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Effect of Active Versus Passive Recovery on Metabolism and Performance during Subsequent Exercise

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Abstract

This study tested the hypothesis that active recovery between bouts of intense aerobic exercise would lead to better maintenance of exercise performance in the second bout of exercise. Seven trained men on 2 separate occasions (VO(2peak) = 58.3+/- 9.4 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed as much work as possible during two 20-min cycling exercise bouts, separated by a 15-min recovery period. During passive recovery (PR), subjects rested supine, while during active recovery (AR) subjects continued to cycle at 40% VO(2peak). Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained. Neither muscle glycogen or lactate was different when comparing AR with PR at any point. In contrast, plasma lactate concentration was higher (p<.05) in PR versus AR during the recovery period, such that subjects commenced the second bout of intense exercise with a lower (p <.05) plasma lactate concentration in AR (4.4 +/- 0.7 vs. 7.7 +/- 1.4 mmol. L(-1) following AR and PR, respectively). Work performed in Bout 2 was less than that performed in Bout 1 in both trials (p<.01), with no difference in work performed between trials. These data do not support the benefit of AR when compared to PR in the maintenance of subsequent intense aerobic exercise performance.

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... There has been a sizeable amount of research focusing specifically on understanding the acute effects of recovery interval intensity during cycling-based aerobic interval training (AIT; long work intervals ≥ 1 min; Barbosa et al. 2016;Coso et al. 2010;Dorado et al. 2004;Monedero and Donne 2000;McAinch et al. 2004;Siegler et al. 2006;Stanley and Buchheit 2014). Researchers investigating recovery intensity during cycling-based AIT have tended to use time to exhaustion work intervals (Barbosa et al. 2016;Siegler et al. 2006;Dorado et al. 2004) and fixed intensity work intervals (Stanley and Buchheit 2014;Coso et al. 2010). ...
... Researchers investigating recovery intensity during cycling-based AIT have tended to use time to exhaustion work intervals (Barbosa et al. 2016;Siegler et al. 2006;Dorado et al. 2004) and fixed intensity work intervals (Stanley and Buchheit 2014;Coso et al. 2010). Whilst only two have utilised self-paced fixed duration work interval prescriptions (McAinch et al. 2004;Monedero and Donne 2000), which have been suggested to be an athlete's typical approach to HIIT training (Seiler et al. 2011). McAinch et al. (2004, required participants to complete 2 × 20-min selfpaced maximal effort work intervals (i.e. ...
... Siegler et al. 2006;Dorado et al. 2004) and fixed intensity work intervals (Stanley and Buchheit 2014;Coso et al. 2010). Whilst only two have utilised self-paced fixed duration work interval prescriptions (McAinch et al. 2004;Monedero and Donne 2000), which have been suggested to be an athlete's typical approach to HIIT training (Seiler et al. 2011). McAinch et al. (2004, required participants to complete 2 × 20-min selfpaced maximal effort work intervals (i.e. isoeffort) separated by a 15-min passive (PA) recovery or active (ACT) recovery at 40% of V O 2peak . They found no difference in work performed during intervals between the ACT and PA protocols. Monedero and Donne (2000) used 2 × 5-km self-paced ...
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Purpose The current study sought to investigate the role of recovery intensity on the physiological and perceptual responses during cycling-based aerobic high-intensity interval training. Methods Fourteen well-trained cyclists ( $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{{\text{2peak}}}}$$ V ˙ O 2peak : 62 ± 9 mL kg ⁻¹ min ⁻¹ ) completed seven laboratory visits. At visit 1, the participants’ peak oxygen consumption ( $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{{\text{2peak}}}}$$ V ˙ O 2peak ) and lactate thresholds were determined. At visits 2–7, participants completed either a 6 × 4 min or 3 × 8 min high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocol with one of three recovery intensity prescriptions: passive (PA) recovery, active recovery at 80% of lactate threshold (80A) or active recovery at 110% of lactate threshold (110A). Results The time spent at > 80%, > 90% and > 95% of maximal minute power during the work intervals was significantly increased with PA recovery, when compared to both 80A and 110A, during both HIIT protocols (all P ≤ 0.001). However, recovery intensity had no effect on the time spent at > 90% $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{{\text{2peak}}}}$$ V ˙ O 2peak ( P = 0.11) or > 95% $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{{\text{2peak}}}}$$ V ˙ O 2peak ( P = 0.50) during the work intervals of both HIIT protocols. Session RPE was significantly higher following the 110A recovery, when compared to the PA and 80A recovery during both HIIT protocols ( P < 0.001). Conclusion Passive recovery facilitates a higher work interval PO and similar internal stress for a lower sRPE when compared to active recovery and therefore may be the efficacious recovery intensity prescription.
... An active cool-down may theoretically enhance glycogen resynthesis, because an increased blood flow and elevated muscle temperature could increase glucose delivery to muscle tissue [94], while muscle contraction may increase the expression of the GLUT-4 glucose transporter. However, studies have found either no significant difference in the rate of glycogen resynthesis between an active cool-down and passive cool-down [58,66,95], or less glycogen resynthesis during an active cool-down [64,68,[96][97][98]. During the active cool-down, these studies provided no carbohydrate [58,64,66,68,95], less carbohydrate [96], or more carbohydrate [97,98] than what is recommended (1.2 g/kg/h [99]) for restoring muscle glycogen. ...
... However, studies have found either no significant difference in the rate of glycogen resynthesis between an active cool-down and passive cool-down [58,66,95], or less glycogen resynthesis during an active cool-down [64,68,[96][97][98]. During the active cool-down, these studies provided no carbohydrate [58,64,66,68,95], less carbohydrate [96], or more carbohydrate [97,98] than what is recommended (1.2 g/kg/h [99]) for restoring muscle glycogen. Therefore, these findings suggest that an active cool-down may interfere with muscle glycogen resynthesis, particularly within type I muscle fibers [64], because these fibers are preferentially recruited during a low-to moderate-intensity active cool-down. ...
... For example, Kuipers et al. compared glycogen resynthesis between a passive cooldown and an active cool-down in which participants cycled for 2.5 h at 40% of their maximum workload [97], or 3 h at 40% of their maximum workload [64,66,96,98]. In contrast, studies that reported no significant (but also lower) difference in the rate of glycogen resynthesis between an active cool-down and passive cool-down usually applied shorter active cool-down durations (i.e., 10, 15, and 45 min [58,66,95]), suggesting that shorter active cool downs interfere less with glycogen resynthesis. ...
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It is widely believed that an active cool-down is more effective for promoting post-exercise recovery than a passive cool-down involving no activity. However, research on this topic has never been synthesized and it therefore remains largely unknown whether this belief is correct. This review compares the effects of various types of active cool-downs with passive cool-downs on sports performance, injuries, long-term adaptive responses, and psychophysiological markers of post-exercise recovery. An active cool-down is largely ineffective with respect to enhancing same-day and next-day(s) sports performance, but some beneficial effects on next-day(s) performance have been reported. Active cool-downs do not appear to prevent injuries, and preliminary evidence suggests that performing an active cool-down on a regular basis does not attenuate the long-term adaptive response. Active cool-downs accelerate recovery of lactate in blood, but not necessarily in muscle tissue. Performing active cool-downs may partially prevent immune system depression and promote faster recovery of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. However, it is unknown whether this reduces the likelihood of post-exercise illnesses, syncope, and cardiovascular complications. Most evidence indicates that active cool-downs do not significantly reduce muscle soreness, or improve the recovery of indirect markers of muscle damage, neuromuscular contractile properties, musculotendinous stiffness, range of motion, systemic hormonal concentrations, or measures of psychological recovery. It can also interfere with muscle glycogen resynthesis. In summary, based on the empirical evidence currently available, active cool-downs are largely ineffective for improving most psychophysiological markers of post-exercise recovery, but may nevertheless offer some benefits compared with a passive cool-down.
... However, the effects of these recovery modes on subsequent performance are equivocal [22]. For instance, although some authors have reported that active recovery is more efficient than passive recovery [4,5], others found no differences [22,23], or a better physical performance after passive recovery [19,24]. As was assumed by some authors [22] the faster elimination rate of blood lactate concentration through active recovery is of no practical relevance for many disciplines and it may negatively affect the adaptation. ...
... A paired t-test power analysis of exercise influence determined that at least 9 subjects were required to obtain a power of 0.8 at a two-sided level of 0.05 with effect size d = 0.8. This analysis was based on data derived from previous literature [21,23,28,33]. ...
... The absence of differences in the fatigue index after active legs recovery compared to the baseline value may suggest that mild exercise applied after intensive physical effort may accelerate the removal of the muscle fatigue symptoms, and thus keep the potential for the recruitment of the appropriate amount of motor units during subsequent physical effort. In contrast, some authors have reported that both active and passive recovery regimens have the same influence on the parameters obtained during subsequent physical effort [4,18,20,22,23]. The discrepancy between these reports may be caused both by a variety of control charts of the test physical effort used by the authors, and by the different lengths of recovery time examined. ...
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Background The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Methods Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Results Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. Conclusions We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training.
... The effects of active recovery on blood lactate removal are well documented. However, a limited number of studies have used muscle biopsies to examine the changes of muscle lactate and other metabolites or substrates such as PCr and muscle glycogen, during active compared to passive recovery following repeated exercise bouts (Spencer et al., 2006McAinch et al., 2004;Bangsbo et al., 1994;Fairchild et al., 2003;Choi et al., 1994;Peters-Futre et al., 1987). The changes in the rate of recovery of selected metabolites may have an impact on performance during short or long duration sprints. ...
... Muscle lactate has been shown to decrease after 10 minutes of active compared to passive recovery (Bangsbo et al., 1994). However, there are reports of higher (Peters-Futre et al., 1987) or unchanged (Choi et al., 1994;McAinch et al., 2004;Fairchild et al., 2003) muscle lactate concentration following long duration of active recovery (15 to 60 min). Higher muscle lactate after active recovery has been reported following repeated short duration sprints (Spencer et al., 2006). ...
... It is likely that the mitochondrial oxygen demand during active recovery decreases the oxygen available for PCr resynthesis. Notably, PCr stores are lower after active recovery compared to passive recovery not only after short duration but also after long interval duration (McAinch et al., 2004). ...
Article
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The common training practice of active recovery, using low intensity of exercise, is often applied during the interval between repeated exercise bouts and following training sessions with the intention to promote the restoration of muscle metabolism and hasten the recovery of performance. The purpose of this chapter is to address the metabolic limitations concerning the use of active recovery during and after training sessions of high or maximum intensity. Although there is a consensus concerning the faster lactate removal after active recovery, there is no clear evidence concerning the effect of this practice on performance. This is probably attributed to different exercise modes and experimental protocols that have been used to examine the effectiveness of active compared to passive recovery. Active compared to passive recovery increases performance in long duration sprints (15 to 30 s and 40 to 120 s) interspaced with long duration intervals (i.e., exercise to rest ratio 1:8 to 1:15), but this is less likely after short duration repeated sprints (4 to 15 s) interspaced with relatively short rest intervals (i.e., exercise to rest ratio of 1:5). The duration or the intensity, and possibly the mode of exercise, may be critical factors affecting performance after active recovery as compared to passive recovery. This in turn affects the energy systems contributing to the exercise bout that follows. It is likely that active compared to passive recovery, following long duration sprints, creates a beneficial intramuscular environment due to a faster restoration of acidbase balance within the muscle cell. However, the oxygen dependent PCr resynthesis may be impaired by active recovery when it is applied between short duration sprints and especially when the recovery interval is short. Furthermore, the intensity of active recovery can also be crucial for an effective performance outcome. Low intensity should be used for short duration sprints whereas the intensity at the "lactate threshold" may be more appropriate between long duration sprints. In addition, active compared to passive recovery applied immediately after high intensity training may help to maintain performance during the next training session. Coaches should be aware of the above limitations when using active recovery to improve the effectiveness of training.
... The effects of active recovery on blood lactate removal are well documented. However, a limited number of studies have used muscle biopsies to examine the changes of muscle lactate and other metabolites or substrates such as PCr and muscle glycogen, during active compared to passive recovery following repeated exercise bouts (Spencer et al., 2006(Spencer et al., , 2008McAinch et al., 2004;Bangsbo et al., 1994;Fairchild et al., 2003;Choi et al., 1994;Peters-Futre et al., 1987). The changes in the rate of recovery of selected metabolites may have an impact on performance during short or long duration sprints. ...
... Muscle lactate has been shown to decrease after 10 minutes of active compared to passive recovery (Bangsbo et al., 1994). However, there are reports of higher (Peters-Futre et al., 1987) or unchanged (Choi et al., 1994McAinch et al., 2004;Fairchild et al., 2003) muscle lactate concentration following long duration of active recovery (15 to 60 min). Higher muscle lactate after active recovery has been reported following repeated short duration sprints (Spencer et al., 2006). ...
... It is likely that the mitochondrial oxygen demand during active recovery decreases the oxygen available for PCr resynthesis. Notably, PCr stores are lower after active recovery compared to passive recovery not only after short duration but also after long interval duration (McAinch et al., 2004). ...
Article
... Two important concepts underlying the recovery process as defined by experts in exercise physiology (McAinch et al., 2004;McArdle, Katch, & Katch, 2001;Thiriet et al., 1993) include passive recovery (PR) and active recovery (AR). Passive recovery (PR) refers to complete inactivity as a means of reducing the energy needed by the larger muscles so that oxygen may be directed to the recovery process. ...
... Investigators have examined the role of active recovery in the maintenance of exercise performance in a second or subsequent bout of intense aerobic exercise of 5 minutes (Thiriet et al., 1993) and 20 minutes duration (McAinch et al., 2004). Neither study found significant benefits of active recovery versus passive recovery (PR) in performance maintenance. ...
... As mentioned in Chapter II, the exercise physiology literature addresses a similar question with conflicting evidence regarding the merit of cooling down during subsequent performance. Two such studies identified lower plasma lactate levels during subsequent performance; however, significant benefits regarding performance maintenance were not noted (Thiriet et al., 1993;McAinch et al., 2004). For the present study no singing or warming up was to be conducted prior to these sessions. ...
Article
Cool-down exercises are routinely prescribed for singers, yet few data exist about the efficacy of active recovery or cooling down of the vocal mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to compare three aspects of vocal function after using different recovery methods following rigorous voice use. Vocal function was assessed using (1) phonation threshold pressure (PTP); (2) acoustic measures (accuracy of tone production, duration of notes and duration of intervals between notes); and (3) measures of subjective perception: perceived phonatory effort (PPE) and Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI). Data were collected after 10-minutes of cool-down exercises, complete voice rest, and conversation immediately following a 50-minute voice lesson. Data were collected again 12-24 hours later. Participants included actively performing elite singers (7 women, 2 men) enrolled in the graduate program (M.M., D.M.A.) at the University of Cincinnati's College-Conservatory of Music. While it was expected that PTP estimates after cool downs would be significantly lower than baselines and the other conditions, it turns out that PTP estimates after cool downs were significantly higher at the 80% level of the pitch range. Statistically significant correlations between PTP estimates and PPE scores were found when comparing levels of the participants' pitch ranges (10%, 20%, 80%). Mean PPE scores were highest at the 80% level of the pitch range. The acoustic measures yielded variable results. Cool-down exercises did not result in significantly more accurate tone production and shorter staccato note duration and duration of intervals between staccato notes as compared to baselines and recovery conditions. Instead, participants demonstrated greater accuracy of tone production during baselines and lesser accuracy after voice rest. Staccato notes were significantly shorter in duration after the conversation condition as compared to voice rest. Duration between staccato notes was significantly shorter 12-24 hours after voice rest compared to baselines and the other follow-up conditions. SVHI mean scores were higher during baselines than after the recovery conditions and during follow-up sessions. Statistical significance is noted in comparison of mean SVHI scores 12-24 hours after cool downs (overall lowest mean score) and baselines. The relationship between vocal cool downs and their aerodynamic and acoustic effects remains unclear. What was found was that perhaps the perceived benefit of vocal cool downs is not apparent immediately after their use, but is evident 12-24 hours later. While it appears that conversation may be an acceptable form of active vocal recovery, cool-down exercises may be most beneficial as they raise a conscious awareness of optimum, resonant voice use which may carryover into conversational speech. Future research may benefit from examination of long-term use of vocal cool-down exercises in subsequent vocal performance.
... sur le banc mais de pédaler à faible intensité en sortant de l'anneau de jeu (Åstrand et Rodahl 1994). Toutefois, avant de conclure de la sorte, il est important de préciser un certain nombre de points. Premièrement, une accélération de l'élimination du lactate sanguin ne signifie pas nécessairement un résultat identique au niveau intracellulaire. McAinch et al. (2004) ont ainsi montré que la baisse de la lactatémie induite par la RA ne se retrouvait pas lorsque la concentration était mesurée au niveau du muscle après une biopsie (Fig. 1). LES ENTRETIENS 2 La récupération active peut-elle améliorer la performance des athlètes élite ? Ceci est corroboré par deux études conduites en spectroscopie par ré ...
... À l'inverse, pour un exercice comparable (i. e. performance maximale en 20 minutes, séparée par une RA de 15 minutes à 40 % de PMA vs RP), il n'existait pas de différence dans une autre expérimentation (McAinch et al. 2004). De même, alors qu'Ahmaidi et al. (1996) avaient montré que la puissance lors des sprints était supérieure, dans le cas de la RA, lors d'une répétition de tests charge-vitesse de 6 secondes sur ergocycle, un résultat complètement opposé (i. ...
... En effet, plusieurs études sur ergocycle (Dupont et al. 2004 ; Dupont et al. 2007) ou en course à pied (Dupont et al. 2003 ; Buchheit et al. 2009) ont montré que la performance était moindre en cas de RA dans ce cas de figure. Ceci est associé avec une moindre oxygénation musculaire – mise en évidence par la méthode spectroscopie proche infrarouge – dont l'effet pourrait être indirect via une moindre resynthèse des réserves de phosphocréatine (McAinch et al. 2004 ; Spencer et al. 2006). La question de l'intensité optimale est, de fait, encore plus difficile à trancher lorsque le critère n'est plus la baisse de la lactatémie mais le maintien de la performance subséquente. ...
... The most effective method to obtain full recovery (as assessed by various sport related performance indices) in relatively short time frames has yet to be established. In related work, numerous studies have indicated that low-intensity exercise during recovery enhances metabolic waste removal from muscle (predominately lactate and H + ) into the blood more rapidly than passive recovery (1,2,6,18,19,27). In sport application, the importance of active recovery, however, may be negligible if performance during subsequent high-intensity exercise bouts is not enhanced. ...
... Although commonly assumed by sport participants that active recovery presents a competitive advantage, research evidence remains equivocal. A comparative review of the literature reveals that of the studies demonstrating a benefi cial performance effect during subsequent exercise bouts while implementing active recovery modes (1,4,28), an almost equal number have found little or no improvement (18,30). Recovery profi les are often diffi cult to establish, as most studies implement short duration (1 to 5 min), high-intensity sprints integrated with short recovery time frames (< 30 s). ...
... The relative acidotic state that subjects remained in during the second and third passive recovery trials (as evidenced in Figureʼs 1 and 2 ERV) illustrates the enhanced metabolic waste removal associated with active recovery. This result, although rarely documented for multiple bouts, has been shown in numerous other studies implementing similar exhaustive single bout exercise protocols (1,2,6,18,19,27). Due to the exponential rise in the concentration of blood H + and lactate caused by the high non-mitochondrial ATP turnover during the exercise bouts, it was expected that an eventual limiting factor to performance would be the overall depletion of muscle and blood buffering capacities (as confi rmed by others; 14,17,29). ...
... Therefore, it has been suggested that VȮ 2 max kinectics may be faster during maximal sprints preceded by active recovery rather than passive recovery (4,5,9). However, other studies have suggested that the passive recovery interval may induce greater restoration of the intramuscular pH and, therefore, allow longer exercise time (14), and, consequently, a higher volume of O 2 consumed (22,27). ...
... Previous studies investigating the active recovery interval have observed an improvement in maximal sprint performance mediated by a significant increase in muscle and blood lactate removal, as a result of increased blood flow (5,10). However, other studies have observed that passive recoveries allow maintenance or improvement of performance without any direct relationship with lactate behavior (20,22,27). ...
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Germano, MD, Sindorf, MAG, Crisp, AH, Braz, TV, Brigatto, FA, Nunes, AG, Verlengia, R, Moreno, MA, Aoki, MS, and Lopes, CR. Effect of different recoveries during HIIT sessions on metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses and sprint performance in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019- The purpose of this study was to investigate how the type (passive and active) and duration (short and long) recovery between maximum sprints affect blood lactate concentration, O 2 consumed, the time spent at high percentages of V ̇ O 2 max, and performance. Participants were randomly assigned to 4 experimental sessions of high-intensity interval training exercise. Each session was performed with a type and duration of the recovery (short passive recovery-2 minutes, long passive recovery [LPR-8 minutes], short active recovery-2 minutes, and long active recovery [LAR-8 minutes]). There were no significant differences in blood lactate concentration between any of the recoveries during the exercise period (p > 0.05). The LAR presented a significantly lower blood lactate value during the postexercise period compared with LPR (p < 0.01). The LPR showed a higher O 2 volume consumed in detriment to the active protocols (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in time spent at all percentages of V ̇ O 2 max between any of the recovery protocols (p > 0.05). The passive recoveries showed a significantly higher effort time compared with the active recoveries (p < 0.001). Different recovery does not affect blood lactate concentration during exercise. All the recoveries permitted reaching and time spent at high percentages of V ̇ O 2 max. Therefore, all the recoveries may be efficient to generate disturbances in the cardiorespiratory system.
... Actually, it has to be considered that in this study the subjects underwent two daily exercise sessions, and these responses could mainly result from cumulative training. The lack of diff erence between recovery interventions is in line with previous studies that reported no benefi ts in performance following active recovery interventions in athletes [32,46,48,49] . Several factors might have more impact on the recovery process than any of the interventions employed, such as the young age [40] , the good athletic condition [46] , the well-balanced dietary regimen [29,32] , euhydration [27] , suffi cient sleep [42] , and low level of psychological distress [28] of the individual. ...
... The lack of diff erence between recovery interventions is in line with previous studies that reported no benefi ts in performance following active recovery interventions in athletes [32,46,48,49] . Several factors might have more impact on the recovery process than any of the interventions employed, such as the young age [40] , the good athletic condition [46] , the well-balanced dietary regimen [29,32] , euhydration [27] , suffi cient sleep [42] , and low level of psychological distress [28] of the individual. Furthermore, studying with a two bout exercise protocol the recovery capability of athletes who have been classifi ed over-trained and non-functionally over-reached (i. ...
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At present, there is no consensus on the effectiveness of post-exercise recovery interventions on subsequent daily performances. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 20 min low-intensity water exercises, supine electrostimulation, and passive (sitting rest) recovery modalities on physiological (oxygen consumption, blood lactate concentration, and percentage of hemoglobin saturation in the muscles), psychological (subjective ratings of perceived exertion, muscle pain, and feeling of recovery), and performance (countermovement, bouncing jumping) parameters. During three experimental sessions, 8 men (age: 21.9+/-1.3 yrs; height: 175.8+/-10.7 cm; body mass: 71.2+/-9.8 kg; VO(2max): 57.9+/-5.1 ml x kg x min(-1)) performed a morning and an afternoon submaximal running test. The recovery interventions were randomly administered after the first morning tests. Activity and dietary intake were replicated on each occasion. ANOVA for repeated measures (p<0.05) showed no difference between the morning and afternoon physiological (ratios: range 0.90-1.18) and performance parameters (ratios: range 0.80-1.24), demonstrating that post-exercise recovery interventions do not provide significant beneficial effects over a limited time period. Conversely, subjects perceived water exercises (60%) and electrostimulation (40%) as the most effective interventions, indicating that these recovery strategies might improve the subjective feelings of wellbeing of the individual.
... For recovery periods of 10-20 min some studies have indicated that active recovery (AR) is better than passive recovery (PR) for blood lactate removal (Greenwood et al. 2008;Siegler et al. 2006;McAinch et al. 2004;Gupta et al. 1996;Weltman and Regan 1983;Weltman et al. 1979). However, the effect of AR on subsequent performance is controversial when the interval between the first and the second bout is 10-20 min (Greenwood et al. 2008; Monedero and Donne 2000;Watts et al. 2000;Thiriet et al. 1993;Bond et al. 1991;Weltman and Regan 1983;Weltman et al. 1977Weltman et al. , 1979. ...
... The results of the present study are also in line with those of the previous ones which reported that AR was better than PR for lactate removal from the blood (Greenwood et al. 2008;Siegler et al. 2006;McAinch et al. 2004;Gupta et al. 1996;Weltman and Regan 1983;Weltman et al. 1979). The moment when the differences started (9-10 min after the match) is similar to that reported in studies using other tasks (Hudson et al. 1999;Gupta et al. 1996) and with a previous study with a judo match simulation (Franchini et al. 2003). ...
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The objective of the present study was to verify if active recovery (AR) applied after a judo match resulted in a better performance when compared to passive recovery (PR) in three tasks varying in specificity to the judo and in measurement of work performed: four upper-body Wingate tests (WT); special judo fitness test (SJFT); another match. For this purpose, three studies were conducted. Sixteen highly trained judo athletes took part in study 1, 9 in study 2, and 12 in study 3. During AR judokas ran (15 min) at the velocity corresponding to 70% of 4 mmol l(-1) blood lactate intensity (approximately 50% VO(2) peak), while during PR they stayed seated at the competition area. The results indicated that the minimal recovery time reported in judo competitions (15 min) is long enough for sufficient recovery of WT performance and in a specific high-intensity test (SJFT). However, the odds ratio of winning a match increased ten times when a judoka performed AR and his opponent performed PR, but the cause of this phenomenon cannot be explained by changes in number of actions performed or by changes in match's time structure.
... The incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer to produce lactate, has been used in several studies to measure lactate concentrations, a study with cyclists in Australia compared the effects of active versus passive recovery on metabolism and performance compare the effects of active versus passive recovery on metabolism and performance, taking 15 minutes of recovery and BLC in active and passive recovery of 4.4±0.7 and 7.7±1.4 mmol/L respectively, conclude that these data do not support the benefit of active versus passive recovery in the maintenance of subsequent performance (14). ...
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Objective: To determine the effects of physioprophylaxis (PP) on blood lactate (BL) concentrations after maximal incremental stress test, considering that this is the application of techniques in sports physiotherapy to reduce signs of muscle fatigue that can trigger injuries due to overload. Materials and Methods: Quantitative study, experimental type, longitudinal section in 12 university players. The group is divided into one control group (CG) with recovery at rest without PP and another experimental group (EG) to which PP is applied at the end of the test. Blood lactate is recorded with Accutrend Plus at the beginning of the test, (1) five minutes after finishing the test (2) and after the PP (3) at two different moments for intra-subject analysis. Results: The following data were obtained regarding blood lactate clearance, Moment 1: Without Plan (WoP) 4.86±1.4 and With Plan (WP) 8.85±1.25 (p<0.05), moment 2: (WoP) 5.6±1.76 and (WP) 7.8±1.3 (p<0.05) in mmol/L, and intra-subject: (WoP): 5.25±1.58; (WP): 8.35±1.33 (p<0.05). Conclusions: The clearance of lactate in the blood at 30 minutes post stress test in the EG is bigger than the CG, because they recovered with the physioprophylactic plan.
... Although a definition of active recovery was not included in the questionnaire, it usually consists of light to moderate exercise considerably below the lactate threshold (Wilcock, 2005), which would be expected in the days following a competitive event. The presumption that active recovery enhances the clearance of blood lactate and reduces post-exercise muscle soreness and tenderness has generally not been supported by research (McAinch et al., 2004;Hotfiel et al., 2019). However, the present results indicate that active recovery is both popular and perceived to be highly effective (88% overall effectiveness) among triathletes. ...
Article
Background To minimise the deleterious effects of fatigue and muscle soreness and maintain availability for training and competition, triathletes may implement recovery strategies that act on various physiological, biomechanical, neurological or psychological domains. However, the use of common recovery strategies is yet to be investigated in this population. Methods 322 triathletes (109 female, 212 male) of varying competition levels from 39 countries participated in the current study. Participants completed an anonymous online survey to determine their use and perceived effectiveness of various recovery strategies. Multiple chi-square tests were conducted to examine the association between training week type (normal vs post-competition), preferred event distance (short or long course), competition level and use of recovery strategies. Results The most frequently used recovery strategies during normal training weeks were active recovery (51%), stretching (47%) and additional sleep (32%), while foam rolling (35%), massage guns (20%) and compression garments (19%) were the most commonly used recovery devices. The use of active recovery, additional sleep and professional massage was significantly (p = <.002) more common in the week following a competitive event than during a normal training week. Long course triathletes were more likely to use intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices (p = .008) and hydrotherapy (p = .05) than were short-course triathletes. Conclusion Active recovery, additional sleep and stretching are the preferred recovery choices for triathletes of all levels, though the use of foam rolling, massage guns and compression garments is common in this population. Active recovery, additional sleep and professional massage are more frequently used by triathletes in the week following a competitive event and are perceived to be the most effective recovery strategies overall.
... After warming up, and before the verification test, we used a passive break of 15 min. We decided that this way of preparing for the test is good, because in the literature there are suggestions that the type of break (active or passive) before a few minutes and intense efforts does not affect exercise capacity (McAinch et al., 2004;Fennell and Hopker, 2021). In addition, vasodilation of muscle vessels and the activity of histamine H1 and H2 receptors is high even for 90 min after exercise (Luttrell and Halliwill, 2017). ...
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The study was conducted to compare peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) measured with the incremental graded test (GXT) (VO2peak) and two tests to verify maximum oxygen uptake, performed 15 min after the incremental test (VO2peak1) and on a separate day (VO2peak2). The aim was to determine which of the verification tests is more accurate and, more generally, to validate the VO2max obtained in the incremental graded test on cycle ergometer. The study involved 23 participants with varying levels of physical activity. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences for repeated measurements (F = 2.28, p = 0.118, η2 = 0.12). Bland–Altman analysis revealed a small bias of the VO2peak1 results compared to the VO2peak (0.4 ml⋅min–1⋅kg–1) and VO2peak2 results compared to the VO2peak (−0.76 ml⋅min–1⋅kg–1). In isolated cases, it was observed that VO2peak1 and VO2peak2 differed by more than 5% from VO2peak. Considering the above, it can be stated that among young people, there are no statistically significant differences between the values of VO2peak measured in the following tests. However, in individual cases, the need to verify the maximum oxygen uptake is stated, but performing a second verification test on a separate day has no additional benefit.
... walking and running) than in passive recovery could be an explanation for this. This would be in line with previous reports, showing that active recovery is largely ineffective in enhancing sports performance (Cortis et al., 2010) and the recovery of other psychophysiological markers such as muscle soreness (Cortis et al., 2010;Rey et al., 2012b), neuromuscular function (Rey et al., 2012b), range of motion (Rey et al., 2012a), muscle glycogen storage (McAinch et al., 2004), hormone concentrations (Tessitore et al., 2008), mode state and sleep (Tessitore et al., 2008;Van Hooren and Peake, 2018). Further research is required to evaluate the effect of active recovery on gait stability, since in our study this variable remained unaffected after the IET. ...
Article
The aerobic endurance is considered an important physiological capacity of soccer players which is examined by Incremental Exercise Test (IET). However, it is not clear how general fatigue induced by IET influences physiological and biomechanical gait features in soccer players and how players recover optimally at post-IET. Here, the effect of general fatigue induced by IET on energy cost, gait variability and stability in soccer players was investigated. To identify an optimal recovery mode, the effect of walking at Preferred Walking Speed (PWS), running at Individual Ventilation Threshold (IVT) (two active recovery modes), and Rest (a passive recovery mode) on aforementioned features were studied. Nine male players walked 4-min at PWS on a treadmill prior IET (PreT), which was followed by four 4-min walking trials (PosT-0, 1, 2, and 3) with three 4-min recovery intervals (PWS, IVT, or Rest) between them, in three sessions (one for each recovery mode) in a random order. Energy cost, gait variability and stability were examined at PreT (baseline), and at PosT-0, 1, 2, and 3 (intervals of respectively 0-4, 8-12, 16-20, 24-28 minutes at post-IET). Gait variability was assessed by the standard deviation of trunk angle and gait stability was assessed by the local dynamic stability of trunk angular velocity. Gait stability was not affected by IET, despite increases in gait variability and energy cost. Different from IVT, PWS and Rest recovery modes reduced energy cost at post-IET. Gait variability and energy cost recovered at PosT-1 and PosT-2, suggesting that 8-12 and 16-20 minutes recovery intervals, respectively, were required for returning to their baselines. No preference for active over passive recovery was found in terms of gait variability and energy cost.
... During the exercise period, the treadmill speed was intermittently arranged at moderate intensity interspersed with active recovery periods, in which the rats did not take a rest (passive recovery) but keep running at a slower rate. Numerous studies have shown that hormonal and growth factor changes, as well as the capacity to the sustenance of subsequent aerobic exercise performance is predominantly stimulated by active recovery [43,44]. The training interval was increased every week on odd days and every day for even days. ...
Article
Decreases in estrogen levels due to menopause or ovariectomy may disrupt cerebellar motor functions. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Moderate Intensity Intermittent Exercise (MIEx) on the cerebellum of ovariectomized rats by analyzing neurotrophic and neuroprotective markers, as well as cerebellar motor functions. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, i.e. Sham and ovariectomy (Ovx) of non-MIEx (NMIEx) groups, and Sham and Ovx with MIEx groups. MIEx was performed 5 days a week on treadmill for 6 weeks. Motor functions were assessed using rotarod, footprint, open field, and wire hanging tests. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of Pgc-1α, BDNF, synaptophysin, Bcl-2, and Bax. Unbiased stereology was used to estimate the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells. The Ovx MIEx group had higher Pgc-1α and Bcl-2 mRNA expressions, and number of Purkinje cells, but lower Bax mRNA expression than the Ovx NMIEx group. All motor functions of MIEx groups were better than the Sham and Ovx groups without MIEx. Motor functions on rotarod task, OFT, and FPT correlated significantly with the mRNAs expression of Bcl-2, Bax, BDNF, synaptophysin, Pgc-1α, and the number of cerebellar Purkinje cells in ovariectomized rats. MIEx improves cerebellar neurotrophic and neuroprotective markers, as well as motor functions of ovariectomized rats.
... O 2max is more effective than passive recovery on lactate disappearance following maximal exercise [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] . However, the optimal intensity and the recovery mode have yielded conflicting results about muscle lactate accumulation 5,11,12 and peak lactate. [13][14][15] In addition, coaches and trainers used stretching as a method to recover after intense exercise. ...
... Recovery yang dilakuan secara pasif akan menyebabkan peredaran darah menurun secara mendadak dan tidak bertahap. Hal ini ini tentunya akan memperlambat sistem sirkulasi sehingga nutrisi, oksigen dan zat lainnya tidak didistribusikan dengan baik ke sel yang mengalami cedera pasca latihan (McAinch et al, 2004). ...
Article
A B S T R A C TPhysical exercise causes athletes to be at risk of injury. One of the most common muscle injuries is Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS). DOMS is a pain felt by a person within 24-72 hours after sports activities. Active recovery is a physical activity that do in low intensity. Passive recovery means stop activity and not doing anything or total rest. This research is expected to find the type effective and efficient recovery in reducing DOMS symptoms. The type of this research is quasi experiment with the three group post-control group design. The sample is a student of Faculty of Sport Science State University of Padang which is divided into 3 groups. Each group consists of 15 students. Each Sample will perform an eccentric physical exercise by squatting 10 sets (1set: 20 steps) with a break for 30 seconds each set. After exercie group 1 didn’t do recovery, group 2 did a passive recovery and group 3 did active recovery. After 48 hours, DOMS measurements were made using Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Research data is tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistic test, distribution normality test, homogeneity test, different test. Result of data analysis concluded there is effect of active recovery to DOMS symptom with p 0,005. There is no effect of passive recovery of DOMS symptoms with p 0, 180. Conclusion active recovery research can reduce DOMS symptoms.
... In many competitive sports, performance is based on maintaining high-level physical outputs during repeated bouts (McAinch et al., 2004;Siegler et al., 2006;Spierer et al., 2004). Judo represents a dynamic, high-intensity intermittent sport that requires complex skills for success (Degout et al., 2003). ...
... In many competitive sports, performance is based on maintaining high-level physical outputs during repeated bouts (McAinch et al., 2004;Siegler et al., 2006;Spierer et al., 2004). Judo represents a dynamic, high-intensity intermittent sport that requires complex skills for success (Degout et al., 2003). ...
Article
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Heart Rate Recovery response to exercise has been recognized as a marker of physical fitness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of two different recovery protocols (supine and standing position) on heart rate during the first minute of recovery with a group of elite male judokas and group of students, after maximal progressive treadmill test. Twenty-four male participants took part in this study, twelve (n=12) judokas (Serbian national team) and twelve (n=12) students as a control group. They were exposed to maximal progressive exercise treadmill test in order to record HR (bpm) during the test and during the first minute of recovery. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures is used to test the differences between subjects' responses over time. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA and Student's t-test for dependent samples. HR max was similar in both trials for investigated groups. The results of Student's t test showed significant differences between applied protocols in all HR levels for both groups. In addition, the within subjects effects for supine protocol showed significant differences between groups (F=14.172, P=0.0001), where the group of judokas revealed lower HR than students for 10s and 20s of recovery period (F=18.801 and F=19.668, p<0.01, respectively). Obtained data could suggest better adaptation to exercise for trained judokas in exerting better potentials with faster recovery HR immediately after the exercise in supine position, consequently revealing better adaptation to training load.
... A combined recovery intervention including aspects of active recovery has demonstrated encouraging effects on lactate removal in a number of studies (43,58,87). However, McAinch et al. (52) examined the effect of active versus passive recovery on metabolism and performance during subsequent exercise. They found that when compared to passive recovery, active recovery between two bouts of intense aerobic exercise did not assist in the maintenance of performance nor did it alter either muscle glycogen content or lactate accumulation. ...
... Os resultados sugerem que a recuperação ativa pode limitar a ressíntese de glicogênio. Porém, outros dois estudos não relataram diferenças significativas na ressíntese de glicogênio após ambos os métodos, passivo e ativo, de recuperação, mas possivelmente porque a duração da recuperação foi de apenas 10 (BANGSBO et al.,1994) ou 15 minutos (McAINCH, 2004), o que pode ser insuficiente para a ocorrência de uma ressíntese significativa. ...
Article
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Post-exercise recovery is a key factor within every physical training program for athletes and non-athletes alike, as well as coaches and health professionals. Thus, knowledge on the post-exercise recovery process and the efficacy of the recovery modalities in enhancing between-training session (to increase training frequency and/or training loads qualitatively) is essential. Therefore, prophylactic or therapeutic interventions that might reduce the negative effects of exercise-induced muscle damage, thereby speeding recovery, are of great interest to researchers, coaches and athletes. As such, the purpose of this review was to describe the physiological responses to post-exercise recovery modalities currently used to aid athlete recovery during the training process, and consequently enhance performance.
... The blood lactate recovery curve values of this study are consistent with literature data 25,26 . Rimaud et al. 27 and van Hall 28 report that high lactate concentrations in the recovery can be explained by the high production of this metabolite during exercise by a decrease of the removal rate or by a combination of these two possibilities. ...
Article
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n5p565 O emprego da saliva pode subsidiar uma necessidade emergente de redução de custos, invasividade, cuidados e tempo, comparado às análises sanguíneas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a cinética do lactato no sangue e saliva, em resposta ao exercício físico incremental em cicloergômetro. Em uma pesquisa correlacional preditiva, nove ciclistas saudáveis do sexo masculino (24±2 anos; 71.3±7.6kg; 170.9±4.7cm) foram submetidos a um protocolo de esforço progressivo, iniciado a 10% da carga máxima (WMÁX), obtida previamente, com incremento de 10% a cada três minutos até a exaustão voluntária. A concentração de lactato sanguíneo e salivar foi medida durante o exercício e no 3º, 6º, 9º, 15º, 30º e 60º minutos pós-exercício. Para averiguar relações entre as curvas de lactato, foi realizada uma análise de regressão linear. Verificou-se uma evolução paralela entre os valores médios de lactato, medidos no sangue capilar e na saliva, com o aumento da carga de trabalho (R2 ajust.=0.93; p
... It has been demonstrated that when performing a proper recovery from high-intensity training or competition, athletes can go back to training earlier and with better quality than when no recovery treatment is performed or improper practices are carried out (6). The relevance of this issue is evident when observing the growing literature on the matter, specific to football or other sports (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12), with various RSs being. These include techniques based on active recovery by means of low-intensity aerobic exercise (1,11,13), stretching (2,14), cryotherapy (15,16) or contrast baths (6,12,17), which according to some authors is one of the most common recovery techniques among elite athletes (5). ...
Article
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After a football match or high intensity training, suitable recovery will help not to decrease performance and to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of different combined recovery strategies in comparison with a simple one, after a specific football training session. Twenty elite players participated in the study. A randomized crossover design was used to determine the effect of 4 post-training session recovery strategies. Tympanic temperature was measured, as well as Total Quality Recovery (TQR) and Category Ratio Scale (CR10) subjective scales. Results show that none of the recovery strategies proved more effective than the others. However, the use of combined strategies tended to be more effective than a simple strategy after a high intensity training session in football. © 2015 Universidad Autonoma de Madrid y CV Ciencias del Deporte. All rights reserved.
... However, it should also be considered that scientific evidence of a performance decrease after active recovery has been reported [36][37][38][39]. As such, it is necessary to continue studying this issue, particularly in rowers because the literature regarding this discipline is still incipient [7,18]. ...
Article
Aims. — In sports competition recovery is considered fundamental, especially in those modalities that require competing repeatedly within one contest. One of the main concerns regarding the short recovery period during repeated-based competitions is the accumulation of blood lactate, which may impair muscle function on a metabolic basis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the lactate concentration ([Lac]) removal rate with different recovery active protocols after an all-out rowing test. Materials and methods. — The participants were chosen at random from the Naval School and subjected to four removal protocols (rowing, cycling, running and complete rest). Blood lactate samples were taken at rest and subsequent to the all-out test (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min). Results and conclusion. — At minute 20, the running protocol presented similar blood [Lac] val- ues as resting sample, whereas rowing reached it on 25, and cycling on 30 min. Additionally, a passive 30 min rest after the last blood sampling indicated that all protocols were able to reduce the blood [Lac] to rest values, including the resting group. In this sense, this study indicates that different active protocols induce a faster blood [Lac] removal after high-intensity rowing. Finally, treadmill running may be a feasible tool to boost blood [Lac] removal after rowing trials within the same competition.
... However, studies comparing the effects of active and passive inter-set rest upon performance are inconsistent, perhaps due to the fact that many different protocols, exercise types (swimming, cycling, resistance training), performance measures and subjects with vastly different training experience have been tested; thus producing variable results (2, 5-7, 10, 17, 22, 23, 31, 32). Some studies support the idea that active inter-set rest allows for improved performance (performance defined as enhanced anaerobic power or higher lifting volume) when compared to passive inter-set rest (2,7,10,17), while others show the opposite relationship (9,(13)(14)(15)(29)(30)(31)(32), or no difference (22,23). ...
Article
The idea that an upright posture should be maintained during the inter-set rest periods of training sessions is pervasive. The primary aim of this study was to determine differences in work rate associated with three inter-set rest strategies. Male and female members of the CrossFit™ community (male n = 5, female n = 10) were recruited to perform a strenuous training session designed to enhance work-capacity that involved both cardiovascular and muscular endurance exercises. The training session was repeated on three separate occasions to evaluate three inter-set rest strategies which included lying supine on the floor, sitting on a flat bench, and walking on a treadmill (0.67 meters • second). Work rate was calculated for each training session by summing session joules of work and dividing by the time to complete the training session (joules of work • second). Data were also collected during the inter-set rest periods (heart rate, respiratory rate and volume of oxygen consumed) and were used to explain why one rest strategy may positively impact work rate compared to another. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the passive and active rest strategies, with the passive strategies allowing for improved work rate (supine = 62.77+7.32, seated = 63.66+8.37 and walking = 60.61+6.42 average joules of work • second). Results also suggest that the passive strategies resulted in superior heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen consumption recovery. In conclusion, work rate and physiological recovery were enhanced when supine and seated inter-set rest strategies were employed compared to walking inter-set rest.
... However, active recovery and subsequent reduction in blood lactate concentration (La -) has not necessarily been associated with improved subsequent performance in laboratory settings, and the importance of Lareduction during repeated trials is not clear. [13][14][15][16][17][18] Notably, active recovery protocols compared with passive recovery have also been reported to impair performance during high-intensity exercise with various duration and very brief recovery. 14, [16][17][18] McAinch et al 14 found no beneficial effect of active versus passive recovery on cycling performance (total work over 20 min) in well-trained athletes. ...
Article
Investigate the effects of an active and a passive recovery protocol on physiological responses and performance between two heats in sprint cross-country skiing. Ten elite male skiers (22 ± 3 yrs, 184 ± 4 cm, 79 ± 7 kg) undertook two experimental test sessions which both consisted of two heats with 25 min between start of the first and second heat. The heats were conducted as a 800-m time trial (6°, > 3.5 m·s-1, ~ 205 s) and included measurements of O2-uptake and ΣO2-deficit. The active recovery trial involved 2 min standing/walking, 16 min jogging (58 ± 5 % of VO2peak) and 3 min standing/walking. The passive recovery trial involved 15 min sitting, 3 min walk/jog (~ 30% of VO2peak) and 3 min standing/walking. Blood lactate concentration (La-) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout the recovery periods. The increased 800-m time between the Heat 1 and Heat 2 was trivial after active recovery (Effect Size; ES = 0.1; P = 0.64) and small after passive recovery (ES = 0.4, P = 0.14). The 1.2 ± 2.1% (mean ± 90% CL) difference between protocols was not significant (ES = 0.3, P = 0.3). In Heat 2, peak and average O2-uptake was increased after the active recovery protocol. Neither passive recovery nor running at ~ 58% of VO2peak between two heats, changed performance significantly.
... For recovery periods around 10-20 min, some studies have indicated that AR is better than PR for blood lactate removal [8][9][10] , however its effects on subsequent performance are controversial when the time interval between the first and the second bout is the same [4,6,10,11] . ...
Article
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Purpose: to verify whether active recovery (AR) applied after a kickboxing match resulted in better performance in anaerobic tests when compared to passive recovery (PR). Methods: Eighteen kickboxers volunteered to participate on a Kickboxing match preceded and followed by anaerobic tests: squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the upper-body Wingate test. Blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were analyzed before and after rounds. The recovery sessions consisted of 10min at 50% of maximal aerobic speed or PR. [BL] were measured at 3, 5 and 10 min after the match, while HR, RPE and anaerobic power were assessed after the recovery‘s period. Results: [BL], HR and RPE increased significantly (P< 0.001) during the match. [BL] was lower (P < 0.001) after AR compared to PR at 5 min and 10 min (e.g., AR: 8.94 ± 0.31 mmol.l-1, PR: 10.98 ± 0.33 mmol.l-1). However, PR resulted in higher (P <0.05) upper-body mean power (4.65 ± 0.5 W.kg-1) compared to AR (4.09 ± 0.5 W.kg-1), while SJ and CMJ were not affected by the recovery type. Conclusion: The lactate removal was improved with AR when compared with PR, but AR did not improve subsequent performance.
... Therefore, despite the applied nature of these experimental protocols, this leaves substantial time during recovery whereby influences other than water immersion may affect the subsequent performance. In particular, if other practices typically performed during recovery are undertaken such as an active recovery or warm-down (4,15,21,28), stretching and massage (29,38,39), and passive rest. Although it is assumed that these practices would be constant for individual subjects, this is perhaps not the case between subjects. ...
Article
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Sprint (high-intensity) exercise performance is reduced when immediately preceded by cold water immersion (CWI). We aimed to investigate whether this performance effect could be attenuated by combining an active recovery (arm exercise) with hip-level CWI, and whether this attenuation may be related to an effect on core temperature (Tcore ). Participants (n = 8) completed three Wingate tests before (Ex1) and after (Ex2) four different 30-min recovery interventions: CWI at 15 °C (CW15), arm exercise during CWI at 15 °C (CW15+AE), arm exercise during thermoneutral immersion at 34 °C (TW34+AE) and non-immersed arm exercise (AE). After AE and TW34+AE, performance during Ex2 was not different from Ex1; while after CW15+AE and CW15, performance was reduced by 4.9% and 7.6%, respectively. Arm exercise maintained Tcore during recovery in CW15+AE, while it declined to a larger extent upon commencement of Ex2 (-0.9 °C) when compared with CW15 (-0.6 °C). This suggests similar leg muscle cooling during recovery in CW15 and CW15+AE. Without any other significant effects (e.g., on blood lactate), these data suggest that the improvement in sprint performance following an active CWI recovery, over CWI alone, may be related to maintained Tcore and its effect on neurophysiological mechanisms that drive muscle activation, but not by reduced muscle cooling.
... Although it was reported that the blood LA was an important endogenous carbon source for repletion of muscle glycogen stores in fasting condition (Bräu et al., 1999;Bräu et al., 1997;Raja et al 2004), the result of Raja et al. (2004) showed that the blood LA was not the only source for replenishment of muscle glycogen stores. The removal rate of accumulated lactate from blood following intense exercise has been reported to be slower during passive recovery in comparision to active recovery both in normal condition Gupta et al., 1996;McAinch et al., 2004;Toubekis et al., 2005) and during fasting (Choi et al., 1994). On the contrary, Choi et al., (1994) and Nordheim and Vollestad (1990) suggested that the resynthesis of muscle glycogen was faster during passive recovery than active recovery in fasting individuals. ...
Article
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... The 40 min recovery period comprised a 5 min transition from the exercise laboratory to the recovery room, followed by a 30 min treatment period, and then a further 5 min transition period back to the exercise laboratory. On each testing day one of the following 30 min recovery treatments were performed: (a) active recovery (AR) comprising cycling at 40 % ˙ VO 2 peak (McAinch et al. 2004), (b) cold water immersion at 15 °C (C15), (c) contrast water therapy comprising alternating cold water immersion at 8 °C for 2.5 min followed by hot water immersion at 40 °C for 2.5 min (CT) and (d) thermoneutral water immersion at 34 °C (T34). Treatments were administered in a balanced randomised fashion. ...
Article
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To examine the effects of four commonly used recovery treatments applied between two bouts of intense endurance cycling on the performance of the second bout in normothermia (~21 °C). Nine trained men completed two submaximal exhaustive cycling bouts (Ex1 and Ex2: 5 min at ~50 % [Formula: see text] peak, followed by 5 min at ~60 % [Formula: see text] peak and then ~80 % [Formula: see text] peak to failure) separated by 30 min of (a) cold water immersion at 15 °C (C15), (b) contrast water therapy alternating 2.5 min at 8 °C and 2.5 min at 40 °C (CT), (c) thermoneutral water immersion at 34 °C (T34) and (d) cycling at ~40 % [Formula: see text] peak (AR). Exercise performance, cardiovascular and metabolic responses during Ex1 were similar among all trials. However, time to failure (~80 % [Formula: see text] peak bout) during Ex2 was significantly (P < 0.05) longer in C15 (18.0 ± 1.6) than in CT (14.5 ± 1.5), T34 (12.4 ± 1.4) and AR (10.6 ± 1.0); and it was also longer (P < 0.05) in CT than AR. Core temperature and heart rate were significantly (P < 0.05) lower during the initial ~15 min of Ex2 during C15 compared with all other conditions but they reached similar levels at the end of Ex2. A 30 min period of C15 was more beneficial in maintaining intense submaximal cycling performance than CT, T34 and AR; and CT was also more beneficial than T34 and AR. These effects were not mediated by the effect of water immersion per se, but by the continuous (C15) or intermittent (CT) temperature stimulus (cold) applied throughout the recovery.
... Après un exercice intense sollicitant majoritairement le métabolisme anaérobie lactique (i.e. efforts brefs à intensité supra-maximale), la RA accélère la baisse de la lactatémie (Choi et al. 1994;Ahmaidi et al. 1996;McAinch et al. 2004), l"élimination de CK plasmatique (Gill et al. 2006), et permet ainsi un retour plus rapide du pH plasmatique à sa valeur initiale (Fairchild et al. 2003;Siegler et al. 2006). ...
Thesis
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Physiological adaptations to fatigue and recovery strategies in master athletes This thesis is organized in two parts closely related, in order to study the effects of ageing on physical performance. The recruitment of master athletes regularly trained in endurance allowed the study of ageing, by controlling the cofounding effects of a sedentary lifestyle or pathologies appearance, on physiological systems. The first part (first 3 studies) of this thesis aimed at studying the physiological adaptations of master athletes (i.e. > 35 years) to fatigue and muscular damages induced by strenuous exercises mainly including eccentric contractions. In spite of a reduced capacity of intrinsic strength production, master athletes presented the same level of muscular fatigue following an exhausting strength training of knee extensors, and the level of muscular damages was slightly upper to young athletes after a long distance running competition in mountain. On the other hand, the muscular recovery after the competition was slowed down for master athletes compared with their younger counterparts. Considering that the muscular recovery could be the main factor responsible for the decline of the performances with the age, the second part of this thesis aimed at testing strategies of muscular recovery adapted to master athletes. Firstly, micro nutritional supplementations rich in antioxidants were proposed to master athletes before an exhaustive strength training session of knee extensor muscles, with dominant eccentric contractions (study 4), and during a 3 weeks strength training program of knee extensors (study 5). These complements allowed improving significantly the muscular recovery of master athletes, probably by neutralizing the free radicals produced in excess during the ageing and during the intense physical exercise. Finally the study 6 was the opportunity to experiment two innovating strategies of recovery (whole-body cryotherapy, WBC; far infrared therapy, FIR) during the three days following a simulated running trail with important variations in level. Preliminary results of this study performed with young athletes indicate a beneficial effect of WBC in recovery of muscle force and muscle soreness following exercise. The results of these 6 studies lead to the following conclusions. The capability of adaptation from exercise-induced muscle damages and fatigue is preserved in endurance master athletes. However, regular endurance training during life would not be sufficient to preserve muscular recovery capability, which could induce a progressive decline in physical performance with ageing. Within this frame, the research of optimal strategies to improve muscular recovery is of particular importance and should be emphasized. According to this thesis, a regular micro nutritional supplementation and post-exercise WBC seem to be particularly beneficial for muscular recovery of master athletes.
... These materials allow easy enzyme immobilization, reproducible electrochemical behavior and useful physical characteristics [10] [11] [12]. Measurement of lactate using biosensors is of great importance for the clinical analysis as well as for food analysis [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] ...
Article
In this work, multi-wall carbon-nanotube (MWCT) is evaluated as transducer, stabilizer and immobilization matrix for the construction of amperometric biosensor based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Meldola's Blue (MB). The amperometric response was based on the electrocatalytical properties of MB to oxidize NADH, which was generated in the enzymatic reaction of lactate with NAD+ under catalysis of LDH. It is shown that the employed materials are promising as electrochemical mediators and enzyme stabilizers. The enzyme was immobilized onto the MWCT adsorbed with MB by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The dependence on the biosensor response for lactate was investigated in terms of pH, supporting electrolyte, LDH and NAD+ amounts and applied potential. The amperometric response for lactate using this biosensor showed excellent sensitivity (3.46 μA cm−2 mmol L−1), operational stability (around 96.5% of the activity was maintained after 300 determinations) and wide linear response range (0.10–10 mmol L−1). These favorable characteristics allowed its application for direct measurements of lactate in blood samples. Good agreement was found between the results obtained by the developed biosensor and other well established analytical method, indicating that it should be highly selective for the lactate. Moreover, the biosensor also presented excellent stability in operational conditions.
... Therefore, despite the applied nature of these experimental protocols, this leaves substantial time during recovery whereby influences other than water immersion may affect the subsequent performance. In particular, if other practices typically performed during recovery are undertaken such as an active recovery or warm-down (4,15,21,28), stretching and massage (29,38,39), and passive rest. Although it is assumed that these practices would be constant for individual subjects, this is perhaps not the case between subjects. ...
Article
Given the widespread use of water immersion during recovery from exercise, we aimed to investigate the effect of contrast water immersion on recovery of sprint cycling performance, HR and, blood lactate. Two groups completed high-intensity sprint exercise before and after a 30-min randomized recovery. The Wingate group (n = 8) performed 3 × 30-s Wingate tests (4-min rest periods). The repeated intermittent sprint group (n = 8) cycled for alternating 30-s periods at 40% of predetermined maximum power and 120% maximum power, until exhaustion. Both groups completed three trials using a different recovery treatment for each trial (balanced randomized application). Recovery treatments were passive rest, 1:1 contrast water immersion (2.5 min of cold (8°C) to 2.5 min of hot (40°C)), and 1:4 contrast water immersion (1 min of cold to 4 min of hot). Blood lactate and HR were recorded throughout, and peak power and total work for pre- and postrecovery Wingate performance and exercise time and total work for repeated sprinting were recorded. Recovery of Wingate peak power was 8% greater after 1:4 contrast water immersion than after passive rest, whereas both contrast water immersion ratios provided a greater recovery of exercise time (∼ 10%) and total work (∼ 14%) for repeated sprinting than for passive rest. Blood lactate was similar between trials. Compared with passive rest, HR initially declined more slowly during contrast water immersion but increased with each transition to a cold immersion phase. These data support contrast water immersion being effective in maintaining performance during a short-term recovery from sprint exercise. This effect needs further investigation but is likely explained by cardiovascular mechanisms, shown here by an elevation in HR upon each cold immersion.
... Probably the recovery period between TT1 and TT2 was too long to observe significant performance differences. Other investigations used different protocols to investigate the effects of recovery interventions on performance such as McAinch et al. (25) who observed a decrease of a second 20 min allout TT performance after 15 min of AR, but Monedero and Donne (30) already noticed maintenance of the performance after 20 min of recovery. However, these protocols do not reflect a normal cycling training schedule. ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the influence of five different recovery strategies on repeated simulated time trial (TT) performance on a stationary cycle ergometer. Study 1 (n=8, male, club-level trained; V˙O2max: 56.9 ± 3.8 mL·min·kg) investigated the influence of passive rest with or without upper leg cooling (cooling device set at 0 °C or 10 °C) and compression after a first time trial (TT1) on a second time trial (TT2). Study 2 (n=9, male, club-level trained; V˙O2max: 53.3 ± 5.2 mL·min·kg) examined the influence of active recovery (AR) with or without upper leg cooling (cooling device set at 0 °C) applied after TT1 on TT2. Exhaustive exercise consisted of a cycle exercise at 55% Wmax lasting 30 min, immediately followed by a TT in which subjects had to complete a preset amount of work, equal to 30 min at 75% Wmax, as fast as possible. Immediately after TT1, a different recovery intervention was used for 20 min, and then subjects passively rested for 100 min before starting TT2. TT performance and physiological parameters were registered during the experiments. In both studies, we observed that TT performance did not significantly change for either of the recovery interventions. During the cooling interventions, skin temperatures significantly decreased (P<0.05). AR + cooling + compression versus AR (study 2) clearly showed a significantly (P<0.05) faster decrease of the blood lactate concentration ([BLa]) during the recovery period after TT1 and a lower [BLa] during TT2. Twenty minutes after cooling (device set at 0 °C or 10 °C), AR or the combined recovery method had comparable effects as passive recovery on the maintenance of TT2 performance 120 min after the first TT (TT1). After AR, however, subjects seemed to perform slightly better during TT2.
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Effect of High-Intensity whole body vibration on blood lactate removal and heart rate after an all-out test in active young men Efecto de las vibraciones de alta intensidad de cuerpo completo sobre la remoción del lactato sanguíneo y la frecuencia cardiaca luego de una prueba máxima en hombres activos jóvenes Abstract. Speed up recovery is fundamental in sport disciplines in which competitors must perform repeated trials within the same competition. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of high-frequency whole body vibration (WBV) on blood [Lac] removal and heart rate (HR) after an all-out test. The participants performed a 4 x 100 m all-out test every 48 h in a random cross-over fashion, and a blood [Lac] removal protocol was applied after each test: a) 20 min seated (REST); b) squatting on a vibrating platform (S+V); and c) squatting on a non-vibrating platform (S-V). Blood [Lac] and HR were measured at rest, immediately after the 4 x 100 m all-out test (min 0), and at 10 and 20 min during the removal protocols. The results showed that the 3 protocols displayed significantly decreased blood [Lac] after 20 min (REST, S+V, and S-V removed Δ 6.6; Δ 10.5; and Δ 11.1 mmol•L-1 , respectively). However, there were no significant differences in the blood [Lac] removal level between the S+V and S-V conditions. Interestingly, the S-V participants showed increased HR levels during the active recovery compared with the REST and S+V conditions. The effect of high-frequency WBV is not an additional stimulus to increase the blood [Lac] removal capacity in active young men, although WBV appeared to elicit less cardiovascular stress during recovery. Resumen. Acelerar la recuperación es fundamental en las disciplinas deportivas en las que los competidores deben realizar pruebas repetidas dentro de la misma competencia. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la vibración de alta frecuencia de cuerpo completo (WBV) en la extracción de sangre [Lac] y la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) después de una prueba completa. Los participantes realizaron una prueba total de 4 x 100 m cada 48 h de forma aleatoria cruzada, y se aplicó un protocolo de extracción de sangre [Lac] después de cada prueba: a) 20 minutos sentado (REST); b) ponerse en cuclillas sobre una plataforma vibratoria (S+V); y c) ponerse en cuclillas en una plataforma no vibratoria (S-V). La sangre [Lac] y la FC se midieron en reposo, inmediatamente después de la prueba total de 4 x 100 m (min 0), y a los 10 y 20 min durante los protocolos de extracción. Los resultados mostraron que los 3 protocolos mostraron una disminución significativa de la sangre [Lac] después de 20 minutos (REST, S+V y S-V eliminaron Δ 6.6; Δ 10.5; y Δ 11.1 mmol•L-1, respectivamente). Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias significativas en el nivel de eliminación de sangre [Lac] entre las condiciones S+V y S-V. Curiosamente, los participantes S-V mostraron mayores niveles de FC durante la recuperación activa en comparación con las condiciones REST y S+V. El efecto del WBV de alta frecuencia no es un estímulo adicional para aumentar la capacidad de eliminación de sangre [Lac] en hombres jóvenes activos, aunque el WBV parece provocar menos estrés cardiovascular durante la recuperación. Palabras claves: vibración de alta frecuencia; recuperación; aclaramiento de lactato; frecuencia cardiaca.
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Objective This study was conducted to explore the potential use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tension dysphonia. Methods Voice data and ratings of fatigue and soreness were obtained for two experiments. Experiment one examined the vocal effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied to the neck for 15 minutes. Experiment two examined the recovery effect of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation following a vocal loading task among normophonic women. Results No significant differences in vocal function following 15 minutes of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation were found. Six of 11 participants receiving laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation exhibited improved recovery following the vocal loading task. Conclusion A short session of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation may be beneficial in reducing muscle fatigue for some individuals. Further investigation is warranted to determine the applicability of laryngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation in voice therapy.
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Cognitive Behavioural Stress Management (CBSM) has demonstrated favourable changes in psychological and biological stress indicators, consistent with reductions in sports injury, and accelerated recovery following surgery. However, the effects of CBSM on the conditioning of athletes remain speculative. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a CBSM program on measures of the conditioning process, including stress, recovery and performance. Thirty-two rowers (16 males, 16 females; mean age 20.0 years, range 17 - 29 years) preparing for the 2007 Australian Rowing Championships were recruited and stratified into 16 intervention-control matched pairs based on gender, weight class and performance. They were monitored for 17 weeks with one week of assessment before 3 weeks of CBSM for the intervention group and 3 weeks of normal training for the control group, followed by 13 weeks of their usual training. The intervention consisted of 6 one-hour sessions of instruction on the regular use of CBSM methods in response to daily stressors. Measures of perceived stress and recovery were obtained through the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) (Kellman & Kallus, 2001). Rowing performance was assessed by the average power to complete a maximal 2000m ergometer time-trial in the first week of monitoring, and in the 4th, 9th and 17th week. The CBSM group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in the REST- Sport General Recovery Scale of Success (Wilks’ Lambda = 0.219, F (14,12) = 3.052, p= 0.03) and Sport Specific Recovery Scale of Burnout/Personal Accomplishment (Wilks’ Lambda = 0.218, F (14,12) = 3.079, p = 0.03) compared to the control group across the time-series. No significant differences in 2000m ergometer performance were demonstrated between groups, but after 17 weeks of training the intervention group’s performance was preserved (0.2 ± 3.7%) whereas the control group showed a 2.7 ± 6.3% decrement. It was concluded that CBSM provided some benefits to the athlete’s psychological state and may be a useful strategy to employ in the conditioning process. Further research using a larger sample size is warranted to fully examine the efficacy of CBSM in high performance athletes.
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The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of recovery type on intermittent exercise performance. Fifteen physically active male subjects performed two intermittent exercises on two occasions. The intermittent exercises involved ten all-out 10-s cycling sprints interspersed with 30 seconds of active or passive recovery. The sprint bouts were carried out on an cycle ergometer, loaded to 0.075 kp.kg-1 of body mass and were separated either by 30 seconds of active recovery at a work rate of 1 kp and at a frequency of 60 rpm or by 30 seconds of rest on the cycle saddle. Peak and Mean power output were recorded for each of the ten bouts. An exponential regression curve was fitted to the ten Peak Power and the ten Mean Power points and a Fatigue Index was determined. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare bouts and recoveries. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. There were no significant differences between passive and active recovery in terms of Peak Power (9.0±1.3 vs. 9.2±1.3 W.kg-1, p=0.11), Mean Power (7.3±1.3 vs. 7.1±1.2 W.kg-1, p=0.08), Fatigue Index for Peak Power (29±9 vs. 27±8 %, p=0.13) or Fatigue Index for Mean Power (34±11 vs. 34±10 %, p=0.43). Therefore, during short bouts of high-intensity intermittent exercise, active recovery does not seem to improve performance. These results suggest that performance during short bout of high-intensity intermittent exercise is not influenced by recovery type.
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High-intensity intermittent bicycle exercise was used to deplete muscle glycogen levels by 70% and elevate blood lactate levels to greater than 13.0 mmol/l. Thereafter subjects either cycled with one leg for 45 min followed by 45 min of passive recovery (partially active recovery) or rested for 90 min (passive recovery). During the first 45 min of partially active recovery 1) blood lactate (P less than 0.05) and pH levels (P less than 0.05) returned more rapidly to preexercise values than during passive recovery, 2) the rate of net glycogen resynthesis (0.28 mumol . g-1 . min-1) was the same in both legs, and 3) muscle lactate levels were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) in the passive than in the active leg. Thereafter the rate of net muscle glycogen resynthesis was unchanged (0.26 mumol . g-1 . min-1) and lactate removal could theoretically account for only 18% of the glycogen resynthesized. Overall, the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis and muscle lactate removal was not different from that measured during passive recovery. After high-intensity exercise 1) glycogen repletion is not impeded by light exercise, and 2) blood glucose is an important substrate for glycogen resynthesis.
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Three methods have been used for analysis of glycogen in tissue homogenates: hydrolysis of the tissue in acid and followed by enzymic analysis of the resulting glucose; enzymic hydrolysis with amylo-α-1,4-α-1,6-glucosidase, again followed by enzymic measurement of glucose; and degradation of the glycogen with phosphorylase and debrancher complex coupled to measurement of the resulting glucose-1-P. The two enzymic procedures yielded equivalent results with all tissues examined (brain, liver, muscle and polymorphonuclear leucocytes). Acid hydrolysis of the tissues resulted in higher values for brain tissue only, presumably due to the hydrolysis of the gangliosides and cerebrosides present in brain.
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This study examined the effects of raising muscle glycogen by carbohydrate feeding and of keeping muscle glycogen low by carbohydrate restriction following exhausting exercise on the ability of perfused skeletal muscle to take up glucose and to synthesize glycogen. Muscle glycogen concentration was more than twice as high in the rats fed carbohydrate as in those not given carbohydrate. Muscle glycogen synthesis during a 30-min perfusion with glucose and insulin was significantly greater in the animals with low muscle glycogen. Furthermore the muscles with low glycogen content converted a greater proportion of the glucose taken up to glycogen and less to lactate than did the muscles with high glycogen content. In rats subjected to exhausting exercise on the preceding day, the rate of glucose uptake by perfused skeletal muscle was significantly higher (60-80%) at the same insulin concentration in animals in which muscle glycogen was kept low than in those in which glycogen was raised by carbohydrate feeding.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of ambient heat on the decrease in blood lactate concentration ([LA]bl) during passive and during active recovery. Ten trained men performed six 1-min bouts of exercise at 100% VO2peak on a cycle ergometer, with 1-min rest between the bouts. Each subject exercised twice in thermoneutral (22 degrees C, 40% RH, TN), and twice in hot (35 degrees C, 30% RH, H) conditions. Exercise was followed by either 40 min of passive recovery (sitting) or by 20 min active recovery (cycling at 35% VO2peak) and 20 min passive recovery, named thereafter, 'active recovery'. Capillary blood lactate was measured before, 1 min after, and every 5 min during recovery. Heart rate (HR), rectal and skin temperatures (Tre, Tsk) were monitored continuously. VO2 was measured prior to exercise, during the last exercise bout, the first 10 min of recovery, and periodically thereafter. Post-exercise [LA]bl was similar in all treatments (13.5 +/- 1.8, 13.0 +/- 1.3, 14.8 +/- 4.1, 13.3 +/- 2.6 mmol.l-1 for TN-active, TN-passive, H-active and H-passive, respectively). [LA]bl was significantly lower during active, compared to passive recovery in both, TN and H conditions. Environmental heart did not independently affect [LA]bl during passive or active recovery. Exercise resulted in an elevation in Tre in all treatments, with a significantly higher Tre during active recovery in H compared to the other sessions. Likewise, no differences in HR and in VO2 were observed between H and TN conditions during active nor during passive recovery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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1. The present study examined how uptake of lactate and H+ in resting muscle is affected by blood flow, arterial lactate concentration and muscle metabolism. 2. Six males subjects performed intermittent arm exercise in two separate 32 min periods (Part I and Part II) and in one subsequent 20 min period in which one leg knee-extensor exercise was also performed (Part III). The exercise was performed at various intensities in order to obtain different steady-state arterial blood lactate concentrations. In the inactive leg, femoral venous blood flow (draining about 7.7 kg of muscles) was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood was collected frequently. Biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis of the inactive leg at rest and 10 and 30 min into both Part I and Part II as well as 10 min into recovery from Part II. 3. The arterial plasma lactate concentrations were 7, 9 and 16 mmol l-1 after 10 min of Parts I, II and III, respectively, and the corresponding arterial-venous difference (a-vdiff) for lactate in the resting leg was 1.3, 1.4 and 2.0 mmol l-1. The muscle lactate concentration was 2.8 mmol (kg wet wt)-1 after 10 min of Part I and remained constant throughout the experiment. During Parts I and II, a-vdiff lactate decreased although the arterial lactate concentration and plasma-muscle lactate gradient were unaltered throughout each period. Thus, membrane transport of lactate decreased during each period. 4. Blood flow in the inactive leg was about 2-fold higher during arm exercise compared to the rest periods, resulting in a 2-fold higher lactate uptake. Thus, lactate uptake by inactive muscles was closely related to blood flow. 5. Throughout the experiment a-vdiff for actual base excess and for lactate were of similar magnitude. Thus, in inactive muscles lactate uptake appears to be coupled to the transport of H+.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of active recovery (AR) on plasma lactate concentration [La] and anaerobic power output as measured during repeated bouts of intense exercise (6 s) against increasing braking forces. Ten male subjects performed two randomly assigned exercise trials: one with a 5-min passive recovery (PR) after each exercise bout and one with a 5-min active recovery (AR) at a workload corresponding to 32% of maximal aerobic power. Blood samples were taken at rest, at the end of each exercise bout (S1) and at the 5th minute between bout-recovery (S2) for plasma lactate assay. During the tests, [La]S1 was not significantly different after AR and PR, but [La]S2 was significantly lower after AR for power outputs obtained at braking forces 6 kg (5.66 +/- 0.38 vs 7.56 +/- 0.51 mmol.l-1) and peak anaerobic power (PAnP) (6.73 +/- 0.61 vs 8.54 +/- 0.89 mmol.l-1). Power outputs obtained at 2 and 4 kg did not differ after AR and PR. However, when compared with PR, AR induced a significant increase in both power outputs at 6 kg (842 +/- 35 vs 798 +/- 33 W) and PAnP (945 +/- 56 vs 883 +/- 58 W). These results showed that AR between bouts of intensive exercise decreased blood lactate concentration at high braking forces. This decrease was accompanied by higher anaerobic power outputs at these forces.
We investigated the effects of passive and partially active recovery on lactate removal after exhausting cycle ergometer exercise in endurance and sprint athletes. A group of 14 men, 7 endurance-trained (ET) and 7 sprint-trained (ST), performed two maximal incremental exercise tests followed by either passive recovery (20 min seated on cycle ergometer followed by 40 min more of seated rest) or partially active recovery [20 min of pedalling at 40% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) followed by 40 min of seated rest]. Venous blood samples were drawn at 5 min and 1 min prior to exercise, at the end of exercise, and during recovery at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 min post-exercise. The time course of changes in lactate concentration during the recovery phases were fitted by a bi-exponential time function to assess the velocity constant of the slowly decreasing component (tau 2) expressing the rate of blood lactate removal. The results showed that at the end of maximal exercise and during the 1st min of recovery, ET showed higher blood lactate concentrations than ST. Furthermore, ET reached significantly higher maximal exercise intensities [5.1 (SEM 0.5) W.kg-1 vs 4.0 (SEM 0.3) W.kg-1, P < 0.05] and VO2max [68.4 (SEM 1.1) ml.kg-1.min-1 vs 55.5 (SEM 5.1) ml.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.01]. There was no significant difference between the two groups during passive recovery for tau 2. During partially active recovery, tau 2 was higher than during passive recovery for both groups (P < 0.001), but ET recovered faster and sooner than ST (P < 0.05). Compared to passive recovery, the tau 2 measured during partially active recovery was increased threefold in ET and only 1.5-fold in ST. We concluded that partially active recovery potentiates the enhanced ability to remove blood lactate induced by endurance training.
Article
This investigation highlights the comparison of blood lactate removal during the period of recovery in which the subjects were required to sit down as a passive rest period, followed by active recovery at 30% VO(2)max and short term body massage, as the three modes of recovery used. Ten male athletes participated in the study. Exercise was performed on a bicycle ergometer with loads at 150% VO(2)max, each session lasting 1 min, interspaced with 15 sec rest periods, until exhaustion. Blood lactate concentration was recorded at recovery periods of 0,3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min, while VO(2), VCO(2) and heart rate were recorded every 30 sec for 30 min. The highest mean lactate value was found after 3 min of recovery irrespective of the type of modality applied. Significantly lower half life of lactate was observed during active recovery (15.7 +/- 2.5 min) period, while short term massage as a means of recovery required 21.8 +/- 3.5 min and did not show any significant difference from a passive type of sitting recovery period of 21.5 +/- 2.8 min. Analysis of lactate values indicated no remarkable difference between massage and a passive type of sitting recovery period. It was observed that in short term massage recovery, more oxygen was consumed as compared to a passive type of sitting recovery. It is concluded from the study that the short term body massage is ineffective in enhancing the lactate removal and that an active type of recovery is the best modality for enhancing lactate removal after exercise.
This investigation determined the influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen availability on performance during high intensity exercise. Nine trained male cyclists were studied during 75 s of all-out exercise on an air-braked cycle ergometer following muscle glycogen-lowering exercise and consumption of diets (energy content approximately 14 MJ) that were either high (HCHO(80% CHO) or low (LCHO-25% CHO) in carbohydrate content. The exercise-diet regimen was successful in producing differences in pre-exercise muscle glycogen contents [HCHO: 578(SEM 55) mmol x kg(-1) dry mass; LCHO: 364 (SEM 58) P < 0.05 mmol x kg(-1) dry mass]. Despite this difference in muscle glycogen availability, there were no between trial differences for peak power [HCHO 1185 (SEM 50)W, LCHO 1179 (SEM 48)W], mean power [HCHO 547 (SEM 5)W, LCHO 554 (SEM 8)W] and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit [HCHO 54.4 (SEM 2.3) ml x kg(-1), LCHO 54.6 (SEM 2.0) ml x kg(-1)]. Postexercise muscle lactate contents (HCHO 95.9 (SEM 4.6) mmol x kg(-1) dry mass, LCHO 82.7 (SEM 12.3) mmol x kg(-1) dry mass, n = 8] were no different between the two trials, nor were venous blood lactate concentrations immediately after and during recovery from exercise. These results would indicate that increased muscle glycogen availability has no direct effect on performance during all-out high intensity exercise.