ArticleLiterature Review

Addiction and spirituality. Addiction 99:539--551

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Abstract

Spirituality is a topic of increasing interest to clinicians and researchers interested in addiction. To clarify the way(s) in which the concept of spirituality is understood and employed in practice by clinicians and researchers who publish papers on addiction and spirituality, and to develop a definition or description of spirituality which might receive widespread assent within the field. A descriptive study of 265 published books and papers on spirituality and addiction. The study revealed a diversity and lack of clarity of understanding of the concept of spirituality. However, it was possible to identify 13 conceptual components of spirituality which recurred within the literature. Among these conceptual components of spirituality, 'relatedness' and 'transcendence' were encountered most frequently. 'Meaning/purpose', 'wholeness (non-)religiousness' and 'consciousness' were encountered less frequently in the papers on addiction and spirituality than in an unsystematically ascertained sample of papers concerned with spirituality in relation to other areas of psychology and medicine. However, biases in the literature are notable. For example, the great majority of publications are from North America and the field is dominated by interest in Twelve-Step and Christian spirituality. Spirituality, as understood within the addiction field, is currently poorly defined. Thirteen conceptual components of spirituality which are employed in this field are identified provisionally and a working definition is proposed as a basis for future research.

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... The Latin word spiritus is the origin of the word spiritual, which means to blow or to breathe, and has come to mean that which gives life to the soul (Cook, 2004;O'Brien, 2011). Barber (2019) explains spirituality as a journey, search for truth. ...
... Barber (2019) explains spirituality as a journey, search for truth. In his descriptive study, analyzing 265 published books and articles, Cook (2004) found that the concept of spirituality had 13 conceptual components; among these 13 components, transcendence and relatedness were the most referenced conceptual components of spirituality. The eight steps concept analysis conducted by Yeşilçınar et al. (2018) included immateriality as one of the terms related to spirituality. ...
... The eight steps concept analysis conducted by Yeşilçınar et al. (2018) included immateriality as one of the terms related to spirituality. The literature revealed different synonyms for this concept such as personal meaning, purpose, values, beliefs, and connectedness (Cook, 2004;Florczak, 2010;Lavorato Neto et al., 2018;McEwan, 2004;O'Brien, 2011;Paul et al., 2010;Yeşilçınar et al., 2018) and in addition has interrelated meanings of spiritual distress, spiritual need, and spiritual well-being (Lavorato Neto et al., 2018;Paul et al., 2010;White, Peters, & Schim, 2011). ...
Article
The critical review of the literature describes the definition clarity of spirituality, religion, and faith. These three terms are interchangeably used in the literature. However, each of these terms has its own definitions. For example, the term spirituality has more than 13 conceptual components. It is abstract and subjective and is different from religion and faith. Spirituality can be a connection to God, nature, others, and surrounding. Spirituality is associated with quality and meaning in life. Conversely, religion is attributed to traditional values and practices related to a certain group of people or faith. Religion is guided by tradition, rules, and culture. Religion is defined as a personal set or institutionalized system of religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices. Religion is the service or worship of God or the supernatural. Faith is often associated with religion and spirituality. Faith is more personal, subjective, and deeper than organized religion and relates to the relationship with God. The concept of spirituality lacks a professional understanding. It is imperative that the holistic view of nursing must strive to understand the definition of spirituality.
... In seeking to define spirituality, a review summary of 265 books and papers on addiction and spirituality recognized a bias favoring a TwelveStep and Christian conceptualization of spirituality (Cook, 2004). This is not surprising, considering the majority of publications reviewed were North American, and highlights the importance of considering the cultural context of research into spirituality, as Americans tend to be more religious than British people (Evans, 2018;Fahmy, 2018) who constitute the cohort in the current study. ...
... Spirituality is concerned with the human spirit, something that was apparent in the common language that manifested in the participants' discourses, i.e., "doing the right thing", "being the best person I can be". Of the many definitions available, Shockley's (cited in Cook, 2004) aptly summarizes the common meaning of spirituality in the participants' narratives: "To be human is to long for ultimate meaning and direction in life; it is to live a spiritual existence" (p. 544), or as Bob simply explains: "Spirituality is a way of life, of connecting with humankind, just means being the best we can be". ...
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Recovery in Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.) is framed within a broad notion of spirituality, in which members are encouraged to nurture personal concepts of spirituality. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), semi-structured interview study was conducted, to explore the role of spirituality for five members of A.A. with long-term recovery (LTR) from alcohol use disorder (AUD). Three higher-order themes, conceptualizing spirituality as a secular and existential phenomenon were identified. The study highlights the role of secular spirituality as a coping mechanism in LTR, demonstrating that A.A. can be an effective treatment for individuals wishing to recover from AUD, regardless of their belief systems.
... Among these conditions, spirituality stands in a different status (DiClemente, 2018). Research shows that spirituality has become an important topic in today's world, especially in the addiction treatment (Cook, 2004;Kelly, Stout, Magill, Tonigan, & Pagano, 2011;Galanter, et al., 2007). Spirituality is frequently described as a multi-dimensional concept that relates to individuals, families and the social lives of human beings. ...
... Spirituality is described as also "existence a positive and original human being in entire parts of our lifecycle (Booth, 1987). According to Cook (2004), spirituality is a characteristic, theoretically authentic and common aspect of anthropological practice ascending both within the inner personal awareness of individuals and within societies, communal clusters, and traditions. It might practice as an association with that which is closely 'inner', inherent and individual, within the self and others, and/or as the association with that which is exclusively 'other', superior and away from the self. ...
Article
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This paper examines the role of spirituality in a recovery context by drawing on qualitative research conducted at a residential recovery community in North Wales, United Kingdom. The study aimed to examine perceptions of spirituality among exprisoners and people identifying as in recovery from addiction. The researchers explored ideas of “spiritual coping” and “spiritual wellbeing” in terms of meaning, purpose, connectedness, forgiveness, and peace in addiction treatment programs influenced by 12-Step models, for instance, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Also, this paper focuses on both spiritual counseling services shaped by pre-determined meanings and values and secondly, on individuals’ perceptions about spirituality through the language of desires, needs, and expectations. The data for this research produced from five semi-structured interviews with male individuals who had recovered from their addiction and had practised some custodial life. To discover the common context of different perceptions of the language spirituality, the data was coded by the first and second loop encodings from the data analysis methods used. The central schemes that appear as “Spirituality in Experiences, Spirituality in Values, Spirituality as Meaning/Purpose of Life, Spirituality as Attachment, Spirituality as Coping Mechanism” have been evaluated within the framework of the concept of spirituality. In the conclusion of this study, it was observed that spirituality was used as a coping mechanism for buffering the sensation of hopelessness and powerlessness often experienced by people in active addiction.
... This result of our study supports other studies (11,52,54,55). Spirituality has become a common concept in contemporary addiction literature (56). Spirituality is defined as an inner resource that facilitates a sense of belonging with other people (56,57). ...
... Spirituality has become a common concept in contemporary addiction literature (56). Spirituality is defined as an inner resource that facilitates a sense of belonging with other people (56,57). If individuals need for belonging is met, they are likely to overcome their psychiatric problems and troubles as well as not rely on cyberspace (14,24,58). ...
... Among these conditions, spirituality stands in a different status (DiClemente, 2018). Research shows that spirituality has become an important topic in today's world, especially in the addiction treatment (Cook, 2004;Kelly, Stout, Magill, Tonigan, & Pagano, 2011;Galanter, et al., 2007). Spirituality is frequently described as a multi-dimensional concept that relates to individuals, families and the social lives of human beings. ...
... Spirituality is described as also "existence a positive and original human being in entire parts of our lifecycle (Booth, 1987). According to Cook (2004), spirituality is a characteristic, theoretically authentic and common aspect of anthropological practice ascending both within the inner personal awareness of individuals and within societies, communal clusters, and traditions. It might practice as an association with that which is closely 'inner', inherent and individual, within the self and others, and/or as the association with that which is exclusively 'other', superior and away from the self. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the role of spirituality in a recovery context by drawing on qualitative research conducted at a residential recovery community in North Wales, United Kingdom. The study aimed to examine perceptions of spirituality among ex-prisoners and people identifying as in recovery from addiction. The researchers explored ideas of "spiritual coping" and "spiritual wellbeing" in terms of meaning, purpose, connectedness, forgiveness, and peace in addiction treatment programs influenced by 12-Step models, for instance, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Also, this paper focuses on both spiritual counselling services shaped by predetermined meanings and values and secondly, on individuals' perceptions about spirituality through the language of desires, needs, and expectations. The data for this research produced from five semi-structured interviews with male individuals who had recovered from their addiction and had practised some custodial life. To discover the common context of different perceptions of the language spirituality, the data was coded by the first and second loop encodings from the data analysis methods used. The central schemes that appear as "Spirituality in Experiences, Spirituality in Values, Spirituality as Meaning/Purpose of Life, Spirituality as Attachment, Spirituality as Coping Mechanism" have been evaluated within the framework of the concept of spirituality. In the conclusion of this study, it was observed that spirituality was used as a coping mechanism for buffering the sensation of hopelessness and powerlessness often experienced by people in active addiction.
... Brewer-Smyth and Koenig (2014) indicated that although faithbased communities at times might impose shame and guilt, they can also promote hope, social support and comfort for their members. In this sense, and as noted above in the introduction, Christian stakeholders have been described as potentially forming part of both the solution (Cook 2004;Zimmerman and Maton 1992) and the problem (Heimlich 2011). While non-judgmental, honest and accepting attitudes (Rogers 2012) can lead to frank conversations that open doors to a compassionate understanding, all of which is a part of the solution, stigmatisation, shame, moralism and condemnation usher sufferers further into concealing their struggles, all of which forms part of the manifold problems. ...
... 163). According to Cook (2004) and Zimmerman and Maton (1992), faith (i.e. as expressed in Christianity) can act as a protective factor against addiction and may also be a significant tool in the recovery process (Avants et al. 2001;Flynn et al. 2003;Carter 1998). However, inversely, in some cases, faith may also precipitate addiction or maintenance of it through authoritarianism, isolation or separatism, or fear of sin (Heimlich 2011). ...
Chapter
Sexual addiction (SA) and hypersexual disorder (HD) describe prevalent contemporary phenomena that the public remains poorly educated about. Notwithstanding widespread agreement among concerned stakeholders that SA and HD constitute an understudied and underappreciated challenge, the analysis digested in this research converges around the synthesis that Christian Education (CE) stakeholders have not yet had the intrepidity to meaningfully confront this issue. While SA/HD may cause serious bio-psychosocial and spiritual distress, including severe consequences for the affected and their family members, neither the condition, nor its aetiology, is well understood (or even acknowledged) by psychiatrists and medical professionals. Even the latest edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) does not include any mention of SA/HD. This treatise arises from a literature study, which the authors have supplemented with corresponding critical analysis. The synthesis suggests that religious/spiritual beliefs strongly impinge on both SA/HD aetiology and recovery prospects. Moreover, this study argues for more thematisation of SA/HD within CE environments. CE settings can provide a wholesome contextual environment where a better understanding of SA/HD can be mainstreamed and normalised—rather than moralised—for the greater good of both sufferers and society. This chapter charts pertinent perspectives, challenges and opportunities.
... Although spirituality is a multidimensional construct that includes many types of specific beliefs and behaviors (Cook 2004;Miller 1998), much research has focused on spirituality in a broad, general sense rather than on its specific dimensions. Even in those studies that treated spirituality multidimensionally, manifestations of spirituality and spirituality-related characteristics were usually analyzed separately, without considering their different combinations. ...
... Given that positive and negative spiritual coping, as well as various aspects of moral virtues, are theoretically related but distinct from each other (Charzyńska 2015;Cook 2004;Pargament 1997;Peterson and Seligman 2004), and taking into account that various dimensions of spirituality may lead to different alcohol treatment outcomes (Krentzman et al., 2017;Robinson et al. 2011;Webb et al. 2006), there is a need to study their constellations instead of "atomizing" the spiritual sphere by studying them in isolation. Hence, the purpose of this study is twofold: ...
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The purpose of this study was to identify distinct profiles of persons beginning alcohol addiction therapy with similar baseline configurations of spiritual coping, forgiveness, and gratitude. The associations between latent profile membership and the completion of therapy were also examined. The sample was composed of 358 alcohol-dependent persons receiving an outpatient treatment program. The Spiritual Coping Questionnaire, the Forgiveness Scale, and the Gratitude Questionnaire were used to assess the baseline levels of spirituality-related variables. Using latent profile analysis, five profiles were identified: (1) both moderately positive and negative dimensions of spirituality (33.2%), (2) moderately positive dimensions of spir-ituality (21.0%), (3) predominantly negative dimensions of spirituality (20.2%), (4) mixed dimensions of spirituality with the lowest positive religious coping (14.0%), and (5) highly positive dimensions of spirituality (11.6%). Notably, the latent profiles differed in terms of the treatment completion rates. The results suggest the need to carry out a multidimensional assessment of spiritual functioning of persons beginning alcohol addiction therapy to provide treatment that is adjusted to patients' spiritual potential and deficits.
... As reviewed above, spirituality can be understood both as a universal category of human experience and as culturally idiosyncratic attempts at creating meaning. This entanglement is central in the scientific assessment of spirituality, where diverse conceptual understandings have been employed (see Cook, 2004). The somewhat ambiguous and indiscriminate use of the term spirituality has been criticised by both religious and non-or anti-religious quarters. ...
... Spirituality is difficult to define but is commonly concerned with things such as meaning and purpose in life, with the human being in relationship, and especially the relationship with a transcendent order, variously understood but for many simply meaning 'God'. 8 This has been controversial and has evoked considerable professional debate. 9 Spirituality has proven difficult to measure -because it is subjective and not easily distinguished from the psychological variables that it purports to influence. 10 People who are depressed, for example, commonly lose any sense of meaning and purpose in life and they view their relationships differently. ...
Article
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Mental disorders are both common and disabling worldwide. They affect beliefs, emotions, identity and relationships in such a way as to impact upon the very essence of human experience. They are associated with stigma and prejudice, and they disproportionately affect those who are poor and those who belong to marginalized groups within society. Increasing attention has been given in recent years to the importance of spirituality for mental health, but in research it is impossible to distinguish between spirituality and the psychological variables that it purports to influence. Those things that are identified as being the concerns of mental health professionals overlap significantly with the concerns of religion. This overlap is examined here in relationship to the Synoptic Gospel accounts of the mission, ministry and teaching of Jesus. It is proposed that Jesus’ teaching on the kingdom of God was centrally concerned with things that we now consider to be the domain of mental health. For Christians, mental health may be understood as the ability to fulfil vocation within the kingdom of God. A more critical theological understanding of mental health is needed to better inform the mission of the Church of England.
... A common and long-lived definition of spirituality is "our ability, through our attitudes and actions, to relate to others, to ourselves, and to God as we understand Him" (Cook, 2004). Addiction has been instead oppositely defined as "a setting apart from one's self, others, and the world" (Forcehimes & Tonigan, 2009). ...
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Objective. This article aims to give an overview on the role of spirituality, faith and mystical experiences in the treatment of Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) by presenting the case of the therapeutic community Takiwasi, where psychoactive plants are used, and by considering other Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies that are derived from or have connection with religious or spiritual practices. Methodology. The research has been based on the review of scientific and grey literature and on an interview performed with the president and founder of Takiwasi. Results and discussion. Synergism between Christian and Amazonian spirituality appears relevant within the Takiwasi protocol. The use of CAM including Mindfulness, Holotropic Breathwork and Yoga emerge from the literature. Conclusions. Clinical experience show that spirituality is a key factor to be taken into account when considering addiction treatment and several CAM practices with spiritual connotations show promising potential for the treatment of SUDs.
... The defining complex and multifaceted concepts such as spirituality and religiosity, psyche and psychology is not easy because there is no universal definition accepted by researchers (Cook, 2004). According to st. ...
Article
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Spiritual and religious beliefs are common worldwide. At least 90% of the world's population is currently involved in some form of religious or spiritual practice, but in Ethiopia, its pragmatic value has been poorly investigated. Therefore, this review is aimed to search evidence on the relationship between religion/spirituality, mental health or psychological wellbeing. A review of existing literatures was conducted from two data bases; PubMed and Google Scholar. All review studies focusing on religion/spirituality, psychology or psychological wellbeing and mental health were included. The major themes extracted were: definitions and concepts about religion/spirituality and psychology, threshold of association between religion and different types of mental health disorders. Although there is no study from Ethiopia, this review indicates that religion and spirituality tend to have a positive effect on mental health and psychological wellbeing as well as patients' overall quality of life. Religion or spirituality has been associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms, fewer symptoms of posttraumatic stress, fewer eating disorder symptoms, less perceived stress, lower risk of suicide, less personality disorder and increased subjective happiness. Psychological well-being, but Ethiopia is naive to train, practice and integrate religion/spirituality in the modern academia and mental health services. Therefore, Ethiopia in particular and the globe in general, integration of religion/spirituality in the training and clinical practice of mental health services is warranted.
... It seems that they were not optimistic about their future, were not targeting long-term goals and were unsatisfied about their lives in Jordan. Spirituality, meanings of life and humans relationships with God are very personal experiences (Braxton et al., 2007;Cook, 2004). Therefore, it is reasonable to have individual variations. ...
Article
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Aim: To assess the health promotion practices of Syrian refugees in the north of Jordan and to determine their correlation with some socio-demographic variables. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive correlational. Methods: Health-Promotion Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) was used to measure health promotion practices of Syrian refugees. Data were collected from a convenient sample of 250 Syrian refugees who lived in the North of Jordan. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data. Results: The results showed that Syrian refugees in Jordan had low scores of total health promotion scale (mean = 2.28) with a cut score of 2.5, which indicated that they minimally adopted health promotion practices in general. The higher score was found on the interpersonal relation domain (mean = 2.89, SD 0.52). While the stress management domain (mean = 2.48, SD 0.43), spiritual growth domain (mean = 2.38, SD 0.39) and nutrition domain (mean = 2.34, SD 0.37) were lower than 2.5, the scores on responsibility and physical activity domains (mean = 2.20, SD 0.62), (mean = 1.35, SD 0.18) respectively, were the lowest. Women, married and unemployed, have more healthy behaviours than their counterparts.
... Mystical experiences are intense forms of ST during which the sense of self disappears completely and there is a complete sense of unity with the individual's surroundings (Hood, 2002;James, 1902;Newberg & d'Aquili, 2000). Mystical states may be associated with altruistic social effects (Griffiths et al., 2006(Griffiths et al., , 2008 Many people view transcendence as a core concept when discussing spirituality (Cook, 2004;Zinnbauer et al., 1997). It is important to note that transcendent experiences are not always linked to the supernatural and may occur through literature, art and sport. ...
Article
This article examines the relationship between religion, transcendence and social bonding. I speculate that the capacity to undergo transcendent experiences facilitated social bonding. Following a discussion of Gorelik’s typology of transcendence, it examines the relationship between ritual, transcendence and bonding with an emphasis on singing, dancing and synchrony. It then moves on to explore theory of mind and transcendence. Finally, transcendent emotions like compassion, admiration, gratitude, love and awe will be discussed. I conclude by arguing that transcendence originates from group-level selection.
... However, the interviewed participants were chosen because they were the most enthusiastic in the intervention, and we do not know what happened to the motives of other participants. Spirituality is a complex issue, as it can mean many things to many people (Cook, 2004). To what extent it is a factor in attracting people to HMPs who already have an interest in spirituality (e.g., Hasselle-Newcombe, 2005) and to what extent HMPs open people to spiritual experiences deserves attention in future research. ...
Article
Background: Exercise psychology has an interest in physical activity behaviour and the psychological dimensions of physical activity delivery and outcomes. Holistic movement practices (HMPs) can be defined as physical practices embedded in holistic philosophies of well-being. As such, they go beyond what is typically offered in exercise contexts to purposefully include mental, emotional, social and/or spiritual components. Traditional Eastern movement practices (e.g., Yoga, Tai Chi, Qigong) are examples of HMPs, but a range of lesser known “Western-born” HMPs (e.g., 5Rhythms, Biodanza) also exist. HMPs have not yet received much structured attention within exercise psychology. Objective: To analyse the nature of HMPs and discuss their relevance to the field of exercise psychology, with a view to raising awareness of HMPs within exercise psychology as well as encouraging and supporting future research. Content: We discuss what we see as commonalities among HMPs and argue that it is useful to treat HMPs as a category of physical activity for exercise psychology, not only because they are forms of physical activity but also because psychological dimensions are an integral and purposeful part of these practices. We provide a tentative conceptualization of HMP philosophies, with brief examples, and consider how exercise psychology’s subfields of participation behaviour, delivery parameters, outcomes, and mechanisms are applicable to the study of HMPs. Last, we briefly explore research issues, including HMPs’ multicomponent nature, selected potential mechanisms, and methodologies. Conclusion: HMPs are part of the leisure-based physical activities landscape in many modern societies, and deserve attention by exercise psychologists. Their embeddedness in holistic philosophies and multicomponent nature provide unique opportunities and challenges for research in exercise psychology.
... Despite the large number of definitions offered for religiosity and spirituality, there is a relative consensus around understanding the terms as defined by Cook [19], who suggests that spirituality goes beyond religion, with a focus on interpersonal relationships and what they entail and including consciousness, meaning and purpose to life, self-knowledge, humanity, transcendence, values, authenticity, love and compassion. Spirituality appears in individuals' inner existence and in social groups. ...
Article
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People diagnosed with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) face multiple vulnerabilities, including when seeking employment. Among SPMI patients, studies show that a stronger sense of spirituality can help to reduce psychotic symptoms, increase social integration, reduce the risk of suicide attempts and promote adherence to psychiatric treatment. This study examined how the variables spirituality and employment affect the recovery process and psychological well-being of people with SPMI who attend employment recovery services. The sample consisted of 64 women and men diagnosed with an SPMI. The assessment instruments included the Recovery Assessment Scale, Ryff Psychological Well-Being Scale, Work Motivation Questionnaire, Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp12). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to compare three different models for each dependent variable (recovery and psychological well-being). The findings showed that job skills predicted psychological well-being and recovery. When spiritual variables were included in the model, job skills dropped out and the dimension meaning/peace of the FACIT-Sp12 emerged as the only significant predictor variable. Integrating spirituality into recovery programs for people with SPMI may be a helpful complement to facilitate the recovery process and improve psychological well-being.
... In addition, many published articles have highlighted the role of spirituality in the management and prevention of addiction (e.g. nicotine, alcohol, etc.) and have thus supported smoking or addiction recovery tools [42][43][44]. The minority of the study's e-cig users reported that they preferred to take medications to manage their withdrawal symptoms, use patches of nicotine replacement therapy, and only a small number advised that they consulted a healthcare provider. ...
Article
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Background Recently, electronic cigarette (e-cig) usage has increased significantly, making it a potentially effective smoking cessation tool. In Muslim countries, most people who use e-cigarettes fast the month of Ramadan, which results in intermittent fasting. This study aims to reveal the severity of e-cig withdrawal symptoms among users during this intermittent fasting period. Methods A self-administered survey was developed and validated to solicit anonymous responses from e-cig users living in Jordan, through a cross-sectional study design. Participants were recruited through social media resources. Severity scores of physical (out of 11) and psychological (out of 8) withdrawal symptoms for each participant were assessed and calculated for each participant, depending on the symptoms reported. Results A convenience sample (n=523) of e-cig adult users were recruited. The majority of the participants were males (96.4%) aged between 18-40 years (86.4%). Many participants replaced tobacco smoking with e-cigarettes (53.5%) in order to help them stop smoking. More than half of the participants experienced relatively weak physical (0.82±1.78) and psychological (1.24±1.89) withdrawal symptoms during the month of fasting. Most of the participants (63.2%) preferred to engage themselves with a busy schedule to tolerate the related withdrawal symptoms they experienced. Conclusion E-cigs could play a vital role in smoking cessation among tobacco smokers during intermittent fasting. Ramadan offers a good opportunity for smokers to quit, as the reported physical and psychological e-cig withdrawal symptoms were found to be relatively weak. Awareness and behavioral interventions would help clarify the effect of e-cigs and help determine alternative ways to cease smoking.
... A growing body of research on spirituality and addiction recovery exists (Chitwood, Weiss, & Leukefeld, 2008;Cook, 2004;Longshore, Anglin, & Conner, 2009). Research has demonstrated the benefits of spirituality for individuals with addiction. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to examine the self-reported learning and transformation of men recovering from substance addiction who had attended a residential treatment centre in British Columbia (BC). Untreated addiction stems from and causes unacceptable levels of human misery and incurs serious social and economic costs. Treatment is a key strategy for lowering the costs associated with addiction. The thesis brings together transformative learning theory with theories of transformation from the recovery field to focus on identity transformation. It employed a narrative inquiry methodology due to its emphasis on subjective experiences of transformation. Data collected from a convenience sample of seven adult men were recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes. The study sought to answer three research questions: (1) What are some of the processes involved in personal transformation as reported by men recovering from addiction? (2) What are the contextual factors that facilitate, delay, or inhibit personal transformation as reported by these men in the context of residential addiction treatment? (3) How do the lives of these men, and their sense of identity as men, change as a result of their self-reported learning? The study concluded that (a) participants’ personal transformations involved rational and extrarational processes; (b) such transformations were facilitated by having a safe, private, and peaceful environment to engage in self-reflection and the presence of other men with whom they could relate and engage in meaningful conversation; and (c) participants’ identity transformations resulted in lifestyle changes—more meaningful relationships and work, helping others, and improved self-care—as well as positive changes in how they related to themselves, others, and the world. Study results have important implications for transformative learning theory and programs designed for men as adult learners situated in residential addiction treatment settings.
... b. Religiosity: Religiosity and spirituality are multidimensional concepts ( George et al., 2000 ;Miller and Thoresen, 2003 ;Cook, 2004 ;Hill, 2005 ). Numerous explanations of religiosity have been offered from diverse disciplines and perspectives. ...
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Religion is a powerful institution that models human behaviors at all levels. In a time of proven environmental crisis, it is useful to think about how this institution can improve conservation efforts and nature care through promoting sustainable and prosocial behaviors. Although some research argues that the effect of political ideology and economic status is by far a stronger predictor than religiosity per se, this varies across cultures. We develop a first research strategy, based on two sources: 1) The World Values Survey, between 1997 and 2018, to identify trends regarding the importance of religion in Colombians’ life. 2) Self-administered survey (a total of 450 surveys applied to Colombians, under snowball sampling in 2020) the sample size is adjusted to the data analysis technique, which was Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), to understand the potential relationship between religiosity, environmental perception, prosocial, and sustainable behaviors in a megadiverse country, and highly religious such as Colombia. The results of this first research, in the Colombian case, reiterate and provide empirical support to earlier theoretical studies that have pointed out the contribution of religiosity and spirituality to sustainability and prosocial behaviors. This case shows that acting sustainably is not just a matter of belief or unbelief, nor of being spiritual or atheist. Prosocial behaviors, in combination with environmental perception and knowledge, have a major influence on sustainable behaviors for the Colombian case.
... Others have also built on transcendence as the core of spirituality, delineating four dimensions: personal, social, environmental, and religious (de Jager Meezenbroek et al. 2012). In addition, researchers conducting conceptual analyses (Dyson et al. 1997;Cook 2004;Chiu et al. 2004;Reed 1992) and qualitative research (Gomez and Fisher 2005) have expanded the understanding of spirituality by arguing that connectedness is another essential element of spirituality. Connectedness here includes the connection with oneself, with others and nature, and with the transcendent. ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate the Chinese Spiritual Coping Scale. The items in the questionnaire were written according to the study’s theoretical conception and literature research. A sample of 415 participants with or without religious beliefs was used for exploratory factor analyses to select the items. In addition, another sample of 207 participants was used to cross-validate the factor structure and examine the internal consistency. The results supported the four-factor structure of the Chinese Spiritual Coping Scale (17 items, four dimensions: Mystical Experience, Moral Practice, Meaning Exploration, and Transcendent Attitude). The analyses demonstrated adequate internal consistency and construct validity. The overall psychometric evaluation of the Spiritual Coping Scale suggested that this could be a promising measure of spiritual coping for Chinese individuals.
... Susietumas su tuo, kas transcendentiška yra ryšys su kažkuo anapus viso, kas vien tik žmogiška, pavyzdžiui, Visata, transcendentine realybe, aukštesne jėga arba Dievu. Tai reiškiasi per baimingą pagarbą, viltį, šventumą bei transcendavimo patirtis (Cook 2004; De Jager Meezenbroek ir kt., 2012). ...
... However, defining complex and multifaceted concepts such as spirituality and religiosity is not easy as there is no universal definition accepted by researchers (Cook, 2004). Sullivan (1993) defined spirituality as an individual and unique feature that links the self to the universe and to others, and may or may not include a belief in a god. ...
... Bağımlılık yaşantısı aktif olarak devam eden bireylerin psikolojik açıdan iyi oluş düzeyleri ve başa çıkma tarzları, bağımlılıktan arınmada oldukça önemli hususlardır. Günümüzde din veya maneviyatla bütünleşik çalışmalar özellikle bağımlılık tedavisinde önemli bir konu haline gelmiştir (Cook, 2004;Galanter ve ark., 2007;Kelly ve ark., 2011). Dinden/maneviyattan destek almak, iyileşme sürecinin niteliğinin artırılmasına katkı sunacağı düşünülmektedir. ...
Article
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Manevi danışmanlık ve rehberlik • Sosyal hizmet • Bağımlılık • Bağlanma • Din • Maneviyat Spiritual counseling and care • Social work • Addiction • Attachment • Religion • Spirituality
... In addition, they define religiosity as an understanding about one belief system or certain dogma and involvement of individual within that particular religious group. Cook (2004) defines spirituality as a universal human experience that evoked through three ways; internal subjective awareness, chemistry with others in community, and relationship with the superior power beyond humankind. For religiosity, Cook defines it as belief, religious practice and religious sentiment. ...
... In addition, they define religiosity as an understanding about one belief system or certain dogma and involvement of individual within that particular religious group. Cook (2004) defines spirituality as a universal human experience that evoked through three ways; internal subjective awareness, chemistry with others in community, and relationship with the superior power beyond humankind. For religiosity, Cook defines it as belief, religious practice and religious sentiment. ...
... This agrees with Liu et al. (2020a) who found that self-compassion and social connectedness worked together to buffer the impact of racial discrimination on mental health among college students. As Cook (2004) previously stated, this association leads us to consider that peace and meaning cannot be restricted to the individual sphere, but rather that it implies a connective and interrelated dimension. ...
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The COVID-19 lockdown has had a massive psychological impact on mental health in the general population, with increases in anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Spiritual well-being, specifically peace and meaning, has already been identified as one of the main protective factors for these disorders in the COVID-19 context. The aim of the present study is to identify facilitating elements for peace and meaning during the COVID-19 lockdown in Spain. Online surveys were used to obtain data from a sample of 3480 Spanish people. Self-compassion and social support were positively related with peace and meaning, while loneliness and perceived discrimination were negatively related. The model for peace and meaning was statistically significant, explaining 47% of the variance. The significant variables were self-kindness, family support, mindfulness, and sense of belonging having a positive association and loneliness a negative one.
... Specifically, previous evidence pointed out that considering the role of spirituality during the recovery helps to improve positive coping skills in rehab patients (Arévalo et al., 2008;Currier, 2020;Kondo et al., 2000). Although spirituality and self-transcendence values are different constructs, these are strongly related (Cook, 2004;Hyland et al., 2010). Spirituality is often considered as the value that reflects the one's desire to go beyond the self, exploring transcendence without any specific religious were at risk are more likely to experience the so-called "mortality salience" (Greenberg et al., 1992) that consists of increasing awareness of the fragility of the human existence and death (Bassett & Going, 2012). ...
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Background: Substance addiction is a psychosocial problem facing many people today. While the previous trend in addiction treatment was the harm reduction approach, nowadays it is fully recognized the importance of promoting human resources in order to help people to face the rehabilitation process, to prevent the risk of treatment dropout and future relapses, and to positively re-integrate them into the society. During the process of recovery from substance addiction, resilience is one of the most important protective factors against both dropouts and relapses. This study analyzed for the first time whether and the extent to which self-transcendence values (i.e., benevolence and universalism) promote resilience, considering the mediating role of hope, among patients in residential substance abuse treatment. Method: Seventy-six Italian patients in residential treatment for substance addiction (86.5% males and 13.5% females; Mage = 40.23, SD = 10.88) participated to the study. Participants were asked to complete the Self-transcendence subscale from the Portrait Values Questionnaire, the Hope Scale, and the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. Results: Findings showed that self-transcendence values were positively related to resilience and that hope fully mediated (in a positive direction) this relationship. Self-transcendence values promoted resilience through the mediating role of hope. Conclusions: This complex relationship suggests a holistic model of resilience during the process of recovery from substance addiction. Limitations of the study, practical implications, and future research developments are discussed.
... These experiences are therefore considered deeply healing. Some of the cognitive and behavioural shifts linked to these experiences include: increased empathy, compassion, gratitude, openness, trust, altruism, curiosity, awareness, creativity, authenticity, integrity, a sense of higher purpose and meaning in life, a sense of virtuous mission or selfless service towards humanity, a sense of being reborn and liberated from past attitudes and beliefs, a sense of devotion to love-based values, and a rejection of "religiousness" and materialistic lifestyles (Cook, 2004;McClintock et al., 2016;Taylor and Egeto-Szabo, 2017;McGee, 2020). These deep shifts may lead to radical changes in religious and philosophical views, relationships, and career paths (Taylor and Egeto-Szabo, 2017). ...
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... Maneviyat kavramının İngilizce karşılığı olarak alanyazında sıkça kullanılan "spirituality" kelimesi, Latince kökenli olup "nefes, buhar, hava, rüzgar" anlamına gelen spiritus sözcüğünden türemiştir (Cook, 2004;Marques, Dhiman ve King, 2005). Maneviyat ise Türkçe alanyazında tercih edilen bir terimdir. ...
... Spirituality is concerned with human experiences of relatedness, meaning and purpose in life (Cook, 2004). This may or may not include religious beliefs -many people now identify as 'spiritual but not religious'. ...
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Positive psychology (PP) has grown as a field of study over the last two decades. The roots of the PP movement can be traced to Martin Seligman who in 1998 assumed the presidency of the American Psychological Association. At that time, he began to shift the focus in psychology research from pathology toward well-being. This change in focus was derived from the clear distinction between mental health and mental illness (Ryff and Keyes, J Personality Soc Psychol 69:719–727, 1995) exemplified by the World Health Organization (WHO) which defines health as “A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from World Health Organization: www.who.int/about/who-we-are/frequently-asked-questions, 2016). Most healthcare professionals have a greater knowledge and understanding of the treatment of illness, rather than of promoting well-being. As the field of PP has burgeoned, greater emphasis has shifted toward including, understanding, and strengthening those human qualities which promote human flourishing.
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Insights from the field of cemetery research demonstrate that urban cemeteries have a variety of functions, not limited to their primary purpose of providing space for interment of human remains and commemoration of loved ones. This multiplicity of functions and meanings shapes cemeteries’ special place in contemporary cities and calls for a sensitive framework for their planning and management. This thesis sets out to explore the role of cemeteries with two foci: densification processes, which can reconfigure functions of urban green spaces, and postsecular debates, which highlight the relationships between the secular and the spiritual/religious. In many cities, cemeteries indeed function as publicly accessible green spaces and accommodate intrinsic spiritual aspects, yet it remains unclear how their role might be reshaped in dense postsecular cities. This research is situated within the interdisciplinary field of urban studies and employs the concept of public space as the main theoretical lens. I also draw on the idea of municipal spirituality — a discursive tool intended to integrate the spiritual aspects of places into planning. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to existing research with new knowledge and understanding of the role of urban cemeteries as public spaces with an empirical focus on the policy context. The thesis consists of three scientific papers and an introductory essay. Inspired by a recent call for more global urban studies, this thesis employs a comparative methodology and uses three cities (Oslo, Copenhagen and Moscow) as case studies in a multiple-case research design. The empirical material (policy documents and interviews with experts) is analysed qualitatively, in both inductive and deductive manners, and supplemented with field observations. This thesis contributes to the existing body of literature in three ways. First, it establishes a multidimensional framework for the analysis of cemeteries as public spaces and demonstrates how different dimensions are manifested in the three case study cities. The framework illuminates both dimensions inherent to cemeteries (liminal and spiritual) and dimensions common to public spaces in general (multifunctional, multicultural and commercial). Second, the thesis outlines a comparative methodology that enables an assessment of the role of cemeteries in different contexts, as understood by planners and policymakers. While in Oslo and Copenhagen cemeteries are seen as multifunctional green spaces, Moscow cemeteries are viewed predominantly as burial spaces and places for commemoration and their other functions are overlooked. Third, this thesis extends an invitation to revisit debates around the notion of public space. The conceptualisation of urban cemeteries as a special type of public space emphasises the importance of the spiritual aspects — often forgotten in these debates — and points to the demand for a greater diversity of public spaces to fulfil citizen’s varied needs.
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Scopo di questa tesi è quello di esaminare, sotto l’aspetto antropologico e in parte storico-religioso, attraverso un approccio fenomenologico ed ermeneutico, la realtà della particolare forma di interazione tra la religiosità Cattolica e la spiritualità indigena Amazzonica che si realizza nel piccolo centro per la riabilitazione di tossicomani di Takiwasi, nell’Amazzonia Peruviana, area del mondo dove da oltre 4 secoli le popolazioni indigene sono in contatto con il Cristianesimo e la civiltà europea.
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It is well recognized throughout the history that religiosity, spirituality and the meditation practice have significant effects to the physical and mental health. Hence, this paper interested to evaluate the effectiveness of spiritual meditation on drug addiction recovery and its effects on psychological and mental health aspects. Three main databases in medicinal and psychology field were screened to identify the eligible studies which are PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus by using Boolean expression. Fourteen papers were included in this review. Standardized mean differences were calculated based on the intergroup mean difference and standard deviation followed by Cochran’s Q and I2 determination for heterogeneity analysis. The mean differences were statistically pooled in the meta-analysis and presented as a forest plot. The risk of bias was high for each study and assessed using the Jadad scale. The meta-analysis showed significant differences in across studies for addiction related outcome (I2=27%, 95% CI: -1.703, -0.454), anxiety (I2=0%, 95% CI: -0.874, -0.634) and stress (I2=100%, 95% CI: -0.874, -0.634). In general, spiritual meditation may promote the addiction recovery as well as improve the psychological and mental health outcomes by reducing the depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. In conclusion, randomized control trial on spiritual meditation gave positive impact on the addiction behavior as well as mental health and clarifies its reliability on addiction therapy problems.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 04 No. 04 October’20 Page : 237-250
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Objectives: Although medical students report relatively high levels of substance use, little is known about the risk and protective factors associated with substance use in this population. This study sought to examine the link between spirituality and substance use among medical students. Methods: As part of a larger study, medical students from all 9 medical schools in the state of Florida were invited to complete an anonymous survey pertaining to distress and well-being. Responses to items assessing self-reported spirituality and substance use were examined and descriptive statistics were analyzed. Results: Data from 868 medical students (57% female) were included. Of these, 22.6% described themselves as "non-spiritual," 31.0% described themselves as "spiritual," 18.5% engaged in informal spiritual practices, and 27.9% reported formal spiritual/religious practices. Students who reported stronger spirituality also reported lower rates of substance use. Though 31% of respondents across all levels of spirituality reported that their alcohol consumption increased since starting medical school, rates of binge drinking after exams were inversely related to level of spirituality. Conclusions: Self-reported spirituality appears to be associated with decreased risk of substance use in medical school. Future studies should examine this relation in greater depth.
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The World Health Organization considers depression as one of the leading causes of disability in the world. Even though studies in many parts of the world have reported an association between depression and spiritual coping, limited studies have been conducted among consecrated religious. The present cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the severity of depression and its association with spiritual coping among consecrated religious in the Catholic Diocese of Mtwara, Tanzania. Convenience sampling was used to obtain 192 participants. Self-report questionnaires which included Brief Religious/Spiritual Coping scale and Becks Depression Inventory-II scale were used to measure spiritual coping and depression respectively. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed that 48.5% of the participants had clinical. Also, the results shown an association between depression and negative spiritual coping (p=0.051). Keywords: Depression, spiritual coping, consecrated religious
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Zusammenfassung Der Beitrag beschreibt, wie Psychodrama als Verfahren innerhalb der religionspsychologischen Praxis empirisch eingesetzt werden kann, um religiöse/spirituelle Strukturen sichtbar bzw. religiöse/spirituelle Phänomene begreifbar zu machen. Hierbei gilt es, Religiosität bzw. Spiritualität als therapeutische Ressource herauszuarbeiten. Im Artikel werden zudem die religionspsychologischen Anteile des Psychodramas skizziert, die schließlich in Überlegungen zum Ritual und zur Katharsis münden. Die psychodramatische Lesung des ‚Zauberbergs‘ von vier Freimaurern dient hierbei als Fallbeispiel für die praktische Anwendung.
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Whereas previous research in the medical humanities has tended to neglect theology and religious studies, these disciplines sometimes have a very important contribution to make. The hearing of spiritually significant voices provides a case in point. The context, content and identity of these voices, all of which have typically not been seen as important in the assessment of auditory–verbal hallucinations (AVHs) within psychiatry, are key to understanding their spiritual significance. A taxonomy of spiritually significant voices is proposed, which takes into account frequency, context, affect and identity of the voice. In a predominantly Christian sample of 58 people who reported having heard spiritually significant voices, most began in adult life and were infrequent experiences. Almost 90% reported that the voice was divine in identity and approximately one-third were heard in the context of prayer. The phenomenological characteristics of these voices were different from those in previous studies of voice hearing (AVHs). Most comprised a single voice; half were auditory; and a quarter were more thought-like (the rest being a mixture). Only half were characterful, and one-third included commands or prompts. The voices were experienced positively and as meaningful. The survey has implications for both clinical and pastoral work. The phenomenology of spiritually significant voices may be confused with that of psychopathology, thus potentially leading to misdiagnosis of normal religious experiences. The finding of meaning in content and context may be important in voice hearing more widely, and especially in coping with negative or distressing voices.
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Maneviyat hem bireylerin içsel farkındalığı içinde hem de toplumun kümelerinde ve geleneklerinde otantik ve ortak bir yöndür. Sadece fiziksel, psikolojik ve duygusal olarak değil, tüm varoluş seviyelerinde sağlıklı bir yaşam sürmek için gereklidir. Varoluşçu yaklaşımın manevi unsurları dikkate alması, nihai soru olan “ben kimim?” ve “hayatımın anlamı ne?” gibi en derin içsel sorgulamalara cevap olmasından ötürü maneviyatla büyük ölçüde örtüştüğü söylenebilir. Madde bağımlılığını kontrol altına almayı hedefleyen “değişim” sürecinde en çok ön plana çıkan farkındalık olgusu, bilinçlenmek ve iç görü sahibi olmak için ilk basamağı oluşturmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı madde bağımlısı bireylerin değişim sürecindeki farkındalık öncesi ve farkındalık dönemlerindeki ihtiyaçlarını varoluşsal/manevi açıdan incelemektir. Söz konusu ihtiyaçları belirlemek amacıyla maneviyatın nasıl algılandığı ve yorumlandığı, maneviyatın madde bağımlısı bireyler için neyi ifade ettiği ve ne anlama geldiğini araştırmak amacıyla nitel araştırma yöntemi ve betimsel fenomenolojik desen seçilmiştir. Çalışma grubu olarak Ankara Numune Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi AMATEM Kliniği’nde madde kullanım bozukluğu teşhisiyle yatan hastalar tercih edilmiştir. Gerekli izinler alındıktan sonra AMATEM’de katılımsız gözlem ve ikili görüşmelerle araştırmaya başlanmıştır. Çalışma grubunu AMATEM’de yatılı tedavi gören, sesli veya yazılı kayıt alınmasına izin veren 14 madde bağımlısı birey oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma kapsamında gözlemler, ikili görüşmeler ve tema odaklı grup toplantıları gerçekleştirilmiştir. Toplanan veriler, içerik analizi tekniği ile çözümlenmiştir. Manevi ihtiyaçların bilinçli deneyimler üzerinden nasıl algılandığı ve yorumlandığı, bu yorumlardaki ortak yönlerin neler olduğu betimleyici fenomenolojik analiz ile keşfedilmeye çalışılmıştır. Özellikle kişilerin yaşadıkları tecrübeler, kişilerin maneviyata yükledikleri işlevler ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu nedenle kişilerin yaşadıkları öz deneyimler yakalanmaya çalışılmış, kişilerin yaşadıkları duygular ve yaşantılar varoluşçu yaklaşım ve maneviyat yaklaşımları çerçevesinde değerlendirilerek yorumlanmıştır. Madde bağımlısı bireylerin manevi ihtiyaçlarının belirlenmesinin öncelikle farkındalık ile olabileceği sonucuna varılmıştır. Bu sebeple, “değişimi gereksiz görme, kontrol edebileceğini düşünme ve maddeye ilişkin keyif gibi olumlu düşünceler” temalarının farkındalık öncesi döneme ilişkin mevcut durumu ortaya koyduğu görülmektedir. Farkındalık basamağına ilişkin olarak ise “değişimin önündeki engelleri fark etme, anlam bulma arayışı, yaşam hedefi arayışı, değişim ve arınma ihtiyacı” temalarına ulaşılmıştır. Hem farkındalık öncesi hem farkındalık basamağındaki temaların, geliştirilebilecek ölçek ve program çalışmalarına ışık tutacağı düşünülmektedir. Spirituality is both in the inner awareness of individuals; it is a characteristic, theoretically authentic, and common aspect of anthropological practice that has risen in both community clusters and traditions. Also, spirituality is essential to living a healthy life, not only physically, psychologically, and emotionally, but at all levels of existence. It can be said that the existentialist approach largely overlaps with spirituality, as it takes spiritual elements into account and responds to the deepest internal inquiries such as "who am I?" and "what is the meaning of my life?". The phenomenon of awareness, which stands out the most in the process of "change" that aims to control substance addiction, constitutes the first step towards awakening and insight. The aim of this study is to examine the needs of substance addicts in the process of change pre-awareness and during the awareness periods from an existential/spiritual perspective. In order to determine these needs, the qualitative research method and descriptive phenomenological design were chosen to investigate how spirituality is perceived and interpreted, what spirituality means, and what it means for substance addicts. Patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of substance use disorder in AMATEM Clinic in Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital were chosen as the study group. The study group consists of 14 substance addicts who were hospitalized in AMATEM and allowed audio or written recording. Observations, bilateral interviews and theme-focused group meetings were held within the scope of the research. The collected data were analyzed by content analysis method. How spiritual needs are perceived and interpreted through conscious experiences and what the common aspects are in these interpretations have been explored by descriptive phenomenological analysis. In particular, the experiences of individuals and the functions that people attribute to spirituality were tried to be revealed. For this reason, the self-experiences of individuals were tried to be captured, the emotions and experiences of them were evaluated and interpreted within the framework of the existentialist and spirituality approaches. It was concluded that the determination of the spiritual needs of substance addicts can be primarily based on awareness. For this reason, it is seen that the themes of “seeing the change as unnecessary, thinking it can be controlled, and positive thoughts about the substance” reveal the current situation in the pre-awareness period. Regarding the level of awareness, the themes of “recognizing the obstacles to change, seeking the meaning, the search for a life goal, the need for change and purification” were reached. It is thought that the themes in both pre-awareness and awareness levels will shed light on scale and program studies both of which will have been developed.
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Although spirituality has been considered a protective factor against shopping addiction, the mechanisms involved in this relationship are still poorly recognized. The present study aims to test the association of daily spiritual experiences, self-efficacy, and gender with shopping addiction. The sample consisted of 430 young adults (275 women and 155 men), with a mean age of 20.44 (SD = 1.70). The Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale were used to measure the study variables. The results showed that: (1) Daily spiritual experiences had a direct negative effect on shopping addiction; (2) daily spiritual experiences were positively related to self-efficacy, thought the effect was moderated by gender; (3) self-efficacy negatively correlated with a shopping addiction; and (4) the indirect effect of daily spiritual experiences on shopping addiction through self-efficacy was significant for women but insignificant for men. The findings confirm that spirituality protects young adults against developing a shopping addiction. They also suggest that when introducing spiritual issues into shopping addiction prevention or treatment programs, the gender-specific effects of spirituality on shopping addiction via self-efficacy should be considered to adequately utilize young women’s and men’s spiritual resources.
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Critical pastoral theology has no doubt come to recognize the significance of social formations in the crisis of addiction as a symptom of suffering. This article suggests that how we understand and describe these social formations matters. It argues that our most common approaches to addiction risk reproducing forms of domination via an incomplete notion of freedom in their attempt to clarify the exceptional status of addiction. This can function to obscure the capitalist nature of addiction and the addictive nature of capitalism undergirding our everyday lives. The author argues that addiction is itself a symptomatic expression of capitalist social formations; not merely an individual pathology, addiction names the way our social attachments to objects and to one another become compulsive despite their negative consequences. This critical concept of addiction allows us to see, name, and negate the false promises on which the endurance of capitalism depends. The ultimate aim of this critical approach is to consider how we as caregivers might reflect on and transform these dominating social divisions.
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This chapter introduces Rogers’ Availability and Vulnerability framework which has been developed to help APNs operationalise spirituality. Spirituality is innately human and is influenced by the context we work in and how we emotionally engage with those in our care. Spirituality can be simply integrated into APN practice and operationalised through availability and vulnerability. Working in this way enables spirituality to be addressed on a practical level. Several examples from practice illustrate aspects of the framework.
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This chapter presents spirituality in advanced practice nursing within the African context. Because the Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) role has only been recently formalised in a few countries in Africa, it is difficult to find a system-wide case study of the integration of spiritual aspects of care into APN consultation. As a result, the author explored individual patient encounters by APNs that involved issues of spirituality in some countries where APNs are formalised. Spirituality is part of everyday life of an African. Illness is often perceived as a form of suffering or punishment in a typical African society and is often attributed to a supernatural source. Africans are highly religious and associates spirituality with a deity (spirit). APN programmes are being established on the continent through the advocacy of various leaders and academics. It is essential that spirituality, as a component of holistic care, is built into curricula to ensure that future APNs are competent in spirituality and the provision of spiritual.
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Özet: Son yıllarda maneviyatın sosyal hizmet bilimi ve uygulamalarına dahil edilmesinin önemi anlaşılmaya başlanmıştır. Bu açıdan sosyal hizmette bireyi bütüncül/holistik perspektifle değerlendirmede onun manevi boyutunun da ele alınması tam iyilik halini sağlamada doğru bir yaklaşım olacaktır. Ülkemizde sosyal hizmet biliminde manevi değerlendirme yöntemleri ve uygulamalarına dair yeterli bilgiye ve kaynağa ulaşılmamış olması, bireyi bütüncül değerlendirmede önemli bir rolü olan manevi değerlendirme yöntemlerine dair yeterli bilgiye ulusal yazında ulaşılmaması bu araştırmanın yürütülmesindeki temel gayedir. Araştırmanın problemi; dünyada manevi sosyal hizmet uygulamalarında manevi değerlendirmenin nasıl yapılacağı ve hangi değerlendirme yöntemlerinin kullanıldığını incelemek ve sosyal hizmet müdahale ve uygulamalarında en yaygın kullanılan manevi değerlendirme yöntemlerini ve araçlarını ortaya koymaktır. Türkiye’de, sosyal hizmet alanında manevi ihtiyaçlara yönelik uygulamaların yetersiz olması nedeniyle dünyada öne çıkan sosyal hizmet uygulama örneklerini incelemek önem arz etmektedir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışma, sosyal hizmet alanında önemli bir boşluğu dolduracak ve literatüre katkı sağlayacaktır.Araştırmanın amacı; sosyal hizmet müdahalelerinde kullanılacak olan manevi değerlendirme yöntemlerinin incelenmesidir. Bu çalışmada uluslararası literatür taranarak manevi değerlendirme yöntem ve araç önerilerinin getirilmiş olması, araştırmanın özgünlüğünü ortaya koymaktadır.Araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden durum çalışması kullanılmış ve nitel veri toplama araçlarından döküman analizi kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu kapsamda manevi değerlendirme yöntemlerine dair uluslararası literatür taranmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre dünyada en çok kullanılan manevi değerlendirme yöntemleri; açık/kısa değerlendirme, örtük değerlendirme, kapsamlı değerlendirme ve endirekt/dolaylı değerlendirme olarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca manevi değerlendirme ölçekleri olarak da Maneviyat ve Manevi Bakım Ölçeği, Manevi Bakım Yeterlilik Ölçeği, Manevi Bakım Verme Ölçeği, Hastaların Manevi İhtiyaçlarını Değerlendirme Ölçeği, Manevi Bakım Algıları ve Uygulamaları Ölçeği uluslararası yayınlanan ve Türkçe’ye uyarlanan ölçekler olarak tespit edilmiştir. Manevi değerlendirmede kullanılan yerli ölçekler ise, Manevi Destek Algısı Ölçeği, Manevi Yönelim Ölçeği, Manevi Bakım Gereksinim Ölçeği, SHUMDR Ölçeği ve Maneviyat Ölçekleridir. Anahtar kelimeler: Manevi sosyal hizmet, Manevi müdahale, Manevi değerlendirme Abstract: In recent years, the importance of incorporating spirituality into social work science and social work practice has begun to be understood. In this respect, it would be a correct approach to evaluate the individual with a holistic perspective in social work, and to consider his spiritual dimension as well. The main purpose of this research is that there is not sufficient information and resources about spiritual assessment methods and practices in social work science in our country, and that there is not sufficient information about spiritual assessment methods, which have an important role in the holistic assessment of the individual in the national literature.The problem of the research is to examine which assessment methods are used in spiritual assessment in social work in the world and to reveal the most widely used spiritual assessment methods and tools in social work interventions and practices. It is important to examine the examples of social work practices that come to the fore in the world due to the inadequacy of practices for spiritual needs in the field of social work in Turkey. Therefore, the study will fill an important gap in the field of social work and contribute to the literature. Purpose of the research is the examination of spiritual assessment methods to be used in social work interventions. In the study, the fact that spiritual assessment method and tool suggestions were brought by scanning the international literature reveals the originality of the research. Case study, one of the qualitative research methods was used in the research and it was carried out using document analysis, one of the qualitative data collection tools. In this context, the international literature on spiritual evaluation practices was reviewed. According to the findings, the most used spiritual assessment methods in the world were found as; explicit/short assessment, implicit assessment, comprehensive assessment and indirect assessment. In addition, Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale, Spiritual Care-Competence Scale, Spiritual Care- Giving Scale, Patients’ Spiritual Needs Assessment Scale, Spiritual Care Perceptions and Practices Scale were found as international published scales adapted into Turkish. National scales used in spiritual assessment were found as Spiritual Support Perception Scale, Spiritual Orientation Scale, Spiritual Care Needs Scale, SHUMDR Scale and Spirituality Scales. Keywords: Spiritual social work, Spiritualintervention, Spiritual assessment
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The importance of spirituality as a research topic has been increasingly recognized, which has led to several studies on the topic. Areas including psychology, medicine, and nursing have produced studies on spirituality under a plurality of definitions and methods, which reveals the complexity of the theme. However, this has resulted in a range of potential problems, including: (1) the use of overlapping and contradictory terms between studies, or even within the same study, (2) research methodologies that do not fit the definitions (sometimes unreflectively) assumed by the authors, (3) difficulties, or even the impossibility, of comparing the results of studies, (4) controversies in respect of the inclusion/exclusion of secular groups in research on spirituality, and (5) ambiguous measurements, often being exclusively dependent on each participant's individual interpretation of what spirituality means. This article discusses these problems, recommends theoretical and methodological alternatives and presents a taxonomy of definitions of spirituality.
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In the light of the increasing recognition of the relevance of spirituality in person‐centred, holistic care, this study examines the attitudes of a convenience sample of mental health practitioners, including nurses, to the concepts of spirituality in general and in clinical practice. A series of 5‐point Likert‐style items assessed two key domains of spirituality in everyday life (SEDL) and spirituality in practice (SIP). The questionnaire was derived from one previously used with healthcare educators (including nurses). Each item was scored from 1 point (strongly disagree) to 5 points (strongly agree). Additional information about how far practitioners believed spirituality had been integrated in their education and how much they believed that spirituality related to religion was also ascertained. Three further items, not part of the main questionnaire, dealt with respondents’ views of spirituality competent practice, in the light of a description provided as part of the questionnaire. Data were collected from 104 respondents. Standard statistical procedures, including reliability analyses, were applied to the data. Respondents who viewed spirituality to be distinct from religion, or a place of worship, were likely to place a higher value on spirituality in everyday life, while respondents who experienced the integration of spirituality within their preregistration training and/or clinical education were likely to place a higher value on the place of spirituality in practice. The possible reasons for these associations are discussed in the light of the importance of spiritual care as a part of person‐centred, holistic practice.
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Explores ways in which Alcoholic Anonymous's (AA's) spirituality can be understood. Topics explored range from Jungian and Jamesian psychology, to Stoicism, the work of G. Bateson (1971), and transpersonal psychology and therapy. It is speculated that the difficulty some mental health counselors have in accepting AA as a viable form of therapeutic change could be due to unsophisticated terminology and counselors' lack of familiarity with relevant literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Buddhist doctrines deal in detail with craving and attachment, how they arise, the forms they take, their results, and also how they can be managed. This and Buddhist emphasis on impermanence makes these doctrines pertinent to theories of the causation and mechanisms of addictions and to possible therapies. Certain Buddhist teachings relevant to addictions are presented within the context of the Four Noble Truths and similarities are drawn to contemporary approaches. As well as being helpful for treating Buddhist clients such a framework may provide a spiritual but non-theistic alternative for those who reject the theism implicit in the twelve-step philosophy. Directions for research include exploring changing ethical behaviour and the use of meditation both as an adjunct to orthodox treatment and as a means of self-change within this framework.
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Cluster analyzed four variables: school attendance, employment, church attendance, and delinquency, to develop life-style profiles. Data from 218 African-American urban adolescents were used in the study. Five meaningful clusters were retained and subjected to criterion validity analyses using measures of spirituality, participation in a voluntary organization, self-esteem, and friend's substance use. The five clusters were then compared on cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use. The results suggest that a life-style that includes an adaptive compensatory behavior component may be more adaptive than a life-style that does not include compensatory behavior. For example, youths who left high school before graduation but were involved in church reported less alcohol and substance use than youths who left school and were not involved in any meaningful instrumental activity. Implications for intervention and future research on high-risk behaviors are discussed.
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Identifying relevant studies is “the most fundamental challenge” when compiling a systematic review.1 Electronic databases, such as Medline, may detect only about half of papers identified by the gold standard of hand searching journals.1 Hand searching requires a focus, usually the specialist literature,2 which may not exist for newly developed fields or those that cross boundaries with other areas. We examined the usefulness of contacting other experts when searching for relevant references for a systematic review of a field where such a specialist focus does not exist. View this table: Results of various types of search As part of a systematic review undertaken in 1996, all published literature relating to “near patient testing” (any investigation performed in a clinical setting where the result is available without a sample being sent to a laboratory for analysis) in primary care was identified for 1986-95.3 Electronic databases were searched and secondary citations were collected from identified publications (see table). The search strategy is reported elsewhere.3 Indexes of abstracts from major international …
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Art therapy is a fascinating and powerful tool found helpful in the treatment of alcoholism and other forms of chemical dependency. After defining what art therapy is, the author discusses the value of art therapy for the chemically dependent client. Finally, the author discusses how art therapy is used in the Chemical Dependency Center at The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to help clients explore their spirituality.
BACKGROUND: The social support network and spiritual orientation of Alcoholics Anonymous were significant predictors of the choice of this study's sample of 125 sober alcoholic women to actively participate in Alcoholics Anonymous for at least 1 year. Religious affiliation is another choice that a woman may make in seeking to know herself in sobriety. OBJECTIVE: The first objective of these ancillary analyses was to determine whether either length of sobriety or number of weekly meetings attended was correlated to power as knowing participation in change, perceived social support, and spirituality. The second objective was to determine whether there was a difference in spirituality between women who actively participated in their religion and those who did not. DESIGN: This correlational study was designed to explore relations among power as knowing participation in change, social support, spirituality, length of sobriety, and number of weekly meetings attended. These research questions were answered by using hierarchical multiple regressions and a t test. RESULTS: The number of Alcoholics Anonymous meetings attended weekly contributed significantly to power and to spirituality. Length of sobriety was not correlated with any of the three major variables. Spirituality scores were also significantly higher for those who were actively involved in their religion than for those who were not. CONCLUSIONS: The significant difference among the findings in the conceptualization of time emphasizes the needfor a continuing connection with a group ofpeers. Also, the role of organized religion in spiritual orientation was demonstrated.
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This study deals with environmental and behavioural factors that play a role in the recovery from addictive behaviours. Two primary questions are asked: To what extent the factors influential in resolving addictive behaviours and the means of maintaining the change differ by addictions, and to what extent the former factors predict the latter? Subjects (n=76, 38 women) who had managed to resolve their addiction and maintain the change for more than three years were recruited by newspaper ads. The sample included addictions to alcohol (26), multiple substances (16), nicotine (15), binge eating (11), and other (8), which included sex, gambling and benzodiazepine. The mean time of recovery was 9.3 years. Two types of factor analyses were used to define factors that played a role in resolving the problem and in maintaining the change. Seven change factors and four maintenance factors were supported by both methods. The change factors were: Tiring Out, Love, 12 Steps, Revival, Family, Social Consequences, and Peer Group change. The maintenance factors were: Self-Control, Professional Treatment, 12 Steps and Spirituality, as well as Social and Cognitive Coping. Significant (p
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Since 1959 Wat Thamkrabok, a Buddhist monastery in Thailand, has been conducting a drug addiction rehabilitation program which claims a 70% success rate. The program is known for its use of unconventional methods, such as inducing vomiting to relieve ‘cravings’ for drugs, herbal saunas, strict discipline, an emphasis on Buddhism, and a sacred vow to never again use drugs. This is a descriptive study based on observations and interviews (mostly with foreigners) made at the monastery. While it was not possible to evaluate claims of success, there were several interesting aspects of the program which emerged. Vomiting was reported to be effective in reducing “craving,” and participants seemed to have a positive regard for the program, but there were some serious concerns raised about health risks and the coercive nature of the program.
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“Sarah's” story is a true account of one individual's healing from the trauma of childhood sexual abuse through counseling, spiritual growth, and the use of therapeutic ritual. The article explores the relationship between the psychospiritual issues associated with childhood sexual abuse and commonly designated treatment goals. Addressing psychospiritual issues is shown to be the key to achieving assimilation and healing. Ritual therapy is suggested as a method for helping clients accomplish this task through the discovery of metameaning. A description of Sarah's therapeutic ritual is offered as a model for treatment design, and its efficacy in Sarah's case is evaluated.
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Using the principle of metacommunication, the evolution of humanity's relationship with God is described as a process of 8 stages, culminating in a systemic view of God as the "between" or relatedness. It is noted that family therapists are in a position to use God as a resource in their work. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) was one of the first self-help groups to distinguish between spirituality and religion, and AA exemplifies how a self-help group can catalyze changes not usually accessible in therapy. This process is a function of AA's theology and the specific manner in which members relate to each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Contends that spirituality and self-esteem are often neglected or misunderstood concepts in the treatment of alcoholics. One's spirit can either be malevolent or vital, and alcoholics typically feel either cynical or lifeless. Self-esteem can also be positive or negative, and alcoholics have generally abdicated their responsibility for this choice. It is suggested that the process of reestablishing a positive spirituality and a healthy self-esteem involves separating spirituality from concepts of formal religion; having alcoholics recognize their negative, caustic views of themselves and the world; identifying the regulating mechanism of self-esteem; removing blocks to healthy psychological functioning; instilling hope and developing positive processes for controlling one's view of self and the world; and accepting the choice and responsibility to live with reality on a daily, creative basis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Codependent persons are individuals who, through learned behavior, become so inordinately focused upon or preoccupied with living for the significant people in their lives that they neglect the constant unfolding of their own unique lives. Codependent persons typically direct themselves to become what their significant others want them to be and then strive to conform to that image. To overcome the obstacles of codependency is an interdisciplinary task. The most effective treatment for this disease rests in a balanced program of psychotherapy, group support, and spiritual direction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
David M. Wulff deftly integrates world-wide theoretical, empirical, and clinical literatures into a thorough examination of the world's major religious traditions. Bridging the gulf between empirical and interpretive approaches, this finely crafted text presents a balanced assessment of all major perspectives and encourages critical thinking. Dr. Wulff not only cites the most important German and French studies, but includes significant contributions from many other parts of the world—including material virtually unknown in the United States. This genuinely comprehensive introduction to the field is organized according to two basic trends: the objective viewpoint, which approaches religion with the tools of experimental and correlational psychology, and the subjective perspective which applies the viewpoints of the depth, existential-phenomenological, and humanistic psychologies. Throughout, Dr. Wulff includes material from diverse religious traditions which provide a more inclusive and balanced view of religion while promoting a more comprehensive psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of this article is to give a full and detailed exposition of the fourth and fifth steps of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), stressing their special application to the treatment modality. Alcoholism is a disease that affects the whole human being - physical, mental and emotional (i.e., the spiritual self). Although alcoholism is being addressed in this article, the treatment and recovery discovered in the 12 Steps is applicable to other compulsive and obsessive addictions, such as other drug dependencies, eating disorders, gambling and sex. Because of the social, religious and environmental misunderstandings that surround this disease, the guilt, shame and acute feelings of isolation need to be recognized and dealt with during the patient's stay at a treatment center. It is essential for recovery and long-term sobriety that the patient learn to 'dump' his/her guilt and express feelings of anger, resentment, embarrassment and despair.
Article
This study examines the relationship between spirituality and recovery from alcoholism. Spirituality was defined as the extent of practice of Alcoholics Anonymous Steps 11 and 12 and was measured by a Step Questionnaire developed by the researcher. Step 11 suggests prayer and meditation and Step 12 suggests assistance of other alcoholics. Expressed degree of purpose in life was also seen as a reflection of spirituality. It was postulated that the extent to which Steps 11 and 12 were practiced would be positively correlated with the extent of purpose in life reported by 100 Alcoholics Anonymous members. The major findings of this study are significant positive correlations between practice of Step 11 and purpose in life scores (r = .59, p < .001) and between Step 11 and length of sobriety (r = .25, p < .01). Number of Alcoholics Anonymous meetings attended was significantly correlated with purpose in life scores (r = .24, p < .01) and length of sobriety (r = .25, p < .01). These findings suggest that a sense of purpose in life increases with continuing sobriety and practice of the spiritual principles of Alcoholics Anonymous.
Article
An experience in developing a treatment program of addiction in an Arabic Muslim Society. The three major waves of knowledge and methodology are reviewed in historical perspective. General description of Al Amal Hospital, Dammam, K.S.A, and the three phases which the hospital treatment program underwent. Drug therapy was the main line of treatment in the first phase, which resulted in a massive consumption of controlled drugs exposing patients to iatrogenic dependence. The second phase introduced a wider concept of treatment using a bio-psycho-social model in the context of the 12 steps program of the AA. This approach did not reflect positively on patients' care due to the resistance of both patients and staff. The third phase addressed the causes of this resistance and formulated the basis for a comprehensive treatment program for addiction that relies on a clear philosophy and defined treatment stages. A multitude of treatment components were introduced and monitored by a daily clinical program audit. During the three phases, hospital records showed a progressive decrease in the amount of medications consumed (> 90%) and dropouts (24%-2.8%). The overall number of patients completing the treatment program markedly increased and although the average daily census dropped, there was, in fact, an increase in the number of voluntary patients.
Article
This study describes the development and outcome of a new treatment programme for the management of heroin addiction in Bahrain. The problem reached its peak in the early 1980s with several reported deaths and with the involvement of many disciplines in the overall response. In 1983, treatment of all addicts was restricted by law to the government psychiatric hospital. The newly established specialized drug unit was overwhelmed by the number of patients seeking treatment. The lack of sufficient resources and suitably trained staff forced the unit to adopt an outpatient maintenance therapy approach for most of its clients. In 1987, a new comprehensive treatment programme was introduced that relies on a clear philosophy, safe detoxification (using objective scales for withdrawal manifestations) rather than maintenance therapy, followed by psychological and social rehabilitation. A national committee for drug addiction was formed and an intensive programme of education was started at all levels. The results indicate an initial increase at inpatient level but a marked drop of outpatient attendance. The use of the Opioid Objective Withdrawal Manifestations Scale (OOWMS) revealed that only a small number of our patients developed moderate or severe signs of withdrawal that required detoxification, and the rate of dispensed controlled medication was reduced by 99%. The effect of this approach is discussed, with special reference to the need for a collaborative effort from all disciplines in planning, implementing, continuously evaluating and modifying the national programmes for handling the serious problem of addiction.
Article
Since 1959 Wat Thamkrabok, a Buddhist monastery in Thailand, has been conducting a drug addiction rehabilitation program which claims a 70% success rate. The program is known for its use of unconventional methods, such as inducing vomiting to relieve "cravings" for drugs, herbal saunas, strict discipline, an emphasis on Buddhism, and a sacred vow to never again use drugs. This is a descriptive study based on observations and interviews (mostly with foreigners) made at the monastery. While it was not possible to evaluate claims of success, there were several interesting aspects of the program which emerged. Vomiting was reported to be effective in reducing "craving," and participants seemed to have a positive regard for the program, but there were some serious concerns raised about health risks and the coercive nature of the program.
Article
Twelve-step programs have stressed the importance of spiritual practices for over four decades. The spiritual principles embodied in the twelve-step programs may be key in their success of recovering addicts/alcoholics with an overall recovery rate of 34%. A literature search revealed little available data on spiritual principles and practices and their effects on long-term recovery from substance abuse. This study compared two groups of recovering addicts, those with one year of recovery and those with less than one year and a history of relapse. Spiritual practices were measured using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. The results of the study indicated a relationship between spiritual practices and long-term recovery from substance abuse.
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Editor—I agree with Culliford that knowing your patients better makes for a better therapeutic relationship.1 Often—for example, in terminal care or when physical measures do not have an impact on any disease—being able to relate in “wider” terms can increase the potential for healing. But I disagree with Culliford on the question of methodology. Most religions and other arenas of spirituality use ritualised gestures, incantations, prayers, symbolism, and rites. Unless you believe that these processes have effects through a perceived extracorporeal being, power, or energy, the effect is presumed to come from within patients themselves. But the placebo effect is inherently based on its own camouflage. Once you know you're taking placebo then the magic is lost. The entire effect is dependent on your “faith” in the procedure. Although I might deliberately use the placebo effect in my pharmacological treatment of patients, is it not an unethical deceit for me to portray a facade of spirituality for their benefit when I don't believe it myself? If that is true then what is Culliford suggesting? Might it be that my deficiencies as a non-believer translate into deficiencies as a doctor? Perhaps I don't really want an answer to that.
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