Tucker KL, Olson B, Bakun P, Dallal GE, Selhub J, Rosenberg IH. Breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 increases vitamin concentrations and reduces homocysteine concentrations: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 805-811

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 06/2004; 79(5):805-11.
Source: PubMed


High homocysteine and low B vitamin concentrations have been linked to the risk of vascular disease, stroke, and dementia and are relatively common in older adults.
We assessed the effect of breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 on vitamin and homocysteine status.
A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 189 volunteers aged 50-85 y. The subjects had no history of hypertension, anemia, asthma, cancer, or cardiovascular or digestive disease and did not regularly consume multiple or B vitamin supplements or highly fortified breakfast cereal. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 1 cup (0.24 L) breakfast cereal fortified with 440 microg folic acid, 1.8 mg vitamin B-6, and 4.8 microg vitamin B-12 or placebo cereal for 12 wk. Blood was drawn at 0, 2, 12, and 14 wk. Methionine-loading tests were conducted at baseline and week 14.
Final baseline-adjusted plasma homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower and B vitamin concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). The percentage of subjects with plasma folate concentrations < 11 nmol/L decreased from 2% to 0%, with vitamin B-12 concentrations < 185 pmol/L from 9% to 3%, with vitamin B-6 concentrations < 20 nmol/L from 6% to 2%, and with homocysteine concentrations > 10.4 micromol/L (women) or > 11.4 micromol/L (men) from 6.4% to 1.6%. The percentage of control subjects with values beyond these cutoff points remained nearly constant or increased.
In this relatively healthy group of volunteers, consumption of 1 cup fortified breakfast cereal daily significantly increased B vitamin and decreased homocysteine concentrations, including post-methionine-load homocysteine concentrations.

Download full-text


Available from: Katherine L Tucker, Oct 07, 2014
  • Source
    • "Foods were fortified in the United States beginning in 1996 after the FDA approved fortification of grains at a dose of 140 ug FA/100 g of food to place approximately 100 ug FA more into the average adult diet (Table 1) (Hoyo et al., 2011a). Trials around the world have documented increased serum folate concentrations after foods were fortified with FA (Johansson et al., 2002; Neuhouser et al., 1998; O&apos;Keefe et al., 1995; Tucker et al., 2004) or after supplementation with FA (Brouwer et al., 1999; Hao et al., 2008; Houghton et al., 2011; Hursthouse et al., 2011; Neuhouser et al., 1998; Venn et al., 2002). Notably, FA added to foods during fortification is 70e85% bioavailable (as folate) compared to only 50% bioavailability of FA/folate naturally occurring in foods (Hoyo et al., 2011a; Quinlivan and Gregory, 2007; Winkels et al., 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized to play roles in disease etiology. Several diseases increasing in frequency are associated with altered DNA methylation. DNA methylation is accomplished through metabolism of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, methionine, betaine (trimethylglycine), and choline. Increased intake of these compounds correlates with decreased neural tube defects, although this mechanism is not well understood. Consumption of these methyl donor pathway components has increased in recent years due to fortification of grains and high supplemental levels of these compounds (e.g. vitamins, energy drinks). Additionally, people with mutations in one of the enzymes that assists in the methyl donor pathway (5-MTHFR) are directed to consume higher amounts of methyl donors to compensate. Recent evidence suggests that high levels of methyl donor intake may also have detrimental effects. Individualized medicine may be necessary to determine the appropriate amounts of methyl donors to be consumed, particularly in women of child bearing age. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
  • Source
    • "Ready-to-eat cereal products fortified with vitamin B12 are known to constitute a great proportion of dietary vitamin B12 intake (Watanabe 2007). Several groups of investigators suggested that eating a breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 increases blood concentrations of these vitamins and decreases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in elderly populations (Tucker et al. 2004). Therefore, fortified breakfast cereals have therefore become a particularly valuable source of vitamin B12 for elderly people and for vegetarians and/or vegans (Watanabe 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wheat contains various essential nutrients including the B group of vitamins. However, B group vitamins, normally present in cereals-derived products, are easily removed or destroyed during milling, food processing or cooking. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures for the fermentation of a large variety of foods and can improve the safety, shelf life, nutritional value, flavor and overall quality of the fermented products. In this regard, the identification and application of strains delivering health-promoting compounds is a fascinating field. Besides their key role in food fermentations, several LAB found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals are commercially used as probiotics and possess generally recognized as safe status. LAB are usually auxotrophic for several vitamins although certain strains of LAB have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B group. In recent years, a number of biotechnological processes have been explored to perform a more economical and sustainable vitamin production than that obtained via chemical synthesis. This review article will briefly report the current knowledge on lactic acid bacteria synthesis of vitamins B2, B11 and B12 and the potential strategies to increase B-group vitamin content in cereals-based products, where vitamins-producing LAB have been leading to the elaboration of novel fermented functional foods. In addition, the use of genetic strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will be also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Source
    • "Some of these deficiencies are associated with an increase in serum cholesterol levels and blood pressure [11] [12] [13]. Other deficiencies such as vitamin B 6 , B 12 , or folic acid deficiency are associated with increased homocysteine levels [6] [7] [8]. For this reason, it is important to plan diets that, besides producing a loss of weight, contribute the necessary nutrients in order that deficiencies do not take place and that the next result is to improve CRF. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine how the follow-up of 2 different energy-restricted (hypocaloric) diets, based on approximating the diet to its theoretical ideal, influences cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, serum low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein, serum triacylglycerol and homocysteine, and serum high-density lipoprotein. Fifty-seven young overweight or obese women were randomly assigned to one of 2 different weight-control programs designed to approximate the diet to the theoretical ideal. Twenty-eight women were assigned to the vegetable (V) group; this group was characterized by a relatively increased consumption of vegetables. Twenty-nine women were assigned to the cereal (C) group, which was characterized by a relatively increased consumption of cereals. Dietetic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected at the outset of the study and again 2 and 6 weeks into the program in both groups. Both interventions resulted in a significant improvement in warning parameters of obesity (weight, body mass index, and waist/hip ratio), total serum cholesterol, and homocysteine at the end of the study. Plasma homocysteine levels fell by 14.9 ± 13.6% in the group C subjects and by 8.8 ± 14.0% in the group V subjects after 6 weeks. This may have been due to an increase in the intake and serum levels of vitamin B6 and folate in both groups. At the end of the intervention, the V group exhibited a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and in non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Group C subjects showed a reduction in diastolic blood pressure at this time. The results suggest that both hypocaloric diets with a relative increase in the consumption of vegetables or cereals were effective in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese women.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Nutrition Research
Show more