Lateral ventricular enlargement has been reported in chronic fatigue syndrome, while cerebral neurospectroscopy has recently indicated that essential fatty acid treatment may be of value in this condition. An essential fatty acid supplement rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was therefore given daily to a female patient with a 6-year history of unremitting symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Cerebral magnetic resonance scanning was carried out at baseline and 16 weeks later. The EPA-rich essential fatty acid supplementation led to a marked clinical improvement in her symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, starting within 6-8 weeks. Accurate quantification of the lateral ventricular volumes in the baseline and 16-week follow-up registered images of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging structural scans showed that the treatment was accompanied by a marked reduction in the lateral ventricular volume during this period, from 28,940-23,660 mm3.