Pharmacokinetic tracer kinetics analysis of changes in erythropoietin receptor population in phlebotomy-induced anemia and bone marrow ablation
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
(Impact Factor: 2.34).
05/2004; 25(4):149-56. DOI: 10.1002/bdd.395
The objective was to study in vivo erythropoietin (Epo) progenitor cell surface receptors (EpoR) in the bone marrow (BM) after phlebotomy and bone marrow ablation.
Serial tracer interaction method experiments were conducted in adult sheep at baseline and after phlebotomy (PH) and ablation (AB). PH was done 10 days after phlebotomy (to 3-4 g/dl Hb), and the AB was done 8 days after a 3-day oral treatment with bulsulfan (11 mg/kg/day).
Bone marrow ablation changed the elimination from non-linear to linear, consistent with an abolition of the non-linear elimination via BM EpoRs. The phlebotomy increased the linear clearance of the ablated elimination pathway (from 63.6+/-12 to 126+/-64 ml/h/kg), consistent with an up-regulation of the erythroid progenitor BM-based EpoR pool, but did not change the clearance of the non-ablated elimination pathway (p>0.05). The EpoR pool size remaining after BM ablation was 7.4+/-2.7% of the pre-ablation pool.
Erythropoietin elimination via EpoR in the bone marrow was non-linear and increased following phlebotomy-induced anemia. This is consistent with an up-regulation of the erythropoietic EpoR pool in BM. Assuming that the elimination of Epo after BM ablation was via non-hematopoietic EpoR, then this post-ablation EpoR population was not significantly up-regulated by the phlebotomy.
Available from: John A Widness
- "From previous research, it has been well established that EpoRs are found in all tissues of the body and not just in the bone marrow (Yamaji et al., 1996; Juul et al., 1998, 2001; Carlini et al., 1999). It is possible that these receptors have different Epo binding characteristics in mediating a linear (nonsaturable) clearance of Epo (Veng-Pedersen et al., 2004). However, it is not known whether these additional receptors are responsible for the linear Epo clearance. "
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ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this work was to determine the optimal time for administration of an erythropoietin (Epo) dose to maximize the erythropoietic effect using a simulation study based on a young sheep pharmacodynamic model. The dosing optimization was accomplished by extending a Hb production pharmacodynamic model, which evaluates the complex dynamic changes in the Epo receptor (EpoR) pool from the changes in Epo clearance. Fourteen healthy 2-month-old sheep were phlebotomized to Hb levels of 3 to 4 g/dl. Epo clearance was evaluated longitudinally in each animal by administering tracer doses of (125)I-recombinant human Epo multiple times during the experiment. Kinetic parameters were estimated by simultaneously fitting to Hb data and Epo clearance data. The phlebotomy caused a rapid temporary increase in the endogenous Epo plasma level. The Hb began to increase after the increased in the Epo level with a lag time of 1.13 ± 0.79 days. The average correlation coefficients for the fit of the model to the Hb and clearance data were 0.953 ± 0.018 and 0.876 ± 0.077, respectively. A simulation study was done in each sheep with fixed individual estimated model parameters to determine the optimal time to administer a 100 U/kg intravenous bolus Epo dose. The optimal dose administration time was 11.4 ± 6.2 days after phlebotomy. This study suggests that the Hb produced from Epo administration can be optimized by considering the dynamic changes in the EpoR pool.
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ABSTRACT: To estimate the rate of erythropoietin (EPO) production under physiological, conditions and to examine the regulatory mechanism of EPO production in response to acute phlebotomy-induced anemia.
Six sheep each underwent two phlebotomies in which the hemoglobin (Hb) was reduced to 3-4 g/dl over 4-5 h. The EPO plasma level, reticulocytes, Hb and EPO clearance were followed by frequent blood sampling. The EPO production rate was determined by a semi-parametric method based on a disposition decomposition analysis that accounts for the nonlinear disposition kinetics of EPO and corrects for time-dependent changes in the clearance.
The controlled drop in hemoglobin resulted in an abrupt increase in the plasma EPO concentration (peak level 812+/-40 mU/ml, mean+/-CV%) that was followed by a rapid drop 2-4 days after the phlebotomy at a time when the sheep were still anemic (Hb=4.3+/-16 g/dl). The EPO production rate at baseline was 43+/-52 U/day/kg and the amounts of EPO produced over an 8 day period resulting from the first and second phlebotomy were 2927+/-40 U/kg and 3012+/-31 U/kg, respectively.
The rapid reduction in the EPO plasma level observed 2-4 days following the phlebotomy cannot be explained solely by the increase in EPO clearance but also by a reduction in EPO production.
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ABSTRACT: The introduction of longer-acting erythropoietic agents into the practice of oncology has demanded an understanding of the interaction of chemotherapy with the pharmacokinetics and haematological effects of these erythropoietins. We report results of a randomised trial comparing the haematological effects of darbepoetin alfa, 6.75 mug/kg, administered once every 3 weeks to anaemic cancer chemotherapy patients on either an asynchronous (day 15) or synchronous (day 1) schedule relative to their every-3-week chemotherapy. A total of 81 patients were randomised and received the study drug (43 asynchronous; 38 synchronous). No difference was observed between groups in the primary endpoint of mean haemoglobin change after 6 weeks of therapy (P=0.45) and change scores were similar to those observed with standard weekly darbepoetin alfa therapy. In a subset of patients evaluated with intensive pharmacokinetic sampling, an increase in endogenous erythropoietin concentration (up to 4-fold) lasting approximately 1 week following chemotherapy administration was observed in both groups. Synchronous administration of darbepoetin alfa was associated with a 1.3-fold increase in the area under the darbepoetin alfa concentration-time curve compared with asynchronous administration. Our data suggest that darbepoetin alfa is effective administered every 3 weeks regardless of timing of administration with respect to chemotherapy and that receptor-mediated uptake by the erythron may be an important clearance mechanism for erythropoietic proteins.
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