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A randomized controlled trial comparing surgical termination of pregnancy with and without continuous ultrasound guidance

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Abstract

Approximately 50 million abortions are performed worldwide each year, and the majority of them are surgical terminations of pregnancy (STOP). Therefore, the safety of this procedure is a global public health concern. It is not known whether routine use of intraoperative ultrasound guidance improves the outcome of first trimester STOP. To investigate whether surgical termination of pregnancy in the first trimester with continuous ultrasound guidance is safer than the conventional procedure without ultrasound guidance. A randomized controlled trial. A teaching hospital in London, UK. Participants: Women undergoing STOP in the first trimester. Intervention: Participants were randomized to have the procedure with or without continuous ultrasound guidance. The primary outcome measures were intraoperative and short-term complications (anaesthetic complication, haemorrhage, ongoing pregnancy, cervical trauma, uterine perforation, need for laparoscopy and/or laparotomy, repeat evacuation, and infection). The secondary outcomes were the blood loss, procedure time, and convalescence time. A total of 230 women (115 in each arm of the trial) participated in the study. Follow-up data were available for analysis in all but 15 (8 in control group and 7 in intervention group) cases. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The overall complication rate was 9.8 percent. STOP under ultrasound guidance had a complication rate of 3.7% (4/108) in comparison to 15.9% (17/107) without ultrasound (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.67). Intraoperative ultrasound guidance also had a statistically significant beneficial effect in reducing the blood loss, procedure time, and convalescence time. STOP in the first trimester under continuous ultrasound guidance was associated with a lower rate of complications than the conventional procedure without ultrasound.

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... Intraoperative US (IOUS) has become increasingly common across a wide range of specialties since its introduction in 1961 to facilitate the detection of renal calculi [2]. It has since been used within the field of gynecology to facilitate various operations from procedures as minor as removing a lost contraceptive implant [3][4][5] or intrauterine device [6], to more complex, invasive procedures including surgical termination of pregnancy, hysteroscopy and laparoscopic myomectomy [7][8][9]. More recent developments in US technology have resulted in greatly enhanced image quality and real-time IOUS has become increasingly utilized within the gynecological setting. ...
... Dilation and curettage (D&C), with or without suction/vacuum aspiration, is a frequently performed gynecological procedure, making its safety paramount [7,10]. However, it is historically carried out blindly with an early complication rate of approximately 6% [12]. ...
... The group with US guidance demonstrated significantly reduced rates of infection, retained products of conception requiring repeat evacuation procedure, intra-and post-operative blood loss, procedure duration and convalescence time. The study concluded that eight patients required US guidance to prevent one additional complication (95% CI: 5-23) [7]. ...
Article
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Ultrasound is a readily available, safe and portable imaging modality that is widely applied in gynecology. However, there is limited guidance for its use intra-operatively especially with complex gynecological procedures. This narrative review examines the existing literature published on the use of intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) in benign gynecology and in gynecological oncology. We searched for the following terms: ‘intraoperative,’ ‘ultrasonography,’ ‘gynecology’ and ‘oncology’ using Pubmed/Medline. IOUS can minimize complications and facilitate difficult benign gynecological procedures. There is also a role for its use in gynecological oncology surgery and fertility-sparing surgery. The use of IOUS in gynecological surgery is an emerging field which improves visualization in the surgical field and aids completion of minimally invasive techniques.
... Operative time was calculated from the start of instrument introduction after cervical dilatation to the end of the procedure. Significant uterine bleeding was considered if blood loss was more than 500 ml [10]. Uterine infection (endometritis) was suspected if the temperature increased (38 °C on at least two occasions) or with the presence of abnormal vaginal discharge and pelvic tenderness. ...
... Furthermore, Capmas et al. [21] found that hysteroscopic removal of retained conception products is an efficient alternative procedure as regards removing the entire uterine contents, less incidence of postoperative intrauterine adhesions and preserving the fertility rate. Our results also agreed with Acharya et al. [10], who concluded that intra-operative ultrasound is associated with a significant decrease in the complication rate of surgical management for early pregnancy loss. ...
Article
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Objective We aimed to evaluate the hysteroscopic management of first-trimester pregnancy loss compared to surgical evacuation either blind or under ultrasonographic guidance‎. Methods This clinical trial included ‎315 women with first-trimester pregnancy loss, divided equally into three groups. Group 1 underwent traditional blind surgical evacuation, group 2 underwent ultrasound-guided evacuation, and group 3 underwent hysteroscopic management. All women were assessed for retained products, surgical complications, the need for further management, and pregnancy occurrence after evacuation within 2 years of follow up. Results The rate of presence of conception remnants and the need for further ‎treatment was significantly higher in group 1 compared to groups 2 and 3 (4.8% vs. 0% vs. 0%, P = 0.012). The conception rate within 2 years was significantly lower in group 1 compared to groups 2 and 3 (57.4% vs. 73.2% vs. 82.7%, P = 0.002), and the duration needed to conceive was significantly prolonged in group 1 compared to groups 2 and 3 (9.8 vs. 8.3 vs. 6.9 months, P < 0.001). Interestingly, women who underwent hysteroscopic management needed a significantly shorter time to conceive than those who underwent ultrasound-guided evacuation‎ (6.9 vs. 8.3 months, P = 0.006). Conclusions Hysteroscopic management of first-trimester pregnancy loss was superior to ultrasound-guided surgical evacuation regarding the time interval to conceive. Both techniques were superior to the blind evacuation technique regarding removal of the whole conception remnants, need for further treatment and fertility outcomes. Clinical trial registration : It was first registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 16/03/2017 with registration number NCT03081104.
... 21 The use of intraoperative ultrasound during evacuation procedures has been shown to decrease the creation of false passages within the endocervix during cervical dilation, perforation of the uterus during sounding or dilation, and retained products of conception postprocedure. 25 Sharp curettage, often performed after The use of MVA in the clinical setting was predicted to decrease procedural costs because it can be performed without the use of general or spinal anesthesia and uses inexpensive, reusable instrumentation that can be autoclaved. ...
... It is also associated with less intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, a shorter operative time, and less postoperative NSAID use. 25 In the United States, pelvic infections occur in 0.5% to 5% of patients following suction curettage and infection rates are not associated with the evacuation approach (MVA or EVA). 27 A meta-analysis of 12 studies involving women with surgical evacuation prior to 16 weeks of gestation reported the overall RR for postprocedure infections in women receiving antibiotics was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.47-0.71) ...
Article
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MANAGEMENT OF FIRST TRIMESTER PREGNANCY LOSS HAS CONVENTIONALLY INVOLVED TWO OPTIONS: expectant management or dilation and curettage in the operating room. New options in the outpatient setting are providing women with alternatives that can be less expensive and performed in more private settings. This review discusses the available approaches to expectant, medical, and surgical management of first trimester loss and the comparative efficacy of each method.
... Ultrasound guidance during abortion has been evaluated by two studies. In a randomized, controlled trial in a teaching hospital in the UK, hemorrhage and overall blood loss in cases with ultrasound and in those without were compared [55]. Defining hemorrhage as greater than 500 ml blood loss, the study found no difference in hemorrhage with use of ultrasound. ...
... Five cases of re-aspiration were reported in the group without ultrasound versus none in the group with ultrasound. Although a provider may wish to use ultrasound during first-trimester abortion, there is no rationale for recommending its routine use [55]. The effect of ultrasound guidance on hemorrhage or blood loss with second-trimester abortion is unknown. ...
Article
Hemorrhage after abortion is rare, occurring in fewer than 1% of abortions, but associated morbidity may be significant. Hemorrhage can be caused by atony, coagulopathy and abnormal placentation, as well as by such procedure complications as perforation, cervical laceration and retained tissue. Evidence on which to make recommendations regarding risk factors and treatment for postabortion hemorrhage is extremely limited. Although medical abortion is associated with more bleeding than surgical abortion, overall bleeding for the two methods is minimal and not clinically different. Identifying patients who may be at increased risk of hemorrhage can help reduce blood loss with abortion. Specifically, women with a uterine scar and complete placenta previa seeking abortion at gestations greater than 16 weeks should be evaluated for placenta accreta. For women at high risk of hemorrhage, referral to a high-acuity center should be considered. We propose an algorithm for treating postabortion hemorrhage as follows: (1) assessment and exam, (2) massage and medical therapy, (3) resuscitative measures with laboratory evaluation and possible re-aspiration or balloon tamponade, and (4) interventions such as embolization and surgery. The Society of Family Planning recommends preoperative identification of women at high risk of hemorrhage as well as development of an organized approach to treatment. Further studies are needed on prophylactic use of uterotonic medication, intraoperative ultrasound and optimal delivery of the placenta after second-trimester medical abortion.
... Termination of pregnancy is one of the commonest gynaecological procedures, with approximately 50 million terminations performed worldwide annually, the majority of which are surgical terminations (STOP) [1]. The incidence of uterine perforation during first trimester termination of pregnancy has been estimated at 0.8-6.4/1000 ...
... The incidence of uterine perforation during first trimester termination of pregnancy has been estimated at 0.8-6.4/1000 procedures [1]. General anaesthesia, advanced age and parity have been associated with increased incidence of this complication [2]. ...
... In addition to having pre-abortion ultrasound, evidence has shown that ultrasound-guided surgical abortions are generally safer than without ultrasound guidance with reduced the risk of uterine perforation (11). In a randomized control trial by Acharya et al (11), complications of abortion were significantly reduced under ultrasound-guidance (<4%) in comparison to without ultrasound guidance (>15%). ...
... In addition to having pre-abortion ultrasound, evidence has shown that ultrasound-guided surgical abortions are generally safer than without ultrasound guidance with reduced the risk of uterine perforation (11). In a randomized control trial by Acharya et al (11), complications of abortion were significantly reduced under ultrasound-guidance (<4%) in comparison to without ultrasound guidance (>15%). Another related randomized control trial showed that the incidence of uterine perforation was 0% with ultrasound guidance and approximately 3% without ultrasound guidance (12). ...
Article
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Uterine perforation is a rare major complication of surgical abortion which can be detected by ultrasound. In the last four decades, over 70% of case reports on uterine perforation in surgical abortions were from developing countries. Yet ultrasound was rarely used in detecting uterine perforation. This case report presents two cases of uterine perforation in surgical abortions which were detected by ultrasound prior to laparotomy. In the first case, a 34-year old woman was referred to our facility as a case of hypovolaemic shock following termination of pregnancy. An ultrasound examination performed to exclude an intra-abdominal abscess collection revealed a 1.2cm defect in the fundal region of the uterus with extrusion of abdominal contents into the endometrial cavity through the defect. In the second case, a 31-year old woman presented with a history of vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal distension and absolute constipation after undergoing an evacuation of the uterus for a spontaneous abortion at 7 weeks' gestation. Transabdominal ultrasound showed a defect of 1.4cm wide at the fundus of the uterus, with a structure extending from the abdominal cavity through the defect and into the endometrial cavity. It also showed distension of multiple bowel loops within the abdominal cavity. Sonographic detection of uterine perforation led to appropriate management in both cases. In developing countries, where the incidence of major complications of abortion is still very high, utilizing ultrasound can be helpful in detecting complications such as uterine perforation.
... In addition to having pre-abortion ultrasound, evidence has shown that ultrasound-guided surgical abortions are generally safer than without ultrasound guidance with reduced the risk of uterine perforation (11). In a randomized control trial by Acharya et al (11), complications of abortion were significantly reduced under ultrasound-guidance (<4%) in comparison to without ultrasound guidance (>15%). ...
... In addition to having pre-abortion ultrasound, evidence has shown that ultrasound-guided surgical abortions are generally safer than without ultrasound guidance with reduced the risk of uterine perforation (11). In a randomized control trial by Acharya et al (11), complications of abortion were significantly reduced under ultrasound-guidance (<4%) in comparison to without ultrasound guidance (>15%). Another related randomized control trial showed that the incidence of uterine perforation was 0% with ultrasound guidance and approximately 3% without ultrasound guidance (12). ...
... 8 Intra-operative ultrasound has been increasingly used in a wide range of specialties, since its introduction in 1961 to facilitate detection of renal calculi during urological sur- gery. 9 It has since been used successfully in a variety of cir- cumstances within gynaecological practice, including surgical termination of pregnancy, 10 hysteroscopy, 11 and laparoscopic myomectomy. 12 This case demonstrates the novel application of intra-operative ultrasound to increase accuracy in the resection of ovarian lesions too small to be visualised laparoscopically. ...
... This case report reminds us that, to minimize uterine perforation with fallopian tube incarceration, uterine evacuation must be conducted by a trained operator who can avoid uterine perforation or who can easily recognize signs of perforation and stop the procedure. Furthermore, an ultrasound scan done during the procedure, especially for difficult cases, may help the operator in avoiding or diagnosing early uterine perforation [3]. ...
... For instance, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed that ultrasound guidance during abortion reduced complications. 3 Nonetheless, obstetricians should bear in mind that the total complication and incomplete abortion-incidence rates were still significantly higher in D&C than in EVA for induced abortions. ...
Article
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Aim: In Japan, dilatation and curettage (D&C) is a common procedure for spontaneous miscarriage and induced abortion, and its safety has long been an issue. Electric vacuum aspiration (EVA) is also common, but manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) was introduced recently, with medical abortions using mifepristone or misoprostol which are not yet legally accepted. This nationwide retrospective study surveyed the surgical methods and complications associated with spontaneous miscarriage and induced abortion at less than 12 weeks of gestation in Japan to assess their safety, in comparison with a similar survey for induced abortions in 2012. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to 4176 facilities with a license for induced abortion surgeries in 2019. The questions included were the methods used, number of spontaneous miscarriages and induced abortions, and number of complications (uterine perforation, incomplete abortion, and gross bleeding requiring blood transfusion). Results: Responses were received from 1706 facilities (40.9%). Although EVA with sharp curettage was the most common surgical method, which was used for 11 953 spontaneous miscarriages (28.9%) and 24 045 induced abortions (37.3%), the most common surgical method per facility was D&C, and the rates of D&C for spontaneous miscarriages (38.4%) and induced abortions (44.7%) performed in general hospitals were significantly higher than those in clinics (24.1% and 22.0%, respectively). There was no significant difference in the complication incidence rate among surgical methods for spontaneous miscarriages. However, in induced abortion surgery, the total complication and incomplete abortion incidence rates for D&C were significantly higher than those for EVA without sharp curettage (47/15 162 [0.31%] vs. 29/18 693 [0.16%], p = 0.00362, 45/15 162 [0.30%] vs. 27/18 693 [0.14%], p = 0.00285, respectively). There was no significant difference in the complication incidence rate between MVA and other surgical methods for each abortion surgery. Conclusion: In Japan, especially in general hospitals, D&C is still widely used for miscarriage and induced abortion surgery. Its complication-incidence rates significantly decreased compared with that of the nationwide survey in 2012, but were still significantly higher than EVA without sharp curettage. Few facilities used MVA, but its complication rate was comparable with those of other surgical methods.
... Method: We found one report in literature using the following search words: pregnancy termination, uterus, perforation and ultrasound. 1 The risk of perforation is considered low but the true incidence is unknown. The reported incidence is largely based on self-reporting and many perforations are not recognised. ...
Article
Introduction: Ultrasound is under utilised in assessing surgical complications such as uterine perforation resulting from surgical termination of pregnancy. Method: We found one report in literature using the following search words: pregnancy termination, uterus, perforation and ultrasound.¹ The risk of perforation is considered low but the true incidence is unknown. The reported incidence is largely based on self‐reporting and many perforations are not recognised. Conclusion: A South Australian study reported the perforation risk following a surgical termination as 0.05% in the first trimester and 0.32% in the second trimester (13–20 weeks).
... Acharya conducted another randomized controlled trial comparing the surgical evacuation of missed miscarriage cases with or without ultrasound and we found that the operative time is shorter and blood loss is fewer during the evacuation when ultrasound was used. However; no retained products of conception while were reported when using the ultrasound [13] . ...
Article
Background: Surgical evacuation is one of the most popular methods of termination of pregnancy in cases of missed miscarriage. The current study aims to compare the improvement of surgical evacuation of first-trimester miscarriage when done with and without transabdominal ultrasonographic guide. Materials and methods: Setting: Women Health Hospital, Assiut University, Egypt. Design: A randomized clinical trial conducted on 200 pregnant women with 1st trimester miscarriage who scheduled for surgical evacuation. It carried out in the period between the 1st of May 2014 and the 30th of April 2015. The women were randomly assigned to either undergone surgical evacuation blindly (group I) or under ultrasound guidance (group II). The main outcome measures were achievement of complete miscarriage, operative time and blood loss during the procedure. Results: Two-hundred participants were recruited in the study. The mean amount of blood loss during the procedure was significantly higher in group I when compared with group II (P = 0.002). Also there was a statistical significant difference in the operative time between both groups, group I showed longer time than in group II (P = 0.0001). After surgical evacuation, 14 cases (14%) in group I and 3 cases (3%) in group II were reported to have remnants of conception. No cases of uterine perforation occurred in both groups. Conclusion: The use of intraoperative ultrasound during surgical evacuation is associated with a significant reduction in its complications, however; the cost of using ultrasound needs further investigations.
... Romero 5 , Darney 6 , Kohlenberg 7 Elsayed 8 y Acharya 12 reportan un aumento del riesgo de perforación e infección por evacuación incompleta, lo que se corrobora con nuestros resultados cuando no se utiliza el ultrasonido con base en la diferencia significativa en específico el sangrado 8---10,12 . El legrado o aspiración manual endouterina guiada por ultrasonido tiene la ventaja de asegurar una evacuación completa de la cavidad uterina, disminuye la prevalencia del dolor y el riesgo de sangrado y evita el riesgo de perforación uterina 5,6,8,9,12,13 . La ultrasonografía intraoperatoria no solo ofrece una guía visual al cirujano, además da la seguridad de la evacuación uterina completa 8,10,12 . ...
Article
El legrado uterino o la aspiración manual endouterina en el aborto es una técnica que se realiza a ciegas, guiada por signos subjetivos. El uso de ultrasonido transoperatorio para guiar la evacuación no está descrito en la técnica original, pero hay algunos estudios que avalan su uso para realizar el procedimiento y asegurar su finalización de forma inequívoca, disminuyendo las complicaciones agudas.
... 19 In addition, a randomized controlled trial comparing the use of ultrasound during surgical first-trimester abortion of 330 women found significantly fewer repeat procedures for retained products, reduced blood loss and procedure time in the group with ultrasound guidance. 20 Many experienced providers however are quite capable and comfortable performing routine second-trimester abortions without ultrasound guidance, and will instead use it only in special circumstances, such as known uterine anomalies or multifetal gestations. ...
... Similarly, sonographic evidence of an intrauterine device in the bladder is indicative of perforation or, less likely, migration of the device through uterine tissue 1,2 . Likewise, depiction of an ex-utero brachytherapy tandem on imaging is consistent with uterine perforation 14 . ...
Article
We report a case in which a patient presented with severe right lower abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting 3 days after termination of pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed a large intramural mass in the anterior aspect of the lower segment of an acutely retroflexed uterus. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with an intramural hematoma as a result of iatrogenic injury sustained during the preceding termination of pregnancy. The patient was managed expectantly. Systematic review of the literature confirmed that this is the first report of sonographic findings associated with an intramural uterine hematoma some days after the injury sustained at termination of pregnancy. This case supports utilization of real-time ultrasound guidance during intrauterine surgery of selected cases to decrease procedure-related morbidity.
... Placental remnants occur frequently after pregnancy. Depending on pregnancy duration, pregnancy outcome, and management thereafter, the prevalence of placental remnants lies between 0.5% and 19% (Dewhurst 1966;Rome 1975;King et al. 1989;Hoveyda & MacKenzie 2001;Luise et al. 2002;Guillem et al. 2003;Acharya et al. 2004;Zhang et al. 2005). ...
... In most of these (80%), RPOC occurred after miscarriage or TOP (10%), whereas in the remaining 10% placental remnants occurred after delivery (by both vaginal and caesarean section). If retained placental tissue is suspected, whether to proceed directly to surgical intervention, or try medical treatment remains controversial (Acharya et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Background: About 15-20% of pregnant women will miscarry spontaneously during the first trimester. Traditionally, the surgical treatment of placental remnants has been dilation and curettage (D&C). However, because of its 'blind' nature there is a risk of serious complications, such as infection, adhesion, uterine perforation, or bowel injury. Hysteroscopy, with direct visualization of the uterine cavity, decreases these complications. In this retrospective case series we evaluated the efficacy and the feasibility of operative hysteroscopy using the Intrauterine Bigatti Shaver (IBS ® ) for the treatment of placental remnants, both, in a University hospital in Italy and in a private hospital in Iran. Materials and methods: From December 2013 to April 2018 a retrospective medical records review, of patients undergoing placental remnant removal with the IBS ® , was performed. Sixty-five patients suspected of retained products of conception (RPOC) underwent operative hysteroscopy during this period using the IBS ® . Placental remnants were confirmed histologically in 52 cases (80%). The median age of the patients was 36 years. Placental remnants were observed after 42 early miscarriages, 5 terminations of pregnancy, 4 vaginal deliveries and 1 cesarean delivery. Thirty-two patients had abnormal uterine bleeding, 15 were asymptomatic and 5 had subfertility after miscarriage. Most cases (90%) were diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Results: The median interval between surgery and the end of pregnancy was 56 days (a range of 15-90 days). The size of placental remnants was between 15 and 30mm. Three women showed a cavity filled with placental tissue residual (more than 4cm). The median resection time was 4.5 minutes and the median total surgery time was 6.6 minutes. Median fluid deficit [saline solution] was 240 ml. In two cases there was excessive intraoperative bleeding, and one patient required a conversion to bipolar resectoscope for hemostatic reasons. No perforation or postoperative complications occurred. There was no need for second-look operative hysteroscopy and postoperative ultrasound confirmed complete evacuation of the RPOC. Only one patient had a minor adhesion. Conclusion: The IBS ® seems to be an effective and safe instrument for the removal of placental remnants. It allows for short operation time with a high success and low complication rate.
La place de l’échographie dans le parcours de soins de l’interruption volontaire de grossesse (IVG) est fondamentale. Bien qu’elle puisse améliorer la qualité des soins au décours de l’IVG, elle ne doit pas constituer un frein à son accès. La place de l’échographie dans la datation de la grossesse et les alternatives possibles ont donc été étudiées. Une analyse de la littérature a ensuite été réalisée afin de déterminer sa place dans le suivi post-IVG. Lorsqu’une échographie est réalisée, l’estimation de la datation de la grossesse se fait par la mesure de la longueur cranio-caudale (LCC), définie par Robinson, ou par la mesure du diamètre bipariétal (BIP) définie par le Centre français d’échographie fœtale (CFEF) à partir de 11 SA (courbes de Robinson et CFEF) (grade B). De nouvelles courbes ont été actualisées dans l’étude INTERGROWTH. Au vu de la littérature, dans le contexte des demandes d’IVG, un delta de 5 jours est à prendre en compte notamment lorsque la datation de la grossesse évaluée sur la mesure de la LCC ou du BIP correspond à un terme proche de 14 SA (respectivement 80 mm et 27 mm) (accord professionnel). Ainsi la mesure échographique étant fiable à ± 5 jours lorsque les critères de réalisation sont respectés, l’IVG peut être réalisée lorsque les mesures de LCC et/ou de BIP sont respectivement inférieures ou égales à 90 mm et/ou 30 mm (courbes INTERGROWTH) (accord professionnel). Si la réalisation d’une échographie de datation doit être encouragée, pour les femmes déclarant bien connaître la date de leurs dernières règles et/ou la date du rapport sexuel à risque, et pour lesquelles un examen clinique par un professionnel de santé formé est possible, l’absence d’accès à l’échographie de routine ne devrait donc pas être un frein à la programmation de l’IVG demandée (accord professionnel). En cas de grossesse intra-utérine d’évolutivité incertaine, ou de grossesse de localisation indéterminée, sans symptômes particuliers, la patiente doit pouvoir bénéficier de la réalisation d’une échographie endovaginale pour augmenter la précision du diagnostic (grade B). Concernant le suivi post-IVG, les résultats de différentes études de la littérature permettent de ne pas recommander l’utilisation en routine de l’échographie lors de l’IVG instrumentale (accord professionnel). Si celle-ci est réalisée au décours immédiat de l’intervention un endomètre supérieur à 8 mm doit conduire à une réaspiration immédiate (grade B). L’étude échographique de l’endomètre quelques jours après une IVG instrumentale n’apparaît pas pertinente. En cas d’IVG médicamenteuse, la réalisation systématique d’une échographique post-IVG ne peut être recommandée en routine d’après l’analyse de la littérature (grade B). Si elle est pratiquée, l’échographie endovaginale après une IVG médicamenteuse devrait être réalisée à distance (après 15 jours) (accord professionnel). Lorsque l’examen échographique est effectué lors du suivi, son seul but devrait être de déterminer si le sac gestationnel est présent (accord professionnel). Enfin, si une échographie est réalisée dans le parcours d’une IVG, la réalisation d’un compte rendu doit être encouragée précisant les éventuelles anomalies gynécologiques retrouvées mais son absence ne doit pas retarder la programmation de l’IVG (accord professionnel).
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the techniques, complications, and risks of abortion performed during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Detecting fetal disorders in the first trimester permits women to undergo first‐trimester pregnancy termination, a procedure that is safer and less emotionally traumatic than termination performed later in pregnancy. An accurate determination of gestational age is required for performing suction aspiration. Second‐trimester pregnancy termination procedures have morbidity and mortality rates higher than first‐trimester techniques. The most commonly used systemic abortifacients for second‐trimester pregnancy termination are prostaglandin analogs, most commonly misoprostol, that stimulate uterine contractions and result in the expulsion of the products of conception. The development of novel molecular diagnostic procedures for screening and diagnosis has increased our ability to detect an increasing number of severe neonatal, pediatric, adolescent, and adult conditions.
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Pipelle endometrial sampling, an outpatient, office-based procedure, provides comparative successful endometrial sampling in comparison with other techniques including conventional dilatation and curettage. We present an unusual occurrence in which office Pipelle endometrial sampling in a perimenopausal patient was complicated 10 days later by lower abdominal pain and intermittent fever. Sonography depicted findings consistent with a large pelvic abscess overriding the uterine fundus. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of the unusual pelvic abscess and, in addition, noted findings consistent with perforation of the uterus during endometrial sampling.
Article
We present three cases of uterine perforation which were managed laparoscopically at the Aga Khan University Hospital Nairobi, between January and December 2008. Our objective was to determine the outcomes of uterine perforations and to create awareness on the availability of the laparoscopic management at such complications and to recommend the procedure as a suitable option to laparotomy.
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Miscarriage is the most common serious pregnancy complication affecting approximately 30% of biochemical pregnancies and 11-20% of clinically recognised pregnancies. The diagnosis of miscarriage is made most commonly by trans-vaginal ultrasound (TVS) assessment. Evidence-based criteria should be employed for the diagnosis of delayed and incomplete miscarriage. Complete miscarriage should not be diagnosed with TVS alone without serial biochemical confirmation (unless an intrauterine gestation sac has previously been visualised). After a clinical assessment suggesting complete miscarriage, 45% of women will have retained tissue on ultrasound, whilst women with an ultrasound scan showing an empty uterus with a history suggestive of miscarriage will be found to have an ectopic pregnancy in 6% of cases. Prediction of the diagnosis of miscarriage using maternal history and ultrasound features may be helpful in counselling women towards likely pregnancy outcome and planning appropriate further assessment. Use of three-dimensional ultrasound has not improved diagnosis of miscarriage. After a diagnosis of miscarriage, half the women undergo significant psychological effects, which may last for up to 12 months.
Article
Infectious complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality associated with pregnancy termination worldwide. However, in areas where abortion practices are legal, the risk of infection is very low. Proper technique, prophylaxis, and initial management of septic abortion have led to a significant decrease in risk of serious complications such as sepsis and death. Clinical features, management, and prevention of postabortal infection will be reviewed in the setting of legalized abortion.
Article
Surgical abortion in the second trimester became popularized in the 1970s, and now accounts for the majority of abortion procedures performed in this country. Dilation and evacuation is the most commonly used method in the second trimester, but dilation and curettage can be used with earlier gestations, and intact dilation and extraction accounts for a minority of later procedures. These various procedures will be addressed in detail. Other considerations such as preoperative and intraoperative use of ultrasound, use of uterotonics, pain management, appropriate location for second-trimester abortion provision, and routine postoperative care will also be reviewed.
Article
To determine the rate of chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and to describe treatment and factors associated with chlamydia in patients presenting for a termination of pregnancy (TOP). A retrospective audit of patients attending one of two TOP clinics from 1 February 2003. (Clinic A, n=500; Clinic B, n=501). Age, ethnicity, marital status, previous pregnancies, contraception, STIs, and treatment were recorded. Ten percent of patients tested positive for an STI. Chlamydia was most commonly detected, in 7.7% of all patients. Higher rates of chlamydia were observed at clinic B (10.2% vs 5.2%, p=0.005) and in under 25 year olds (11.2% vs 3.6%, p<0.001). Rates of chlamydia in Pacific women were 18.6%, in Maori 12.9%, in Asian 7.3% and 4.4% in New Zealand European women. All patients testing positive for chlamydia were treated prior to TOP but only 41% of partners were treated. Other infections detected included 18 cases of human papillomavirus (HPV), three cases of trichomoniasis, one case of gonorrhoea, and one case of syphilis. There is a high rate of chlamydia in women presenting for TOP, particularly in under 25 year olds, Pacific, and Maori women. There is an immediate need for policymakers to respond to this increasing burden of chlamydia by instigating targeted education, guidelines, and mandatory chlamydia screening and contact tracing for pregnant women.
Article
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Background: Failure to detect uterine perforation during surgical abortion may result in adverse patient outcome besides having medicolegal implications. This rare case of uterine perforation was diagnosed seven days after abortion and underscores the importance of remaining vigilant for this complication during and after the procedure. Case: A female underwent surgical abortion at sixteen weeks gestation and was discharged after the procedure, assuming no complication. She presented with abdominal pain seven days after the event. Ultrasound and CT revealed uterine perforation with abdominal expulsion of fetal parts. Conclusion: A patient complaining of abdominal pain following recent abortion related instrumentation should alert the clinician regarding possibility of perforation. Secondary signs on ultrasound may reveal the diagnosis even if rent is not identified. CT is valuable in emergent situations.
Article
Gynecologists are well trained in office-based ultrasound, but are less experienced in the field of intraoperative ultrasound. Many gynecologic procedures may benefit from the use of real-time ultrasonography. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current use of intraoperative ultrasound in gynecologic procedures. Evaluation and assessment of the value of intraoperative ultrasound in gynecological procedures is essentially non-existent. The role of intraoperative ultrasound in gynecology is in its infancy, with anecdotal experience and literature involving predominantly case reports. Intraoperative ultrasound is helpful in laparoscopic myomectomy, particularly when the uterine contour is normal. It is also useful in defining pelvic anatomy in cases of complex reproductive procedures. Intraoperative ultrasound improves precision in characterizing ovarian lesions, particularly in the setting of endometriomas or dermoid cysts. It has been shown to decrease both operative time and complication rates in dilation and curettage procedures. Intraoperative ultrasound reduces recurrence and re-operation rates after hysteroscopy by facilitating more-complete resection of uterine myomas. Ultrasound guidance improves the efficiency of embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization and could potentially be beneficial in other 'blind' gynecological procedures. Intraoperative ultrasound appears to be a safe and valuable tool for the gynecologic surgeon. Ultrasound improves visualization of anatomy, reduces complication and re-operation rates, and facilitates completion of more cases via less-invasive endoscopic approaches.
Article
To identify the risk factors associated with retained products of conception (RPC) following first-trimester pregnancy termination with manual vacuum aspiration (MVA). We analyzed 1623 patients who underwent MVA during the first 9 weeks of their pregnancies in SSK Aegean Obstetrics and Gynecology Teaching Hospital Department of Family Planning in between February 2001 and January 2004. A total of 81 patients (5%) had RPC after MVA. We found that RPC after MVA were significantly associated with patient's age (P = 0.026), body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.017), and week of gestation applied MVA (P = 0.012); but not associated with parity (P = 0.063), history of previous MVA (P = 0.845), and history of previous miscarriage (P = 0.918). Our study suggests that the frequency of RPC after MVA has been affected by current pregnancy-related factors such as patient age, BMI, and gestational age rather than the prior obstetric history of the patients.
Article
Montea-gudo A. Transvaginal ultrasound-assisted gynecologic surgery: Evaluation of a new device to improve safety of intrauterine surgery. new method of transvaginal ultrasound-guided polypectomy: a feasibility study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006; 27: 198–201. 5. Darney PD, Sweet RL. Routine intraoperative ultrasound for second trimester abortion reduces incidence of uterine perforation.
Article
Intraoperative image is a rapidly expanding field encompassing many applications that use a multitude of technologies. Some of the these applications have been in use for many years and are firmly embedded in, and indispensable to, clinical practice (e.g. the use of X-ray to locate foreign bodies during surgery or oocyte retrieval under ultrasound guidance. In others, the application may have been in use in one discipline but not yet fully explored in another. Examples include the use of intraoperative ultrasound with or without contrast enhancement for the detection of hepatic metastases not identified preoperatively, and the effect of such additional information on the ultimate operative procedure. Intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes has been explored in many specialties to a varying extent, with the aim of fine tuning and avoiding unnecessary surgery. In both these instances, we do not know the long-term effect of these interventions on patient survival or quality of life. In this chapter, we will explore the available evidence on these applications and current advances in the new technology in general, with a specific focus on gynaecology.
Article
Objectives To evaluate patients' characteristics and complications of surgical abortion performed at an early gestation, compared to later gestations. Methods A total of 4310 women with unintended pregnancies attending the family planning unit of a government maternity hospital in Konya, Turkey, were included retrospectively. Abortions were carried out from 6 weeks' up to 10 weeks gestation. Results The gestational age in 62% of the cases was between 6 weeks and 6 weeks + 6 days. Only 8.5% of the 4310 women had used a modern contraceptive method, and 16% had had a surgical abortion for an unplanned pregnancy previously. These women were younger, had more siblings, and a shorter time had elapsed since their last pregnancy when compared to women who never had an abortion. There were four failures (0.09%). The rate of retained products of conception (RPCs) was 1.9% in women aborted between six and six + 6 weeks' gestation, and 6.2% (p < 0.001) in those aborted later. Women who had had a surgical abortion previously more often had RPCs than those who never had (16% vs. 1%, respectively, p < 0.001). Of the 151 women with RPCs, 65 (43%) had been using an intrauterine device prior to surgical abortion. Conclusion Early surgical abortion (at six-six+ 6 weeks' gestation) generates few complications. Delaying surgical abortion until a somewhat later gestation causes complication rates (particularly RPCs) to increase.
Article
Congenital uterine anomalies may cause various reproductive problems, including difficulty performing vaginal surgical termination of pregnancy (TOP). We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with a uterus bicornis bicollis (a double, partially fused uterus with two cervices and a vaginal septum), who was requesting termination of pregnancy following two failed attempts at vacuum aspiration. Flexible hysteroscopy, in combination with trans-abdominal ultrasound, was used to facilitate the correct passage of the dilators during a successful dilatation and evacuation (D&E) followed by insertion of intra-uterine progestogen-only contraceptive system (‘Mirena’). On review of the literature, we found no similar cases reported.
Article
Intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) is a valuable adjunctive tool that can provide real-time diagnostic information in surgery that has the potential to alter patient management and decrease complications. Lesion localization, characterization and staging can be performed, as well as surveying for additional lesions and metastatic disease. IOUS is commonly used in the liver for hepatic metastatic disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, in the pancreas for neuroendocrine tumors, and in the kidney for renal cell carcinoma. IOUS allows real-time evaluation of vascular patency and perfusion in organ transplantation and allows for early intervention for anastomotic complications. It can also be used to guide intraoperative procedures such as biopsy, fiducial placement, radiation, or ablation. A variety of adjuncts including microbubble contrast and elastography may provide additional information at IOUS. It is important for the radiologist to be familiar with the available equipment, common clinical indications, technique, relevant anatomy and intraoperative imaging appearance to optimize performance of this valuable imaging modality.
Article
To evaluate our initial experience with hysteroscopic morcellation for removal of placental remnants. Retrospective case series (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). University hospital and 2 teaching hospitals. Women with histologic confirmation of placental remnants after miscarriage, termination of pregnancy, or delivery. From January 2005 to May 2010, hysteroscopic morcellation was used for removal of placental remnants. Retrospective review of medical records was performed. Analysis of 105 procedures was performed. In 99 procedures (94.3%), placental remnants were removed successfully at the first approach, and 90 procedures (85.7%) were without any adverse events. In 6 patients (5.7%), uterine perforation occurred, in 4 during cervical dilation and in 2 during the hysteroscopic procedure. Postoperatively, 3 patients had fever, 1 had hemorrhage, and 1 had abdominal pain. Routine second-look hysteroscopy in 23 patients revealed mild intrauterine adhesions in 1 patient (4.4%). Hysteroscopic morcellation seems to be an effective technique for management of placental remnants. Future studies comparing various surgical treatment methods are needed to define factors that influence the ability to obtain the safest and most complete removal of placental remnants because this remains a challenging pregnancy-related condition.
Article
The objective of this review was to assess early and late benefits and harms of different management options for first-trimester miscarriage. Surgical uterine evacuation remains the most effective and the quickest method of treatment. Depending on the clinical situation, medical treatment using misoprostol (missed miscarriage) or expectative attitude (incomplete miscarriage) does not increase the risk of complications, neither haemorrhagic nor infectious. However, these alternatives generally require longer outpatient follow-up, which leads to more prolonged bleeding and not planned surgical procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Article
This chapter focuses on the techniques, complications, and risks of abortion performed during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and first-trimester endovaginal ultrasonography permit the cytogenetic and genomic assessment of the fetus in the first trimester. Detecting fetal disorders in the first trimester permits women to undergo first-trimester pregnancy termination, a procedure that is safer and less emotionally traumatic than termination performed later in pregnancy. Second-trimester pregnancy termination procedures have morbidity and mortality rates higher than first-trimester techniques. Some centers have begun to utilize preoperative or preinduction procedures to ensure the delivery of a demised fetus. Prior to dilation and evacuation (D and E), either a potassium chloride (KCl) intracardiac injection or umbilical cord avulsion can be performed, whereas a KCl intracardiac injection can be performed prior to initiation of systemic pharmacotherapy for a labor induction pregnancy termination.
Chapter
Induced abortion is a common experience in women's reproductive lives worldwide. Serious morbidity and mortality from legal abortion by modern medical and surgical methods is very rare. Patient preference should guide choice of abortion method wherever possible. Patient preparation for an abortion includes non‐judgmental decision making support, focused medical assessment including determination of gestational age, and a discussion of the risks and benefits of treatment options to ensure informed consent. Almost all methods of contraception can be initiated immediately following an uncomplicated abortion should a woman wish to use birth control to prevent future unintended pregnancies.
Chapter
Recurrent pregnancy loss is associated with psychological stress for not only the woman but her whole family. The most effective method to ensure complete evacuation after miscarriage is still surgical. Other methods such as expectant and medical management are also effective and available options.
Article
Objectives: To compare vaginal misoprostol treatment with expectant management in early non-viable pregnancies with vaginal bleeding with regard to complete evacuation of the uterine cavity within 10 days. Methods: Parallel randomized controlled, open label, trial conducted in Skåne university hospital, Sweden. Patients with anembryonic pregnancy or early fetal demise (crown-rump length <33mm) and vaginal bleeding were randomly allocated to either expectant management or single dose 800μg of misoprostol vaginally. Patients were evaluated clinically and by ultrasound until complete evacuation of the uterus (no gestational sac in the uterine cavity and maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the intra-cavitary contents <15 mm as measured by transvaginal ultrasound on a midsagittal view). Follow-up visits were planned at 10, 17, 24 and 31 days. Dilatation and evacuation (D&E) was recommended if miscarriage was not complete in 31 days, but was performed earlier on patient's request, or if there was excessive bleeding as judged clinically. Analysis is by intention to treat. Main outcome measure is number of patients with complete miscarriage without D&E <10 days. Clinical Trials NCT01033903. Results: Ninety-four patients were randomized to misoprostol and 95 to expectant management. After exclusion of three patients and withdrawal of consent by two patients 184 patients (n=94, n=90) were included. Miscarriage was complete <10 days in 62/94 (66 %) of the patients in the misoprostol group and in 39/90 (43%) of those in the group managed expectantly (risk difference 23%, 95% confidence interval 8% to 37%). At 31 days the corresponding figures were 81/94 (86%) and 55/90 (61%) (risk difference 25%, 12% to 38%). Two patients from each group underwent emergency D&E because of excessive bleeding and one of these in each group received blood transfusion. The number of patients undergoing D&E on their own request was higher in the expectantly managed group, 15/90 (17%) versus 3/94 (3%) (risk difference14%, 4% to 23%) as was the number of patients making out of protocol visits, 50/90 (56%) versus 27/94(29%) (risk difference27%, 12% to 40%). More patients in the misoprostol group than in the expectantly managed group experienced pain, 91/91 (100%) versus 71/77 (92.2%) (risk difference 7.8%, 1.0% to 16.8%), and used painkillers, 85/91 (93%) versus 59/77 (77%) (risk difference 17%, 5% to 29%). No major side effects were reported in any group. Conclusions: Misoprostol treatment is more effective than expectant management in early non-viable pregnancies in women with vaginal bleeding with regard to complete evacuation of the uterus. Both methods are safe but misoprostol treatment is associated with more pain than expectant management.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the techniques, complications, and risks of abortion performed during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and first-trimester endovaginal ultrasonography permit the cytogenetic and genomic assessment of the fetus in the first trimester. Detecting fetal disorders in the first trimester permits women to undergo first-trimester pregnancy termination, a procedure that is safer and less emotionally traumatic than termination performed later in pregnancy. Second-trimester pregnancy termination procedures have morbidity and mortality rates higher than first-trimester techniques. Some centers have begun to utilize preoperative or preinduction procedures to ensure the delivery of a demised fetus. Prior to dilation and evacuation (D and E), either a potassium chloride (KCl) intracardiac injection or umbilical cord avulsion can be performed, whereas a KCl intracardiac injection can be performed prior to initiation of systemic pharmacotherapy for a labor induction pregnancy termination.
Article
Objectives: Some providers use oxytocin during dilation and evacuation (D&E) to prevent or treat hemorrhage although evidence to support this is scarce. We sought to describe the association between prophylactic oxytocin use, estimated blood loss (EBL), and surgical outcomes during D&E. Study design: We performed a chart review of 730 women at 14 to 26weeks gestation who had a D&E at our institution between May 2010 and May 2014 to assess the association between prophylactic oxytocin use and EBL. We determined whether sociodemographic and health-related factors were associated with excessive blood loss (EBL≥250mL) and whether oxytocin use was associated with complications, including hemorrhage (i.e. EBL≥500mL or interventions for bleeding). We performed univariate analyses and multivariable regression models to evaluate the relationship between health-related factors and EBL≥250mL. Results: Providers used prophylactic oxytocin in 59.9% of procedures. Asian (p=.005 and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (p=.005) race, nulliparity (p=.007) and higher gestational age (p<.001) were associated with prophylactic oxytocin use. We found no difference in mean EBL (116.2 +/- 105.5mL versus 130.7 +/- 125.5mL, p=.09), EBL≥250mL (31.4% vs. 68.6%, p=.15), or complications (6.1% vs. 7.1%, p=.73) including hemorrhage (1.4% vs. 5.3%, p=.14) between those who did not receive prophylactic oxytocin and those who did. No transfusions occurred in either group. In multivariable regression modeling, the adjusted OR for excessive blood loss was 0.42 (95% CI 0.16-1.07) with prophylactic oxytocin use. Conclusions: Prophylactic oxytocin use during D&E was not associated with hemorrhage or transfusion in our population. Implications: Routine use of interventions for bleeding, such as intravenous oxytocin, should be based on scientific evidence or not performed. Findings from our study provide information on how oxytocin use is associated with blood loss during D&E.
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction to the methods of induced abortion, both medical and surgical. The differential diagnosis and assessment of common post-procedural complaints are discussed, namely, pain, fever, and vaginal bleeding. Management of specific postabortal complications is reviewed, including infection, hemorrhage, uterine perforation, and hematometra.
Article
Introduction, Miscarriage is the most common complication of pregnancy. It rarely causes serious health problems, but it can adversely affect women's social and psychological wellbeing. Ectopic pregnancy is less common than miscarriage, but it remains the leading cause of first-trimester maternal mortality and is associated with significant physical and psychosocial morbidity. According to the Seventh Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom, there are around 1000 000 pregnancies per year in the UK, with approximately 700 000 deliveries occurring each year. It is estimated that the number of miscarriages per year is at least 200 000 and the number of ectopic pregnancies at least 10 000. The maternal mortality rate in relation to early pregnancy complications in the UK in the 3 years between 2003 and 2005 was 0.47/100 000 maternities for ectopic pregnancy (a total of ten deaths) and 0.05/100 000 maternities for miscarriage (one recorded death). Thus, despite a relatively low mortality rate, the overall impact of these disorders on women's health is significant. Miscarriage is conventionally quoted to affect one in five pregnancies and ectopic pregnancy to occur in 1/100 gestations; however, establishing the true rate of these early pregnancy complications is challenging owing to the lack of accurate data. Hospital statistics provide information regarding the rate of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy resulting in hospital admissions. However, the majority of women diagnosed with miscarriage are nowadays managed without admission to hospital.
Article
Although uterine perforation is a potentially life-threatening complication of curettage abortion, little is known about the risk factors associated with uterine perforation or how to prevent it. Using linear logistic regression, we analyzed 67,175 curettage abortions performed at 13 institutions in the United States from 1975 through 1978. The overall incidence of confirmed perforation was 0.9 per 1,000 abortions. Performance of the abortion by a resident rather than by an attending physician was a powerful risk factor for perforation (relative risk, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.3 to 9.2). Use of Laminaria for dilation had a protective effect, although this effect was not statistically significant (relative risk, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.02 to 1.2). Among factors beyond the control of the physician, advancement of gestational age and previous delivery were significant risk factors. Use of Laminaria and performance of the abortion by an attending physician considerably lowered the risk of uterine perforation. (JAMA 1984;251:2108-2111)
Article
3036 induced abortions from the years 1977, 1978, 1979 and 1980 were analysed. They included all abortions performed with the suction method at Akershus Central Hospital, except for those done in combination with a sterilization procedure. The main determinants of complication rates were parity, period of gestation and, for minor complications, whether the patient was treated as an inpatient or an outpatient. Women who had not previously given birth had a higher complication rate than parous women. Complication rates were lowest during weeks 7-10. Outpatients had fewer readmissions, repeat curettages, and infections, than inpatients. There was a tendency to cause a larger dilatation of the cervical canal than was technically necessary.
Article
Objective To assess the value of routine histological examination of tissue samples collected at termination of pregnancy in the first trimester and emergency surgical uterine evacuation. Setting The gynaecological department of a teaching hospital. Design Prospective study of women attending the gynaecological department in a 12-month period. Participants All women undergoing a therapeutic first trimester medical or surgical abortion or an emergency surgical evacuation of a failed pregnancy, suspected incomplete spontaneous miscarriage or incomplete induced abortion. Main outcome Association of pre-operative clinical diagnosis and the post-operative histological result. Results Of 1576 women studied, the histological report confirmed that products of conception were obtained in 1465 (93%); in two women (0.13%) molar changes were reported confirming the pre-operative diagnosis by ultrasound. Products of conception were not confirmed in the tissue specimens in 0.5% medical terminations, 5% surgical terminations, 10% evacuations following a previous evacuation, 12% evacuations for a failed pregnancy, and 19% evacuations for an incomplete miscarriage. In 87 women (6%), decidua was reported; two of these women had undergone an evacuation for an ultrasound diagnosis of spontaneous miscarriage, but in both a tubal ectopic pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed. Conclusion There did not appear to be any obvious benefit from routine histological examination of tissue removed at termination of pregnancy or emergency uterine evacuation. The histological result was sometimes not consistent with the pre-operative diagnosis and may result in unnecessary further investigation and treatment unless due consideration is given to the clinical presentation.
Article
The benefits of non-invasive, correctly-directed instrumentation coupled with an ability to predict complete evacuation of the uterus can make intraoperative ultrasound an important addition in the continued and improved care of women with a perforated uterus and retained products of conception. Two such cases are reported.
Article
Diagnostic ultrasound has an important place to play in aiding the obstetrician who has an abortion practice. It is most useful in accurately dating the time of conception. Based on sonographic dating, an abortion may be possible in patients with multiple pregnancy or in whom there is a mass in addition to pregnancy. The performance of a saline or urea abortion is made easier since the precise site of the uterus can be mapped out. Once an abortion has commenced, the presence or absence of retained products can be easily verified by ultrasound. PIP Diagnostic sonography has been helpful in aiding the obstetrician who performs abortion and in deciding which technique will be appropriate in patients with a borderline gestational age. It is useful in accurately dating the time of conception. With the aid of sonographic dating, an abortion may be possible in patients with multiple pregnancy or in whom there is an additional mass. A saline or urea abortion can be facilitated since the precise site of the uterus can be visualized. In addition, the presence of absence of retained pro ducts following an abortion can be easily detected by ultrasound.
Article
We performed aspiration of early pregnancy on 100 women requesting termination, using a low caliber angled catheter under sonographic guidance, without analgesia or anesthesia. The sonographic inclusion criteria for the study were: (1) mean gestational sac diameter less than 30 mm, or (2) crown rump length less than 10 mm when an embryo was visualized. The uterine content was successfully evacuated in all cases and none needed an additional curettage. Two women developed mild endometritis which responded to antibiotic therapy. This refinement of this 'menstrual regulation' technique seems to be safer when compared with the reported results of the original technique.
Article
This article grew out of a keynote address prepared for the conference, "From Abortion to Contraception: Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion Through Improved Family Planning Services," held in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR in October 1990. The article reviews the legal, religious, and medical situation of induced abortion in Europe in historical perspective, and considers access to abortion services, attitudes of health professionals, abortion incidence, morbidity and mortality, the new antiprogestins, the characteristics of abortion seekers, late abortions, postabortion psychological reactions, effects of denied abortion, and repeat abortion. Special attention is focused on the changes occurring in Romania, Albania, and the former Soviet Union, plus the effects of the new conservatism elsewhere in the formerly socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, particularly Poland. Abortion is a social reality that can no more be legislated out of existence than the controversy surrounding it can be stilled. No matter how effective family planning services and practices become, there will always be a need for access to safe abortion services.
Article
The frequency and management of uterine perforation during first-trimester abortions remain a matter of continuing debate among gynecologists. The rate of uterine perforations was 1.3/1000 procedures (eight cases) in 6408 women undergoing first-trimester abortions at our clinic. We also performed 706 first-trimester abortions at the time of laparoscopic sterilization. Two perforations (2.8/1000 procedures) were reported before laparoscopy. Twelve (15.6/1000 procedures) unsuspected perforations were discovered during direct laparoscopic visualization. This represents a 19.8/1000 procedure rate of perforation (14 cases). All 22 patients with perforations were managed conservatively, and no immediate or late complications were noted. Our data suggest that the true incidence of uterine perforations is significantly underestimated and serious complications caused by perforations are rare. Conservative therapy is recommended rather than early surgical intervention.
Article
Second trimester elective abortion is safest when accomplished with cervical dilation and instrumental uterine evacuation (D and E), but this procedure carries with it a risk of uterine perforation and possible intra-abdominal trauma. In order to determine if the routine use of intraoperative ultrasonography reduces the risk of this feared and serious complication, 353 elective abortions at 16 to 24 weeks gestation performed without sonography were compared to 457 in which sonography was routinely employed. All 810 operations were carried out in one clinic using the same operative technique. The routine intraoperative use of ultrasonographic imaging to guide intrauterine forceps during uterine evacuation for second trimester elective abortion resulted in a significant reduction in uterine perforation, the rate declining from 1.4% to .2%. These findings support the routine use of intraoperative ultrasonography for second trimester elective abortion to reduce the incidence of uterine perforation and make the procedure a safer one.
Article
The value of real time ultrasonography (RTUS) in the management of first trimester elective pregnancy terminations was studied in 120 consecutive patients. RTUS was found essential in determining accurate gestational ages, identifying incomplete pregnancy terminations, diagnosing abnormal pregnancies, and in performing difficult terminations. It is suggested that RTUS be employed in the routine management of first trimester pregnancy terminations.
Article
Intraoperative ultrasound was used as an adjunct in difficult dilatation and evacuation (D&E) procedures for first-trimester abortions. This technique was useful in eight technically difficult D&Es in the presence of acute retroflexion, acute anteflexion, cervical stenosis and lower uterine segment fibroids.
Article
Complications subsequent to 5,851 consecutively induced first-trimester abortions during the period 1980-85 were analysed. Three hundred and fifty-six abortions (6.1%) led to complications requiring hospital admission. According to bivariable analysis, women below 25 years of age, women with parity 0, women with no spontaneous and with no induced abortions, and women in gestational week 8 had significantly higher postabortal complication rates than women 25 years of age and older (p less than 0.001), women with previous births (p less than 0.0001), women with spontaneous abortions (p less than 0.005), women with induced abortions (p less than 0.005), and women in other gestational age groups (p less than 0.0005). The mean stay in hospital per complicated abortion was 5.3 days. It was discussed whether the administration of prophylactic antibiotics to women with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease and young women completing their first pregnancy could reduce the complication rate.
Article
This communication describes a technique of sonographically monitored uterine curettage. This method is of particular value in the management of postabortal endomyometritis associated with retained products of conception or in any situation in which anatomic variation (for instance, retroversion) makes curette insertion difficult. PIP This communication describes a technique of sonographically monitored uterine curettage. This method is of particular value in the management of postabortal endomyometritis associated with retained products of conception or in any situation in which anatomic variation, e.g. retroversion, makes a curette insertion difficult.
Article
3036 induced abortions from the years 1977, 1978, 1979 and 1980 were analysed. They included all abortions performed with the suction method at Akershus Central Hospital, except for those done in combination with a sterilization procedure. The main determinants of complication rates were parity, period of gestation and, for minor complications, whether the patient was treated as an in-patient or an out-patient. Women who had not previously given birth had a higher complication rate than parous women. Complication rates were lowest during weeks 7-10. Out-patients had fewer readmissions, repeat curettages, and infections, than in-patients. There was a tendency to cause a larger dilatation of the cervical canal than was technically necessary.
Article
PIP For elective abortion, ultrasound is helpful in the determination of gestational age prior to elective procedures and in the localization of the amniotic sac prior to midtrimester intraamniotic injection. According to various reports, ultrasound is potentially useful in determining whether products of conception remain after an elective procedure. 2 cases are described in which the use of real-time ultrasound during an elective abortion procedure aided the operator and very likely reduced the risk of significant complications. In the 1st case of a 43-year-old white, married woman, para 2-0-0-2, the cervix was dilated and an 8 mm suction catheter was introduced. Despite multiple attempts, no products of conception were obtained. With the use of ultrasound direction, the catheter (visible on ultrasound) was reintroduced and directed toward the gestational sac past the leiomyomas that protruded into the cavity. The uterus was evacuated without further difficulty, and the patient subsequently did well. The 2nd case was that of a 26-year-old, black primigravid woman who presented for an elective therapeutic abortion at 17 weeks' gestation. With the patient under local anesthesia, the cervix was dilated to 14 mm and a 14 mm plastic suction catheter was introduced. The procedure was performed without difficulty, except that, despite the use of various extraction instruments, the vertex could not be located and removed. With the use of ultrasound visualization, the grasping forceps (visible on ultrasound) were introduced and directed toward the vertex, enabling its removal with minimal difficulty. The patient tolerated the procedure well and had no further difficulty. As illustrated by these 2 case reports, the use of ultrasound to guide the suction catheter or other extraction instruments has proved to be very useful. Although direct sonar visualization may be needed only occasionally, this technique should be valuable in reducing the incidence of retained products of conception, failed procedures, and perforations that may complicate difficult abortion operations. It is recommended that the availability of ultrasound should not encourage the operator to perform procedures that otherwise would have considerable risk.
Article
Although uterine perforation is a potentially life-threatening complication of curettage abortion, little is known about the risk factors associated with uterine perforation or how to prevent it. Using linear logistic regression, we analyzed 67,175 curettage abortions performed at 13 institutions in the United States from 1975 through 1978. The overall incidence of confirmed perforation was 0.9 per 1,000 abortions. Performance of the abortion by a resident rather than by an attending physician was a powerful risk factor for perforation (relative risk, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.3 to 9.2). Use of Laminaria for dilation had a protective effect, although this effect was not statistically significant (relative risk, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.02 to 1.2). Among factors beyond the control of the physician, advancement of gestational age and previous delivery were significant risk factors. Use of Laminaria and performance of the abortion by an attending physician considerably lowered the risk of uterine perforation.
Article
The incidence of uterine perforation while performing legal abortions was evaluated in the Stockholm area. Among 84,850 legal abortions performed during 1982-1992 there were 145 cases of uterine perforation, 0.17%. In about half of these cases an immediate exploration of the abdomen was decided upon and in 18 patients there were significant bleeding and/or lacerations to organs situated in the pelvis. No case of intestinal perforation was encountered. It is likely that many of these injuries would have healed just as well unattended. Based on this study, the authors advocate a conservative approach in dealing with uterine perforation in connection with vacuum aspiration for legal abortion. PIP In Sweden, where abortion is legal during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy, uterine perforation is the most serious potential complication. An analysis of the 84,850 legal induced abortions performed at the six public hospitals in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1982-92 revealed 145 cases (0.17%) of uterine perforation. 49 (33.8%) of these women had experienced at least one prior induced abortion. In women where uterine size exceeded 12 weeks of pregnancy, there were only four instances (2.8%) of uterine perforation. The perforation was caused by the suction cannula in 69 women (47.0%) and by the Hegar dilator in 30 women (20.6%). Immediate exploration of the abdomen (primarily laparotomy) was performed in 69 (47.6%) of these cases; significant bleeding and/or lacerations to organs situated in the pelvis were identified in 18 (26.1%) of these women. There were no cases of intestinal perforation. The majority of injuries would have healed without laparotomy. Unless peritoneal irritation, increasing pain, and signs of blood loss are present, a conservative approach to uterine perforation is recommended.
Article
A case of iatrogenic uterine perforation occurred during dilation and curettage for treatment of a missed abortion at 14 weeks' gestation. Real-time transabdominal sonography was used to detect the fundal perforation and to follow serially the amount of fluid in the cul-de-sac. It is recommended that this noninvasive and direct diagnostic tool be used in the management of uterine perforation.
Article
The benefits of non-invasive, correctly-directed instrumentation coupled with an ability to predict complete evacuation of the uterus can make intraoperative ultrasound an important addition in the continued and improved care of women with a perforated uterus and retained products of conception. Two such cases are reported.
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Early pregnancy termination: an improved technique for “menstrual regulation” with ultrasound assistance
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