Horizontal gene transfer and archaeal origin of deoxyhypusine synthase homologous genes in bacteria

Equipe Phylogénomique, Université Aix-Marseille I, 3 Place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3, France.
Gene (Impact Factor: 2.14). 05/2004; 330(1):169-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2004.01.018
Source: PubMed


The initiation factor 5A (IF-5A) of archaea and eukaryotes undergoes an unusual post-translational modification consisting of the transformation of a specific conserved lysine residue into the amino acid hypusine. This occurs in a two-step reaction catalysed by the enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. Bacteria do not have IF-5A but only a very distant homologue, the elongation factor P (EF-P). Consequently, all bacteria appeared to also lack genes with significant homology to DHS genes. However, we have carried out BLAST searches and found DHS-like genes in a number of bacterial species. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences strongly suggests that they have been acquired from archaea by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Our analysis also suggests, although with weaker support, that a single HGT event from archaea, followed by several HGT between bacterial species, accounts for the patchy distribution of DHS-like genes in bacteria. The activity of these genes in bacteria is enigmatic, since we have not found any evidence of interaction between this protein and the bacterial EF-P. Nevertheless, we cannot discard that it exists, since it appears that the interaction between the DHS and its natural substrate, the IF-5A, is rather weak. This is exemplified by the fact that, in archaea, the complex evolutionary history of the DHS is not paralleled by that of the IF-5A, indicating that these proteins do not follow a perfect co-evolution.

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    • "In common with Plasmodium vivax [53] and most other eukaryotic pathogens, human [54], yeast [55] and archea [56], a single DHS sequence was identified in the C. parvum genome database ( These groups are different from Leishmania, Trypanosoma [21] and Entamoeba genomes which have two DHS gene copies. "
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    ABSTRACT: The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes severe enteric infection and diarrheal disease with substantial morbidity and mortality in untreated AIDS patients and children in developing or resource-limited countries. No fully effective treatment is available. Hypusination of eIF5A is an important post-translational modification essential for cell proliferation. This modification occurs in a two step process catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) followed by deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. An ORF of 1086bp was identified in the C. parvum (Cp) genome which encodes for a putative polypeptide of 362 amino acids. The recombinant CpDHS protein was purified to homogeneity and used to probe the enzyme's mechanism, structure, and inhibition profile in a series of kinetic experiments. Sequence analysis and structural modeling of CpDHS were performed to probe differences with respect to the DHS of other species. Unlike Leishmania, Trypanosomes and Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium contains only a single gene for DHS. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CpDHS is more closely related to apicomplexan DHS than kinetoplastid DHS. Important residues that are essential for the functioning of the enzyme including NAD(+) binding residues, spermidine binding residues and the active site lysine are conserved between CpDHS and human DHS. N(1)-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7), a potent inhibitor of DHS caused an effective inhibition of infection and growth of C. parvum in HCT-8 cells.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
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    • "d Archaea [ Bartig et al . , 1990 ; Park et al . , 1997 ] . Bacteria do not have IF5A and / or deoxyhypusine and hypusine [ Bartig et al . , 1990 ; Park et al . , 1997 ; Kyrpides and Woese , 1998 ] . Although some bacterial taxa contain genes related to the DHS - like homospermidine synthase genes , these appear not to have functional importance [ Brochier et al . , 2004 ] . Replicate sediment samples collected at all of the sites were added with 1 mM GC 7 . Additional replicate samples collected at selected sites were also added with 0 . 1 and 2 mM GC 7 ."
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    ABSTRACT: [1] Previous studies have provided evidence that dark inorganic carbon fixation is an important process for the functioning of the ocean interior. However, its quantitative relevance and ecological significance in benthic deep-sea ecosystems remain unknown. We investigated the rates of inorganic carbon fixation together with prokaryotic abundance, biomass, assemblage composition, and heterotrophic carbon production in surface sediments of different benthic deep-sea systems along the Iberian margin (northeastern Atlantic Ocean) and in the Mediterranean Sea. Inorganic carbon fixation rates in these surface deep-sea sediments did not show clear depth-related patterns, and, on average, they accounted for 19% of the total heterotrophic biomass production. The incorporation rates of inorganic carbon were significantly related to the abundance of total Archaea (as determined by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization) and completely inhibited using an inhibitor of archaeal metabolism, N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane. This suggests a major role of the archaeal assemblages in inorganic carbon fixation. We also show that benthic archaeal assemblages contribute approximately 25% of the total 3H-leucine incorporation. Inorganic carbon fixation in surface deep-sea sediments appears to be dependent not only upon chemosynthetic processes but also on heterotrophic/mixotrophic metabolism, as suggested by estimates of the chemolithotrophic energy requirements and the enhanced inorganic carbon fixation due to the increase in the availability of organic trophic resources. Overall, our data suggest that archaeal assemblages of surface deep-sea sediments are responsible for the high rates of inorganic carbon incorporation and thereby sustain the functioning of the food webs as well as influence the carbon cycling of benthic deep-sea ecosystems.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013
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    • "On the contrary, there is no evidence for the occurrence of deoxyhypusine or hypusine in eubacteria. However, phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of DHS-cognate genes in several bacterial species [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) catalyzes the final step in the post-translational synthesis of an unusual amino acid hypusine (N(€)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl) lysine), which is present on only one cellular protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). We present here the molecular and structural basis of the function of DOHH from the protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, which causes visceral leishmaniasis. The L. donovani DOHH gene is 981 bp and encodes a putative polypeptide of 326 amino acids. DOHH is a HEAT-repeat protein with eight tandem repeats of α-helical pairs. Four conserved histidine-glutamate sequences have been identified that may act as metal coordination sites. A ~42 kDa recombinant protein with a His-tag was obtained by heterologous expression of DOHH in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant DOHH effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of the intermediate, eIF5A-deoxyhypusine (eIF5A-Dhp), in vitro. L. donovani DOHH (LdDOHH) showed ~40.6% sequence identity with its human homolog. The alignment of L. donovani DOHH with the human homolog shows that there are two significant insertions in the former, corresponding to the alignment positions 159-162 (four amino acid residues) and 174-183 (ten amino acid residues) which are present in the variable loop connecting the N- and C-terminal halves of the protein, the latter being present near the substrate binding site. Deletion of the ten-amino-acid-long insertion decreased LdDOHH activity to 14% of the wild type recombinant LdDOHH. Metal chelators like ciclopirox olamine (CPX) and mimosine significantly inhibited the growth of L. donovani and DOHH activity in vitro. These inhibitors were more effective against the parasite enzyme than the human enzyme. This report, for the first time, confirms the presence of a complete hypusine pathway in a kinetoplastid unlike eubacteria and archaea. The structural differences between the L. donovani DOHH and the human homolog may be exploited for structure based design of selective inhibitors against the parasite.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · PLoS ONE
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