, whereas cellular immune functions measured ex vivo were unaffected. This novel profile of activity strongly suggests that cytokine inhibitors could provide significant benefit in the therapy of chronic inflammatory disease.
Article
Resistance of HIV-1 to protease inhibitors has been associated with changes at residues Val82 and Ile84 of HIV-1 protease (HIV PR). Using both an enzyme assay with a peptide substrate and a cell-based infectivity assay, we examined the correlation between the inhibition constants for enzyme activity (Ki values) and viral replication (IC90 values) for 5 active site mutants and 19 protease inhibitors. Four of the five mutations studied (V82F, V82A, I84V, and V82F/I84V) had been identified as conferring resistance during in vitro selection using a protease inhibitor. The mutant protease genes were expressed in Escherichia coli for preparation of enzyme, and inserted into the HXB2 strain of HIV for test of antiviral activity. The inhibitors included saquinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, 141W94, ritonavir (all in clinical use), and 14 cyclic ureas with a constant core structure and varying P2, P2' and P3, P3' groups. The single mutations V82F and I84V caused changes with various inhibitors ranging from 0.3- to 86-fold in Ki and from 0.1- to 11-fold in IC90. Much larger changes compared to wild type were observed for the double mutation V82F/I84V both for Ki (10-2000-fold) and for IC90 (0.7-377-fold). However, there were low correlations (r2 = 0.017-0.53) between the mutant/wild-type ratio of Ki values (enzyme resistance) and the mutant/wild-type ratio of viral IC90 values (antiviral resistance) for each of the HIV proteases and the viruses containing the identical enzyme. Assessing enzyme resistance by "vitality values", which adjust the Ki values with the catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km), caused no significant improvement in the correlation with antiviral resistance. Therefore, our data suggest that measurements of enzyme inhibition with mutant proteases may be poorly predictive of the antiviral effect in resistant viruses even when mutations are restricted to the protease gene.
Article
This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. The addition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–protease inhibitors to the armamentarium of antiretroviral drugs has dramatically improved the prognosis for HIV-infected persons.¹–³ Although these agents do not eradicate the virus,⁴–⁶ they can provide long-term control of viral replication and substantially prolong disease-free survival, and they represent an important therapeutic advance. As has been the case throughout the brief history of the HIV epidemic, any progress invariably leads to new obstacles to be overcome; the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy is certainly no exception to this rule. A number of sociologic, pharmacologic, immunologic, and virologic issues . . . Oren J. Cohen, M.D. Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892-2520
Article
T cell proliferation and cytokine production usually require stimulation via both the TCR/CD3 complex and the CD28 costimulatory receptor. Using purified human CD4+ peripheral blood T cells, we show that CD28 stimulation alone activates p38 alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 alpha). Cell proliferation induced by CD28 stimulation alone, a response attributed to CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells, was blocked by the highly specific p38 inhibitors SB 203580 (IC50 = 10-80 nM) and RWJ 67657 (IC50 = 0.5-4 nM). In contrast, proliferation induced by anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 mAbs was not blocked. Inhibitors of p38 also blocked CD4+ T cell production of IL-4 (SB 203580 IC50 = 20-100 nM), but not IL-2, in response to CD3 and CD28 stimulation. IL-5, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma production were also inhibited, but to a lesser degree than IL-4. IL-4 production was attributed to CD4+CD45RO+ T cells, and its induction was suppressed by p38 inhibitors at the mRNA level. In polarized Th1 and Th2 cell lines, SB 203580 strongly inhibited IL-4 production by Th2 cells (IC50 = 10-80 nM), but only partially inhibited IFN-gamma and IL-2 production by Th1 cells (<50% inhibition at 1 microM). In both Th1 and Th2 cells, CD28 signaling activated p38 alpha and was required for cytokine production. These results show that p38 alpha plays an important role in some, but not all, CD28-dependent cellular responses. Its preferential involvement in IL-4 production by CD4+CD45RO+ T cells and Th2 effector cells suggests that p38 alpha may be important in the generation of Th2-type responses in humans.
Article
Nef of primate lentiviruses is critical for high levels of viremia and the progression to AIDS. Nef associates with and activates a serine/threonine kinase (Nef-associated kinase [NAK]) via the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. We identified the protooncogene and guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav as the specific binding partner of Nef proteins from HIV-1 and SIV. The interaction between Nef and Vav led to increased activity of Vav and its downstream effectors. Both cytoskeletal changes and the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were observed. Furthermore, a dominant-negative Vav protein inhibited NAK activation and viral replication. Thus, the interaction between Nef and Vav initiates a signaling cascade that changes structural and physiological parameters in the infected cell.
Article
To investigate the intracellular signals elicited by extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein in lymphoid CD4 T cells. CD4 Jurkat T cells were treated with a series of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Tat fusion proteins: full-length two-exon GST-Tat (GST-Tat2E); one-exon Tat, in which the second exon of Tat was deleted (GST-Tat1E); two-exon Tat, in which the seven arginine residues have been changed to alanine residues (GST-TatArg(mut)), GST-TatdeltaN, which shows a deletion of the N-terminal 21 amino acids. The cells were either treated with soluble GST-Tat proteins or seeded on plates coated with GST-Tat proteins immobilized on plastic. At various time points, Jurkat cells were lysed and examined for c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) activity. Soluble and immobilized GST-Tat2E, but not GST-Tat1E, GST-TatArg(mut) and GST-TatdeltaN, activated JNK in a dose-dependent manner, induced a rapid phosphorylation of c-Jun on Ser63 and promoted the de novo synthesis of c-Jun protein. Moreover, both GST-Tat2E and GST-Tat1E also stimulated ERK/MAPK. However, the activation of JNK was maximal at concentrations of 100 nM of GST-Tat2E and was blocked by the S6-kinase inhibitor rapamycin, whereas the activation of ERK/MAPK was already maximal at 1 nM of GST-Tat2E and was enhanced by rapamycin. Tat-mediated activation of JNK requires the second exon of Tat, which is dispensable for the activation of ERK/MAPK. The ability to stimulate JNK and ERK/MAPK does not require Tat internalization.
Article
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a cytokine secreted by activated monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes, has been implicated in several disease states, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, septic shock, and osteoporosis. Monocyte/macrophage production of TNF-alpha is dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. RWJ 67657 (4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(3-phenylpropyl)-5-(4-pyridinyl)-1H-imidazol -2-yl]-3-butyn-1-ol) inhibited the release of TNF-alpha by lipopolysaccharide (a monocyte stimulus)-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with an IC(50) of 3 nM, as well as the release of TNF-alpha from peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (a T cell stimulus), with an IC(50) value of 13 nM. This compound was approximately 10-fold more potent than the literature standard p38 kinase inhibitor SB 203580 in all p38 dependent in vitro systems tested. RWJ 67657 inhibited the enzymatic activity of recombinant p38alpha and beta, but not gamma or delta, in vitro and had no significant activity against a variety of other enzymes. In contrast, SB 203580 significantly inhibited the tyrosine kinases p56 lck and c-src (IC(50) = 5 microM). RWJ 67657 did not inhibit T cell production of interleukin-2 or interferon-gamma and did not inhibit T cell proliferation in response to mitogens. RWJ 67657 inhibited TNF-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide-injected mice (87% inhibition at 50 mg/kg) and in rats (91% inhibition at 25 mg/kg) after oral administration. Based on these favorable biological properties, RWJ 67657 may have use as a treatment for inflammatory diseases.
Article
We have examined the role of stress-activated p38 MAP kinase in regulating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gene expression in response to ultraviolet light (UV). We found that UV activated p38 in HeLa cells harboring stably integrated copies of an HIVcat plasmid to levels similar to those obtained by hyperosmotic shock. However, hyperosmotic shock resulted in one order of magnitude smaller increase in CAT activity than treatment with UV. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203580 significantly decreased (>80%) UV activation of HIV gene expression whereas PD98059, a specific MEK-1 inhibitor did not, suggesting that p38 is specifically involved in the HIV UV response and little to no contribution is provided by MEK-1 and the p42/p44 MAP kinase pathway. Whereas increased binding of NF-kappaB to an oligonucleotide spanning the HIV enhancer was observed after UV, as expected, this binding was not affected by SB203580. Furthermore, UV activation of HIV gene expression in cells having the cat reporter gene under control of an HIV promoter deleted of the enhancer (-69/+80) produced results indistinguishable from those using HIVcat/HeLa cells with an intact HIV promoter (-485/+80), suggesting that SB203580 acts through the basal transcription machinery. Northern blot analysis of steady-state RNA from HIVcat/HeLa cells revealed an almost complete inhibition of UV activation with SB203580 at the RNA level. Similarly, the UV response was almost completely obliterated at the CAT and RNA levels in HIVcat/HeLa cells stably transfected with a plasmid expressing a kinase-inactive mutant of p38 (isoform alpha), without affecting NF-kappaB activation, providing strong genetic evidence that p38, at least the alpha isoform, is necessary for UV activation of HIV gene expression and that NF-kappaB activation alone is insufficient. These results firmly establish p38 MAP kinase as a key modulator of HIV gene expression in response to UV that acts independently of NF-kappaB.
Article
A dormant reservoir of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) is established early on during primary infection which consists of latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells carrying replication-competent HIV. This pool can persist even in individuals who are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Here we show that this pool rapidly re-emerges within weeks of discontinuing HAART in two patients, and that this re-emergence is associated with the appearance of HIV in the plasma (viraemia) of these patients. Both had been aviraemic while receiving HAART and intermittent treatment with interleukin-2 (ref. 5), and repeated attempts to isolate replication-competent HIV in this population of cells during therapy had been unsuccessful. This finding raises the possibility that there may be other tissue reservoirs of HIV that contribute to early plasma viral rebound following discontinuation of HAART in infected patients.
Article
Since the discovery of p38 MAP kinase in 1994, our understanding of its biology has progressed dramatically. The key advances include (1) identification of p38 MAP kinase homologs and protein kinases that act upstream and downstream from p38 MAP kinase, (2) identification of interesting and potentially important substrates, (3) elucidation of the role of p38 MAP kinase in cellular processes and (4) the establishment of the mechanism by which the pyridinylimidazole p38 MAP kinase inhibitors inhibit enzyme activity. It is now known that there are four members of the p38 MAP kinase family. They differ in their tissue distribution, regulation of kinase activation and subsequent phosphorylation of downstream substrates. They also differ in terms of their sensitivities toward the p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. The best-studied isoform is p38 alpha, whose activation has been observed in many hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types upon treatment with appropriate stimuli. The pyridinylimidazole compounds, exemplified by SB 203580, were originally prepared as inflammatory cytokine synthesis inhibitors that subsequently were found to be selective inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase. SB 203580 inhibits the catalytic activity of p38 MAP kinase by competitive binding in the ATP pocket. X-ray crystallographic studies of the target enzyme complexed with inhibitor reinforce the observations made from site-directed mutagenesis studies, thereby providing a molecular basis for understanding the kinase selectivity of these inhibitors. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitors are efficacious in several disease models, including inflammation, arthritis and other joint diseases, septic shock, and myocardial injury. In all cases, p38 activation in key cell types correlated with disease initiation and progression. Treatment with p38 MAP kinase inhibitors attenuated both p38 activation and disease severity. Structurally diverse p38 MAP kinase inhibitors have been tested extensively in preclinical studies.
Article
More and more European and North American AIDS researchers are coming to sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to a whopping 70% of all HIV-infected people. These investigators are collaborating with local researchers on projects that aim to slow both HIV's spread and the course of disease in the millions already infected. But most African countries--constrained by limited resources, weak infrastructures, social mores, and political inaction--have grave difficulties translating research insights into prevention and treatment strategies.
Article
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine whose synthesis and secretion are implicated in diverse pathologies. Hence, inhibition of TNF-alpha transcription or translation and neutralization of its protein product represent major pharmaceutical strategies to control inflammation. We have studied the role of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in controlling TNF-alpha mRNA levels in differentiated THP-1 cells and in freshly purified human monocytes. We show here that it is possible to produce virtually complete inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA accumulation by using a combination of ERK and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, substantial inhibition is achievable using combinations of 1 microm of each inhibitor, whereas inhibitors used individually are incapable of producing complete inhibition even at high concentrations. Finally, addressing mechanisms involved, we show that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase selectively destabilizes TNF-alpha transcripts but does not affect degradation of c-jun transcripts. These results impinge on the controversy in the literature surrounding the mode of action of MAP kinase inhibitors on TNF-alpha mRNA and suggest the use of combinations of MAP kinase inhibitors as an effective anti-inflammatory strategy.
Article
The HIV-1 accessory protein Tat has been found to exert profound effects on vascular cell behavior. Recently, Tat has been found to activate the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK1, SAPK) MAP kinase in lymphoid cells. We found that purified Tat rapidly activated JNK1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and ECV-304 cells, and coculture of ECV-304 cells with Tat-transfected HeLa cells resulted in persistent activation of JNK1. In addition, lower doses of Tat potentiated TNFalpha-induced JNK1 activation, although higher doses paradoxically diminished JNK1 activation by TNFalpha. Treatment of ECV-304 cells with Tat acutely increased intracellular oxidant levels, and Tat-induced oxidant activity was decreased by two structurally distinct NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium and apocynin. Both oxidase inhibitors and the thiol antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine decreased Tat-induced JNK1 activation in parallel with reduction in oxidant levels. Activation of JNK1 by Tat was also inhibited by cytochalasin B, suggesting that Tat signaling was dependent upon intact cytoskeletal function. Indeed, JNK1 activation by Tat was associated with actin microfilament rearrangement. We conclude that HIV Tat may cause acute and persistent activation of the JNK MAP kinase through activation of a specific oxidase.
Article
It has been previously shown that the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) activates cell signaling by CXCR4, independently of CD4. The present study examines the involvement of different intracellular signaling pathways and their physiopathologic consequences following the CD4-independent interaction between CXCR4 or CCR5 and gp120 in different cell types: primary T cells, CD4(-)/CXCR4(+)/CCR5(+) T cells, or glioma cells. These interactions were compared with those obtained with natural ligands, stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1alpha) (CXCL12) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1beta) (CCL4) of their respective coreceptors. Thus, both p38 and SAPK/Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated on stimulation of these cells with either T- or M-tropic gp120, as well as with SDF-1alpha or MIP-1beta. In contrast, extracellular signal-related kinase 1 and 2 MAPKs are only activated by MIP-1beta but not by M-tropic gp120. Importantly, T- and M-tropic gp120 are able to induce the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), an extracellular metalloproteinase present in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-1 by T cells or glioma cells. Specific inhibition of MAPK p38 activation resulted in a complete abrogation of the induction of the MMP-9 pathogenic factor expression by gp120 or chemokines in both cell types. Because neurodegenerative features in acquired immune deficiency syndrome dementia may involve demyelinization by MMP-9, the specific targeting of p38 could provide a novel means to control HIV-induced cytopathogenic effects and cell homing to viral replication sites. (Blood. 2001;98:541-547)
Article
Virtually all the compounds that are currently used, or under advanced clinical trial, for the treatment of HIV infections, belong to one of the following classes: (i) nucleoside/ nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): i.e., zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir, emtricitabine, tenofovir (PMPA), and disoproxil fumarate:; iii) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): i.e., nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz? and emivirine; and (iii) protease inhibitors (PIs): i.e., saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, and amprenavir. In addition. various other events in the HIV replicative cycle are potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (i) viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120; (ii) viral entry, through blockade of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5, (iii) virus-cell fusion; (iv) viral assembly and disassembly; rv) proviral DNA integration; and (vi) viral mRNA transcription. Also, new NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PIs have been developed that possess respectively improved metabolic characteristics, or increased activity against NNRTI-resistant HIV strains or, as in the case of PIs, a different, nonpeptidic scaffold. Given the multitude of molecular targets with which anti-HIV agents can interact, one should be cautious in extrapolating from cell-free enzymatic assays to the mode of action of these agents in intact cells.
Article
The availability of potent antiretroviral drugs and their use in combination regimens has led to a dramatic decline in the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection. Currently, there are 15 FDA-approved antiretrovirals categorised into three classes of drugs. Several others are in various stages of basic and clinical development.
Article
The clinical utility of intervention in HIV-1 disease has been proven by inhibitors targeting reverse transcriptase and protease. However, novel approaches including inhibition of viral entry, integration and assembly would provide additional options to maintain long-term suppression. The identification of specific inhibitors for each of these processes has recently validated these approaches as viable alternatives for the development of new agents to treat HIV-1 infection. The most recent preclinical advances in novel antiretroviral agents are reviewed and promising new approaches that target viral processes are highlighted.
Article
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) uses the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 as coreceptors for entry. It was recently demonstrated that HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120) elevated calcium and activated several ionic signaling responses in primary human macrophages, which are important targets for HIV-1 in vivo. This study shows that chemokine receptor engagement by both CCR5-dependent (R5) and CXCR4-dependent (X4) gp120 led to rapid phosphorylation of the focal adhesion-related tyrosine kinase Pyk2 in macrophages. Pyk2 phosphorylation was also induced by macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP-1beta) and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha, chemokine ligands for CCR5 and CXCR4. Activation was blocked by EGTA and by a potent blocker of calcium release-activated Ca++ (CRAC) channels, but was insensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), implicating CRAC-mediated extracellular Ca++ influx but not Galpha(i) protein-dependent mechanisms. Coreceptor engagement by gp120 and chemokines also activated 2 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, gp120-stimulated macrophages secreted the chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and MIP-1beta in a manner that was dependent on MAPK activation. Thus, the gp120 signaling cascade in macrophages includes coreceptor binding, PTX-insensitive signal transduction, ionic signaling including Ca++ influx, and activation of Pyk2 and MAPK pathways, and leads to secretion of inflammatory mediators. HIV-1 Env signaling through these pathways may contribute to dysregulation of uninfected macrophage functions, new target cell recruitment, or modulation of macrophage infection.
Article
In this paper, the ways in which HIV is transmitted and factors facilitating transmission are described, although we still do not fully understand why the HIV epidemic has spread so heterogeneously across the globe. Estimates of HIV prevalence vary in quality but give some idea of trends in different countries and regions. Of all regions in the world, sub-Saharan Africa is the hardest hit by HIV, containing around 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS. There are, however, recent signs of hope in Africa due to a slight reduction in the number of new HIV cases in the year 2000. Most countries in Asia have not seen explosive epidemics in the general population up to now but patterns of injecting drug use (IDU) and sex work are conducive to the spread of HIV so there is no room for complacency. Unpredictable epidemics among IDU in the former Soviet Union have the potential to spread into the general population. Some countries in Central America and the Caribbean have growing HIV epidemics with adult prevalences second only to sub-Saharan Africa. Reductions in morbidity and mortality through the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy are at present limited to high-income and some Latin American countries. Both the cost of these therapies and the poor health care delivery systems in many affected countries need to be addressed before antiretrovirals can benefit the majority of people living with HIV/AIDS.
Article
Virtually all the compounds that are currently used, or under advanced clinical trial, for the treatment of HIV infections, belong to one of the following classes: (i) nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): i.e. zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir, emtricitabine, tenofovir (PMPA) disoproxil fumarate; (ii) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): i.e. nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz, entivirine; and (iii) protease inhibitors (PIs): i.e. saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir and amprenavir. In addition, various other events in the HIV replicative cycle are potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (i) viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120; (ii) viral entry, through blockade of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; (iii) virus-cell fusion; (iv) viral assembly and disassembly; (v) proviral DNA integration; (vi) viral mRNA transcription. Also, new NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs have been developed that possess respectively improved metabolic characteristics, or increased activity against NNRTI-resistant HIV strains or, as in the case of PIs, a different, non-peptidic scaffold. Given the multitude of molecular targets with which anti-HIV agents can interact, one should be cautious in extrapolating from cell-free enzymatic assays to the mode of action of these agents in intact cells.
Article
Gateways to clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and devlopment protal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AAV-CF, adalimumab, ademetionine, afeletecan hydrochloride, agomelatine, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, amdoxovir, aplidine, aranose, arsenic sulfide, atazanavir, atlizumab; Bimatoprost, BMS-181176, BMS-188667, bortezomib, bryostatin 1; Combretastatin A-4 phosphate; Darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, deferasirox, desloratadine, DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib-vaccine, DTI-0009; Eculizumab, edodekin alfa, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, epoetin, esomeprazole magnesium etoricoxib; Fampridine, fenretinide, FR-146687; Galiximab, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, ganirelix acetate, gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gimatecan; HEA125xOKT3, hIL-13-PE38QQR, HSV-2 theracine, Hu14.18-IL-2, human gammaglobulin; Idraparinux sodium, imatinib mesylate, IMiD3, insulin detemir, interleukin-4, irofulven, ISAtx-247; JT-1001; Levetiracetam, levosimendan, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lixivaptan, lopinavir, lumiracoxib; Maxacalcitol, melatonin, midostaurin, MLN-518; Neridronic acid, nesiritide, nitronaproxen; Oblimersen sodium, oregovomab; PEG-filgrastim polyglutamate paclitaxel, prasterone, pregabalin; Rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride; SGN-30; T-1249, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipranavir, TMC-114, trabectedin, transdermal selegiline; UK-427857; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil, vatalanib succinate, vincristine sulfate TCS; Zofenopril calcium.
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and ex vivo pharmacodynamics of increasing doses of RWJ 67657, along with the effect of food at one dose level in a first-in-human (FIH) study. This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial in healthy male subjects. Subjects received increasing doses of RWJ 67657 or placebo as a single oral dose (0.25-30 mg/kg) under fasting conditions. The effect of food was investigated for the 10-mg/kg dose. Plasma concentrations of RWJ 67657 were measured over a period of 48 hours using a validated LC-MS/MS method. To evaluate the pharmacodynamics of RWJ 67657, inhibition of cytokine production was monitored from exvivo-stimulated polymorphonuclear blood cells (PBMCs). Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling was used to characterize the inhibitory activity of RWJ 67657. RWJ 67657 was rapidly absorbed (mean tmax = 0.6-2.5 h). The pharmacokinetics of RWJ 67657 appear to be nonlinear with respect to single-dose administration of the investigative formulation. Coadministration of food did not have a significant effect on half-life or time to peak concentration (tmax) but decreased the exposure. Mean Cmax values in the presence of food were almost 50% lower than during fasting (542 vs. 1283 ng/mL), and the AUC decreased from 2832 to 1904 ng.h/mL with food. RWJ 67657 inhibited TNF-alpha, IL-8, and IL-6 in a concentration-dependent manner with mean IC50 values of 0.18 microM, 0.04 microM, and 0.43 microM, respectively. At 20 mg/kg, the median inhibition was greater than 85%. There were no significant adverse effects associated with single doses of this drug. This study demonstrates that RWJ 67657 has acceptable safety and pharmacokinetics to warrant further investigation in a repeat-dose setting. In addition, the early determination of effect on biomarkers suggests potential efficacy in diseases mediated by proinflammatory and inflammatory cytokines.
HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis through caspase 9 in T cells and PBMC's
  • K Muthumani
  • Ds Hwang
  • Bm Desai
  • D Zhang
  • N Dayes
  • Green
  • Dr
Muthumani, K, Hwang DS, Desai BM, Zhang D, Dayes N, Green DR, et al. HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis through caspase 9 in T cells and PBMC's. J Biol Chem 2002, 277:37820–37831.
Parallel signal processing among mammalian MAPKs
  • E Cano
  • Lc Mahadevan
Cano E, Mahadevan LC. Parallel signal processing among mammalian MAPKs. Trends Biochem Sci 1995, 20:117–122.