Effect of calcineurin inhibitors on extracellular matrix turnover in isolated human glomeruli
Although chronic cyclosporine toxicity is mainly characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, glomerular injury with expansion of mesangial matrix and sclerosis is not uncommon. Tacrolimus is a newer calcineurin inhibitor that has been used in renal transplant recipients as primary or rescue therapy. Clinical trials suggest an improved long-term graft survival among patients treated with tacrolimus. Recently we have shown that tacrolimus and cyclosporine have similar effects on extracellular matrix turnover in cultured cells. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of the calcineurin inhibitors on whole glomeruli extracellular matrix turnover. Human glomeruli isolated from kidney biopsies just before transplantation were incubated with culture media containing either cyclosporine (200 ng/mL) or tacrolimus (10 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Glomeruli incubated only with culture medium were used as control. The expressions of (alpha2)IV collagen, metalloprotease 9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases 2 (TIMP-2), and TGFbeta were evaluated by in situ reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). beta-actin was used as a control gene. Cyclosporine (but not tacrolimus) increased the expression of (alpha2)IV collagen and TIMP2 in isolated glomeruli. TGF-beta was markedly increased by cyclosporine. MMP9 expression was not affected by the calcineurin inhibitors. By light microscopy kidney biopsies did not show pathologic changes. Cyclosporine treatment modulates extracellular matrix turnover in isolated human glomeruli, inducing an imbalance between synthesis and degradation. This effect, not observed in tacrolimus-treated human glomeruli, may induce the extracellular matrix deposition and sclerosis characteristic of chronic cyclosporine toxicity.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as the closely related, a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and ADAMs with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs), were traditionally thought to control extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis through direct inhibition of MMP-dependent ECM proteolysis. This classical role for TIMPs suggests that increased TIMP levels results in ECM accumulation (or fibrosis), whereas loss of TIMPs leads to enhanced matrix proteolysis. Mice lacking TIMP family members have provided support for such a role; however, studies with these TIMP deficient mice have also demonstrated that loss of TIMPs can often be associated with an accumulation of ECM. Collectively, these studies suggest that the divergent roles of TIMPs in matrix accumulation and proteolysis, which together can be referred to as ECM turnover, are dependent on the TIMP, specific tissue, and local tissue environment (i.e. health vs. injury/disease). Ultimately, these combined factors dictate the specific metalloproteinases being regulated by a given TIMP, and it is likely the diversity of metalloproteinases and their physiological substrates that determines whether TIMPs inhibit matrix proteolysis or accumulation. In this review, we discuss the evidence for the dichotomous roles of TIMPs in ECM turnover highlighting some of the common findings between different TIMP family members. Importantly, while we now have a better understanding of the role of TIMPs in regulating ECM turnover, much remains to be determined. Data on the specific metalloproteinases inhibited by different TIMPs in vivo remains limited and must be the focus of future studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.0Comments 12Citations
- "Multiple studies provide evidence supporting a role for TIMP2 in inhibition of ECM proteolysis in several tissues, although many of these studies are correlative in nature. For instance, correlative data supports a role for TIMP2 in protecting the ECM from proteolysis in fracture healing , keloids , liver [32,33], kidneys [34,35], Dupuytren's contracture [36,37], and in heart tissues3839404142. As a specific example, patients suffering from Dupuytren's contracture, a disease caused by excessive ECM deposition leading to fixed flexion of joints in the hand, have a disruption in the balance between TIMP2 and MMP2 in favour of TIMP2, which suggests that increased TIMP2 is associated with pathophysiological ECM accumulation [36,37]. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MMPs and their inhibitors [tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMPs) ] form the mainstay of extracellular matrix homeostasis. They are expressed in response to numerous stimuli including cytokines and GPCR activation. This review highlights the importance of adrenoceptors and phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPP) in regulating MMPs in the cardiovascular system, which may help explain some of the beneficial effects of targeting the adrenoceptor system in tissue remodelling and will establish emerging crosstalk between these three systems. Although - and β-adrenoceptor activation increases MMP but decreases TIMP expression, MMPs are implicated in the growth stimulatory effects of adrenoceptor activation through transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor. Furthermore, they have recently been found to catalyse the proteolysis of β-adrenoceptors and modulate vascular tone. While the mechanisms underpinning these effects are not well defined, reversible protein phosphorylation by kinases and phosphatases may be key. In particular, PPP (Ser/Thr phosphatases) are not only critical in resensitization and internalization of adrenoceptors but also modulate MMP expression. The interrelationship is complex as isoprenaline (ISO) inhibits okadaic acid [phosphoprotein phosphatase type 1/phosphoprotein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibitor]-mediated MMP expression. While this may be simply due to its ability to transiently increase PP2A activity, there is evidence for MMP-9 that ISO prevents okadaic acid-mediated expression of MMP-9 through a β-arrestin, NF-κB-dependent pathway, which is abolished by knock-down of PP2A. It is essential that crosstalk between MMPs, adrenoceptors and PPP are investigated further as it will provide important insight into how adrenoceptors modulate cardiovascular remodelling, and may identify new targets for pharmacological manipulation of the MMP system.0Comments 14Citations
- "The pharmacological studies are strengthened by data from a knock-down study demonstrating that silencing of PPM1A (PPM family member) increases proMMP-9 but decreases TIMP-2 expression in extravillous trophoblasts (Zhang et al., 2009 ). There is little evidence implicating calcineurin or PP2B in regulation of the MMP system as cyclosporine but not tacrolimus increases TIMP-1 expression, and neither affect MMP-9 expression (Esposito et al., 2004). So what mechanism(s) contribute to the increase in MMP abundance following PPP inhibition? "
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tacrolimus has proven to be superior to cyclosporine-Sandimmune with regard to the prevention of acute rejections, but data comparing tacrolimus with Neoral are scarce. A total of 128 consecutive renal transplant recipients was studied. The patients were treated with Neoral-based (n = 74) or tacrolimus-based (n = 54) immunosuppressive regimens. Survival analyses (Cox regression analysis) were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Renal function and cardiovascular risk profile were analyzed by means of a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) up to 12 months after transplantation. Immunological features were less favorable in the tacrolimus group. Two-year patient and graft survival were comparable. Acute-rejection-free survival was 82 % in the tacrolimus group versus 40 % in the Neoral group (P < 0.0001). The severity of the rejections (1997 Banff classification) was comparable (P = 0.43). Immunological graft loss (3.7 % vs. 12.2 %, P = 0.02) and conversion because of rejection (0 % vs. 28.4 %, P < 0.001) were less in the tacrolimus group. A higher proportion (68.5 % vs. 14.9 %, P < 0.001) was successfully put on monotherapy. Creatinine clearance, proteinuria, and fractional uric acid clearance were similar. In the tacrolimus group mean blood pressure was comparable, but patients needed less anti-hypertensive drugs (P < 0.001) and, even with fewer patients on lipid-lowering drugs, total cholesterol was lower (5.2 vs. 6.0 mmol/l, P = 0.003). Treatment for post-transplant diabetes mellitus was 18.5 % versus 10.8 % (P = 0.22). In both groups, antidiabetic medication could be withdrawn for most patients. This study indicates that tacrolimus is superior to cyclosporine-Neoral in preventing acute rejection with comparable patient and graft survival rates. Because of a lower need for treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, the cardiovascular risk profile is more favorable. A considerable proportion of patients can be successfully weaned off co-medication and treated with tacrolimus monotherapy.0Comments 53Citations