ArticleLiterature Review

Saponins from Edible Legumes: Chemistry, Processing, and Health Benefits

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Abstract

Demand for bean products is growing because of the presence of several health-promoting components in edible bean products such as saponins. Saponins are naturally occurring compounds that are widely distributed in all cells of legume plants. Saponins, which derive their name from their ability to form stable, soaplike foams in aqueous solutions, constitute a complex and chemically diverse group of compounds. In chemical terms, saponins contain a carbohydrate moiety attached to a triterpenoid or steroids. Saponins are attracting considerable interest as a result of their diverse properties, both deleterious and beneficial. Clinical studies have suggested that these health-promoting components, saponins, affect the immune system in ways that help to protect the human body against cancers, and also lower cholesterol levels. Saponins decrease blood lipids, lower cancer risks, and lower blood glucose response. A high saponin diet can be used in the inhibition of dental caries and platelet aggregation, in the treatment of hypercalciuria in humans, and as an antidote against acute lead poisoning. In epidemiological studies, saponins have been shown to have an inverse relationship with the incidence of renal stones. Thermal processing such as canning is the typical method to process beans. This study reviews the effect of thermal processing on the characteristics and stability of saponins in canned bean products. Saponins are thermal sensitive. During soaking and blanching, portions of saponins are dissolved in water and lost in the soaking, washing, and blanching liquors. An optimum thermal process can increase the stability and maintain the saponins in canned bean products, which is useful for assisting the food industry to improve thermal processing technology and enhance bean product quality.

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... The bioactive substances present in pulses have been recognized to exhibit various effects in humans such as enzyme detoxification, hormone metabolism regulation, antioxidant, immune system stimulation, antiangiogenic, etc. (Campos-Vega et al. 2010;. Saponins in legumes have attracted considerable attention and have been reported in lupins (Woldemichael et al. 2003), lentils (Ruiz et al. 1996), andchickpeas (el-Adawy 2002), as well various beans and peas (Shi et al. 2004). ...
... These bioactive constituents are thought to have actions like antioxidants, enzyme detoxification agents, lipid, hormone metabolism regulators, immune stimulants, and antiangiogenic agents (Campos-Vega et al. 2010;. Saponins have been found in many edible legumes such as lupins (Woldemichael et al. 2003;Woldemichael and Wink 2002), lentils (Morcos et al. 2013;Ruiz et al. 1996), and chickpeas (Kerem et al. 2005;Shi et al. 2004), as well as soy, various beans, and peas (Shi et al. 2004) (Table 8.2). ...
... These bioactive constituents are thought to have actions like antioxidants, enzyme detoxification agents, lipid, hormone metabolism regulators, immune stimulants, and antiangiogenic agents (Campos-Vega et al. 2010;. Saponins have been found in many edible legumes such as lupins (Woldemichael et al. 2003;Woldemichael and Wink 2002), lentils (Morcos et al. 2013;Ruiz et al. 1996), and chickpeas (Kerem et al. 2005;Shi et al. 2004), as well as soy, various beans, and peas (Shi et al. 2004) (Table 8.2). ...
Chapter
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Saponins are the naturally occurring phytochemicals present in most vegetables, edible legumes, and herbs. These constitute a chemically diverse group of compounds that contain steroid or triterpenoid aglycone linked to one or more oligosaccharide moieties. These compounds are characterized by surface-active foaming properties, bitter taste, and astringency. Numerous studies have suggested the positive health benefits of saponins on blood cholesterol levels, bone health, blood glucose level, and cancer risk. A diet rich in saponins has been shown to reduce dental caries, inhibit platelet aggregation, treat hypercalciuria, and act as an antidote against heavy metal poisoning. The present review summarizes the phytochemistry and pharmacology of saponins derived from edible legumes and also highlights their positive health benefits.
... Saponins are secondary plant metabolites that are widely found in legume seeds. In the past, they had been identified as antinutrients; but recently, they have been studied for their beneficial effects such as their antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, and anticancer properties in humans (Shi et al., 2004). Structurally, saponins are made up of a triterpene or a steroid aglycone that is linked to sugar (monosaccharide or oligosaccharide) moieties through ester and ether linkages (Shi et al., 2004). ...
... In the past, they had been identified as antinutrients; but recently, they have been studied for their beneficial effects such as their antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, and anticancer properties in humans (Shi et al., 2004). Structurally, saponins are made up of a triterpene or a steroid aglycone that is linked to sugar (monosaccharide or oligosaccharide) moieties through ester and ether linkages (Shi et al., 2004). The structures of saponins vary among plant species and are generally classified into three groups by type (Supporting information Figures S1-2): (1) group A, which includes the acetylated (Aa, Ab, Ac, Ad, Ae, Af, Ag, and TA B L E 1 Volatile compounds from different protein-rich plant materials for which sensory attributes have been described 1 (2009) Ah) and deacetylated (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, and A6) types; ...
... Saponin content is also species-dependent and affected by environmental conditions and processing methods (Singh et al., 2017b). Soy, chickpea, faba bean, and pea seeds are some of the richest sources of saponins among legumes, with their saponin content accounting for 2.5 to 5.6 g/100 g dry weight (Shi et al., 2004). Plant-based diets that are rich in saponins are described by consumers as having a bitter taste and astringent notes (Liener, 1994;Okubo et al., 1992;Prince et al., 1985). ...
Article
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Demand for plant‐based meat alternatives has increased in recent years due to concerns about health, ethics, the environment, and animal welfare. Nevertheless, the market share of plant‐based meat alternatives must increase significantly if they are to support sustainable food production and consumption. Flavor is an important limiting factor of the acceptability and marketability of plant‐based meat alternatives. Undesirable chemosensory perceptions, such as a beany flavor, bitter taste, and astringency, are often associated with plant proteins and products that use them. This study reviewed 276 articles to answer the following five research questions: (1) What are the volatile and nonvolatile compounds responsible for off‐flavors? (2) What are the mechanisms by which these flavor compounds are generated? (3) What is the influence of thermal extrusion cooking (the primary structuring technique to transform plant proteins into fibrous products that resemble meat in texture) on the flavor characteristics of plant proteins? (4) What techniques are used in measuring the flavor properties of plant‐based proteins and products? (5) What strategies can be used to reduce off‐flavors and improve the sensory appeal of plant‐based meat alternatives? This article comprehensively discusses, for the first time, the flavor issues of plant‐based meat alternatives and the technologies available to improve flavor and, ultimately, acceptability.
... The bioactive substances present in pulses have been recognized to exhibit various effects in humans such as enzyme detoxification, hormone metabolism regulation, antioxidant, immune system stimulation, antiangiogenic, etc. (Campos-Vega et al. 2010;. Saponins in legumes have attracted considerable attention and have been reported in lupins 280 O. Kareem et al. (Woldemichael et al. 2003), lentils (Ruiz et al. 1996), and chickpeas (el-Adawy 2002), as well various beans and peas (Shi et al. 2004). ...
... These bioactive constituents are thought to have actions like antioxidants, enzyme detoxification agents, lipid, hormone metabolism regulators, immune stimulants, and antiangiogenic agents (Campos-Vega et al. 2010;. Saponins have been found in many edible legumes such as lupins (Woldemichael et al. 2003;Woldemichael and Wink 2002), lentils (Morcos et al. 2013;Ruiz et al. 1996), and chickpeas (Kerem et al. 2005;Shi et al. 2004), as well as soy, various beans, and peas (Shi et al. 2004) (Table 8.2). ...
... These bioactive constituents are thought to have actions like antioxidants, enzyme detoxification agents, lipid, hormone metabolism regulators, immune stimulants, and antiangiogenic agents (Campos-Vega et al. 2010;. Saponins have been found in many edible legumes such as lupins (Woldemichael et al. 2003;Woldemichael and Wink 2002), lentils (Morcos et al. 2013;Ruiz et al. 1996), and chickpeas (Kerem et al. 2005;Shi et al. 2004), as well as soy, various beans, and peas (Shi et al. 2004) (Table 8.2). ...
Chapter
Capsella bursa-pastoris L. is widely found in countries such as Cyprus, Europe, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Iran, China, Azerbaijan, and in ethnomedical records of many other Asian countries. C. bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic—a traditional herb belongs to genus Capsella. Animal model-based preclinical studies have provided important comprehensive scientific data of its phytochemistry and phytopharmacology besides its various important uses. The main focus of this chapter aims to provide a detailed information about the traditional uses, scientific evidence-based pharmacological actions, and phytoconstituents from C. bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic based on the data available from the past 40 years. The data available shows that the plant’s crude extracts and some phytoconstituents have anti-inflammatory, smooth muscles contraction, infertility, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular, anticancer, sedative, antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase inhibition potential. The data also showed that C. bursa-pastoris (L.) has a good nutritional value due to the presence of plethora of phytoconstituents which include flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolics, etc. Other than immense pharmacological potential, C. bursa-pastoris is a rich source of nutrients also. The available scientific data on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological actions of C. bursa-pastoris suggest that this plant can be a promising target for discovery and development of novel drugs for treating wide range of human ailments due to the safe and effective nature of C. bursa-pastoris. More scientific studies need to be carried out on this plant because different traditional uses and phytoconstituents.KeywordsEthnopharmacologyPhytochemistryPharmacological actionsPhytosterolsPhenolicsFlavonoidsAnti-inflammatory C. bursa-pastoris
... The bioactive substances present in pulses have been recognized to exhibit various effects in humans such as enzyme detoxification, hormone metabolism regulation, antioxidant, immune system stimulation, antiangiogenic, etc. (Campos-Vega et al. 2010;. Saponins in legumes have attracted considerable attention and have been reported in lupins 280 O. Kareem et al. (Woldemichael et al. 2003), lentils (Ruiz et al. 1996), and chickpeas (el-Adawy 2002), as well various beans and peas (Shi et al. 2004). ...
... These bioactive constituents are thought to have actions like antioxidants, enzyme detoxification agents, lipid, hormone metabolism regulators, immune stimulants, and antiangiogenic agents (Campos-Vega et al. 2010;. Saponins have been found in many edible legumes such as lupins (Woldemichael et al. 2003;Woldemichael and Wink 2002), lentils (Morcos et al. 2013;Ruiz et al. 1996), and chickpeas (Kerem et al. 2005;Shi et al. 2004), as well as soy, various beans, and peas (Shi et al. 2004) (Table 8.2). ...
... These bioactive constituents are thought to have actions like antioxidants, enzyme detoxification agents, lipid, hormone metabolism regulators, immune stimulants, and antiangiogenic agents (Campos-Vega et al. 2010;. Saponins have been found in many edible legumes such as lupins (Woldemichael et al. 2003;Woldemichael and Wink 2002), lentils (Morcos et al. 2013;Ruiz et al. 1996), and chickpeas (Kerem et al. 2005;Shi et al. 2004), as well as soy, various beans, and peas (Shi et al. 2004) (Table 8.2). ...
Chapter
More than half of the population in developing nations depends on natural medication for treatment of different sicknesses and problems. Among them, Achillea millefolium from Asteraceae family is one restoratively significant plant called as “yarrow” and revealed as being utilized in folklore medication for sicknesses, for example, skin irritations, convulsive, hepatobiliary, and gastrointestinal issues. Monoterpenes are the most delegate metabolites, establishing 90% of the fundamental oils comparable to the sesquiterpenes, and a wide scope of chemical compounds have likewise been found. Distinctive pharmacological examinations in numerous in vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated the capability of A. millefolium with anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anticancer activities, and so forth loaning help to the reasoning behind various of its conventional uses. Because of the essential pharmacological activities, A. millefolium will be a superior alternative for new medication discovery. Our chapter extensively gathers late phytochemical and pharmacological activities of A. millefolium, and should, accordingly, act as an appropriate reference for future investigation into the plant’s phytochemical profiling and by and large pharmacological assessment.Keywords Achillea millefolium PhytochemistryTherapeutic usesPharmacologyConstituents
... The effect of antinutritional factors loss during soaking depends on the cultivar, the soaking solution, the period, the temperature, the variety, and the enzymatic activity of each pulse, but in general, satisfactory results are not obtained with just the soaking process . [184] During the soaking process, the reduction of antinutritional compounds may be due to leaching into the soaking water or by enzymatic activity. Phytic acid, lectins, protease inhibitor, and α-amylase inhibitor may be reduced by diffusion to the soaking water . ...
... --- [156,196] 15-60 min - [167] 60-20 min 100-120 --46-62 --- [190] 15-60 min - [166] (Continued) [33,85,128,155,188,191,200] Pisum genus ---- [192] 48 h ---- [192] Vicia genus [67,153,195] changes in conformational structure . [184] Diffusion into the soaking water is responsible to reduce tannins and α-galactosides. For example, cooking pigeon pea, chickpea, and lentils under pressure at 121°C can reduce tannins content up to 27%, 35%, and 36%, respectively . ...
... Phytic acid, lectins, and protease and α-amylase inhibitors are known for their heat-labile nature . [161,164,184] Cooking under pressure at 121°C for different periods (10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min) and 128°C for 20 min, phytic acid contents in black gram, chickpea, lentil, red kidney bean, and navy bean reduced between 28% and 52% . [175] Cooking for 1 h at 95°C reduced up to 94-99% lectins content in different varieties of chickpea, bean, fava bean, lentils, and pea. ...
Article
Germination is a traditional process and a re-emerging trend in healthy foods, resulting a progressively increase in scientific research on their nutritional traits and phytochemical contents. This review examines the physiological and biochemical changes during the germination sensu stricto in pulses, taking into consideration the genotype, environmental conditions, hormone control, and the metabolic transition from seed to seedling. Germination sensu stricto is achieved as soon as elongation of the radicle, implies heterotrophy metabolism; further thermal processing is needed before consumption. In contrast, seedlings production requires a long period of imbibition and can provide a ready-to-eat food product. Furthermore, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and antinutritional compounds of pulses are described. Impacts of food processing, such as soaking, germination, and cooking, in nutritional and antinutritional values are also evaluated. The association of soaking, germination, and cooking increases the nutritional values of pulses by increasing protein/starch digestibility and vitamins content and by decreasing antinutritional compounds. The final plant-based product allows versatility in formulation to produce novel food products and/or ingredients with better nutritional content. This can encourage the scientific community, industry, and government to invest in research and development to increase germinated pulse-based food, to replace other products, or to develop new ones.
... Saponins are a group of phytochemicals whose molecules are composed of a triterpene or steroid aglycone connected to one or more sugar chains [31]. They easily form foamy aqueous solutions and, like the previous phytochemicals, display a wide range of beneficial uses [32]. Studies have shown that saponins affect the immune system in beneficial ways: they can help protect the body against cancer and help to lower cholesterol. ...
... Additionally, these compounds have been found to decrease blood lipids, lower blood glucose response, inhibit dental caries and platelet aggregation, treat hypercalciuria and prevent renal stones. They have also been used as an antidote against acute lead poisoning [32]. ...
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Batis maritima, commonly referred to as Saltwort, is a halophyte found in coastal regions of various parts of North America, South America and Africa. It has historically been used in traditional medicine in the treatment of ailments such as eczema and cutaneous infections, among others. Since many of these ailments are known to be caused by fungal and bacterial pathogens, it is highly likely that extracts of B. maritima possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and, as such, may contain phytochemicals which have been known to display these phytochemical properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a phytochemical screening of alcoholic extracts of B. maritima leaves and compare these to the traditional uses of the herb. Alcoholic crude extracts of leaves of the B. maritima shrub were subjected to a series of phytochemical analyses. The results of these analyses indicated the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins and terpenoids. Upon a comparison of the phytochemicals detected and the documented traditional uses of the herb, a correlation may be seen between the two. Many of the phytochemicals present in the extract have been previously noted to be used in medicine to treat many diseases that are similar to those that have historically been treated with B. maritima.
... 6 The quality and quantity of curcuminoids and other compounds of turmeric plants depend upon the agro-climate zones of their harvest. 7 The quality and potential of medicinal plants like turmeric longa of different regions are mostly assessed by their potential in antimicrobial, antioxidant activities and the presence of suitable medicinal phytochemicals, such as saponin, tannin, flavonoids, alkaloids, etc [8][9][10][11] Electrospinning is the most advanced and popular technique to fabricate various nanofibers from natural and synthetic polymers. Electrospun nanofibers are widely used in various applications of biomaterials like wound dressings, antimicrobial membranes, drug delivery systems and in edible food packing materials. ...
... Like saponin help in decreasing blood lipids and reducing the risk of cancer, tannin was found helpful for feed efficiency and protein digestibility in animals, flavonoids have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, alkaloids are also well known as cardioprotective and antiinflammatory agents. [8][9][10][11] The obtained results of this study confirm the presence of 11 different phytochemicals, the majority of phytochemicals were present in acetone extracts of both turmeric samples. ...
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It has been reported through various studies that turmeric of different geographical regions has variabilities regarding the number of phytochemicals, some have a better curcuminoid yield, some have better antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, and even turmeric of some regions does not show compatibility with modern applications due to having unfavorable quality. So, here in this study, we have tried to demonstrate the potential and efficacy of locally produced turmeric powder from district Kasur, Pakistan, through a comparative study with turmeric powder of international grade, analyzing their activity against pathogenic micro-organisms, presence of the number of phytochemicals, and presence of curcuminoid compounds like curcumin, extracted in four different solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone and chloroform), and were verified by TLC and FTIR spectroscopy. This study justifies that the locally produced turmeric has better quality and potential as it gives a maximum curcuminoid yield of about 25% in Ethanol solvent and showed maximum zone of inhibition against E.coli about 14mm and 16mm against Staphylococcus aureus. While Antifungal activity was also observed high; as compared to the same amount of does of international grade turmeric extract. Further, electrospun nanofibers successfully generated from curcuminoid of Kasur Pakistan with PVA, present uniform, smooth nanofibers with an average diameter of 227. 49 nm. Finally, this study suggests that turmeric of Kasur has similar or more potential as compared to turmeric of international grade, and can be used/replaced in nanotechnology labs for various applications.
... Similarly, phytosterols have antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties (Ryan et al., 2007). Quinoa seed coat contains saponins which have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immune-boosting properties (Shi et al., 2004;Jarvis et al., 2017;Güçlü et al., 2007). Quinoa saponins have also been shown in studies to have the potential to act as adjuvants for mucosally administered vaccines (Estrada et al., 1998). ...
... Antioxidant and antimicrobial Ti et al., 2014 Saponins, tannins, and flavonol glycosides Seeds Analgesic, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anti-allergic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immuneboosting, and anticarcinogenic Shi et al., 2004, Güçlü et al., 2007, Jarvis et al., 2017 Myricetin Seeds Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity ...
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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is acknowledged as golden grains, is widely regarded as a multipurpose crop. The nutritional and health benefits of quinoa have made it a popular food around the world in the last decade. It is a nutrient-rich pseudo-cereal crop that has been introduced in Pakistan in the recent past, because of its medicinal, commercial value. The plant contains huge number of phytochemicals i.e. amino acids, fiber, minerals, vitamins, secondary metabolites, bioactive proteins and peptides which could be used in various medicine for human and other animal's health. It has been reported that the quinoa leaves, root, and seed are used in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, inflammations, fungal infections, and other numerous health problems. In addition, its high energy, nutrient content, therapeutic properties, and lack of gluten, it is considered to be useful for children, the elder, lactose-intolerant people, and osteoporosis in women. Besides, it is considered a crop oil, because the seed oil fractions are extremely nutrient-dense and can be used in skin care, cosmetics, and as a raw material for other products. This comprehensive study provides medical uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of quinoa. Also, the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, antilipidemic, antibacterial, and antifungal effects have been reviewed. This review is providing the detail study about the phytochemicals and pharmacological evaluation of quinoa till date, and also provides pave for future investigations and exploitation of C. quinoa.
... The structure of saponins contains a steroidal or triterpenoid aglycone, and one or more oligosaccharide moieties (Yildirım and Kutlu 2015). Saponins are found in broad beans, kidney beans, and lentils imparting bitter taste to food if present in high concentration hence low saponins foods are preferred (Shi et al. 2004). Saponins exhibit both the hypoglycemic and hypocholesteremic effects (Ikewuchi 2012;Barky et al. 2017). ...
... Soaking is effective to eliminate tannins, phytic acid, total phenols, and trypsin inhibitor activity of many cereals, legumes, and millets (Oghbaei and Prakash 2016). It is also effective in reducing saponins on domestic as well as on industrial levels (Shi et al. 2004). Soaking for 12-18 h was very effective for the reduction of phytic acid and enzyme inhibitors in legumes (Handa et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
Hidden hunger is a worldwide problem that is characterized by insufficient intake of micronutrients, which are necessary for optimal human health. Biofortification of food crops is an effective and efficient strategy to alleviate human nutrient deficiencies. It has the ability to increase the nutrient content in the edible parts of the plants. This potent agronomic tool is employed to increase the accumulation of nutrients such as mineral elements, amino acids, and vitamins among others. The main factors that determine the success of biofortification are plant-/crop-dependent, such as the genotypes’ nutrient accumulation mechanisms, and others, namely environmental conditions, and consumer or public acceptance. In general, two complementary approaches of plant biofortification, the agronomic and the biotechnological tools, are adopted. In the agronomic approach, the nutrients accumulation is enhanced through the application of fertilizers and biostimulants or the management of cultivation conditions. Alternatively, in the latter, crops with higher nutrient concentration or bioavailability are developed using breeding (including molecular) or genetic engineering techniques. Indeed, novel gene or genome editing tools are gaining prominence in the generation of biofortified crops. Application of these strategies has enabled enhancement of biosynthetic pathway of organic nutrients or decreased the concentration of antinutrients or increased nutrient transport to the edible parts. Thus, plant transporters are crucial targets for attaining optimal nutrient movement to and within the plant. Also, it is pertinent to continue to deepen our knowledge about the mechanisms of nutrients accumulation in the plant and their bioavailability for humans and animals and identifying ways and means to modify them to obtain plants with higher nutritional quality.
... The presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins in C. trifolia [22] and saponins in T. harmandii [23] plant extracts were also reported in other studies. Medicinal plants were reported to contain some natural products or bioactive substances such as tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, [24], phenolic compounds [25], and saponins [26]. ...
Article
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Plants are utilized for medicinal, therapeutic, nutritional, and industrial importance. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activities of two medicinal Vitaceae species, namely: Cayratia trifolia and Tetrastigma harmandii. The growing environment (location, elevation, soil properties, and associated plants) of the species in northeastern Cagayan, Luzon, Philippines, were assessed and leaf samples were collected for phytochemical screening and antibacterial analysis. T. har-mandii dominated the population found growing in various habitats such as hills, residential areas, near coastal areas and island shorelines, nipa plantations, agricultural and grasslands, near bodies of water, caves, and secondary growth forests while C. trifolia were only found growing in swamps, hills, and secondary growth forests. Both plants were found climbing in plant species like ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) and kakawate (Gliciridia sepium). T. harmandii populations were growing in soils with lower soil pH and higher nutrient content as compared to C. trifolia populations which grew in soils with higher pH and lower nutrients. Antioxidant properties were exhibited by the presence of secondary metabolites. Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpe-noids, anthocyanins, tannins, and saponins were detected in C. trifolia ethanolic leaf extracts while phenols, terpenoids, tannins, and saponins were detected in T. har-mandii. Both species showed inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, a slight activity against Klebsiella aerogenes was observed for T. harmandii. Thus, C. trifolia and T. harmandii also have antibacterial properties.
... Saponins have been historically considered as antinutritional factors due to its adverse effects on growth impairment, reduced food intake, bitterness and throat-irritating activity but contemporary researches have indicated that some saponins stereoisomers may show stereospecific pharmacological activities, as well as stereoselective effects on ion channel current regulation, cardiovascular system, and immune system. Safe intakes may vary from about 9 to 420 mg/day for saponins [27] . The flowers of Allium cepa, Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima have a relatively high level of saponin containing 850±10mg/100gm, 230±20mg/100gm and 50±30mg/100gm respectively when compared to the other measured anti-nutrient contents of the flowers. ...
Experiment Findings
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Antinutrients, also known as 'secondary metabolites' in plants are highly biologically active chemical compounds synthesized in natural food or feedstuffs by the normal metabolism of species which prevents optimal exploitation of the nutrients present in a food. Consumption of edible flowers has increased over the years as the phytochemicals in them have been found to possess numerous health benefits. However, many edible flowers remain unexplored and underutilized. The present study quantifies and compares the anti-nutritional (tannins, phytates, oxalates, alkaloids and saponin) content of the three edible flowers of Allium cepa, Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima with four other commonly consumed edible flowers.It was found that the three flowers have relatively a lower concentration of all the measured antinutrients when compared with its respective bulb/fruit and stalk/leaf. Also when compared to the edible flowers of Moringa oleifera, Musa paradisiaca, Musa acuminata and Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, the test flowers have a much lower antinutritional content. This relatively small presence of antinutrients in the three test flowers makes them suitable for safe consumption. Introduction Edible flowers are a rich source of thousands of various nutrients and are consumed by rural people frequently. However, the key problem related to the nutritional exploitation of these kinds of edible plants is the presence of antinutritional factors. Antinutrients are found in their highest concentrations in grains, beans, legumes and nuts, but can also be found in leaves, roots and fruits or even flowers of certain varieties of plants. Plants evolved antinutrients to protect themselves and to prevent them from being eaten [1]. Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients present in the food. Although they are not necessarily toxic plant compounds but they decrease the nutritional value of a plant food, usually by making an essential nutrient unavailable or indigestible when consumed by humans or animals [2]. Some vitamins in food may be destroyed by anti-nutritional substances. For example, aflatoxin in groundnut has been found to cause severe liver damage if consumed in excess [3]. Like aflatoxin several other anti-nutritional factors must be inactivated or removed if values of food substances are to be fully maintained. This study is designed to quantify the anti-nutritional factors present in the three edible flowers (per 100gm fresh flowers) of Allium cepa (onion) flower, Carica papaya (papaya) flower and Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) flower. Allium cepa: inflorescence is a spherical umbel, 2-8 cm in diameter with 50-2000 flowers; flowers sub campanulate to urceolate; tepals 6 in 2 whorls, ovate to oblong, 3-5 mm long, greenish-white to purple. Onion cultivars are about 89% water, 9% carbohydrates, 1% protein and have energy value of 166 KJ [4]. Carica papaya: flowers are 5-parted and highly dimorphic, the male flowers with the stamens fused to the petals. The female flowers have a superior ovary and five contorted petals loosely connected at the base. The flowers are fragranced, trumpet-shaped and yellowish-whitish in colour, blooming throughout the year, The papaya flower tastes bitter, is rich in vitamins A, C and E and is also a good source of dietary fibre. A study in Philippines confirmed the male papaya flower as a functional ingredient for herbal tea production primarily owing to its appealing aroma [5]. Traditionally, the male flowers are cooked and used as a green vegetable. In Java, a sweetmeat is made from the flowers. Cucurbita maxima: a member of the Cucurbitaceae family is one of the most common vegetables consumed worldwide. From ancient days the flowers of pumpkin are consumed locally as vegetable in Mexico and India.
... Alkaloids are used as medicine for reducing headache and fever. These are attributed for their anti-bacterial and analgesic properties [15]. ...
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Two cocoyam varieties (Colocasia esculenta) known as taro grown in Cross-River State and Bendel were subjected to different processing conditions (boiling and drying) and the effect of boiling temperature, boiling time and drying temperatures were investigated. They were processed into flour using standard methods, packaged in low-density polyethylene bags and kept in the laboratory for analysis. The results obtained showed that crude fat, crude protein, ash, moisture, crude fibre and carbohydrate contents ranged from 0.42-0.92%, 6.03-9.01%, 2.13-3.90%, 5.20-12.07%, 0.43-0.77% and 73.32-81.73%, respectively. The anti-nutrients contents of the samples showed that oxalate ranged from 0.01-0.99 mg/g, alkaloids (0.12-0.73 mg/g), flavonoids (0.00-0.83 mg/g), phytate (0.01-1.90 mg/g), saponin (0.00-0.83 mg/g) and tannin (0.00-0.01 mg/g). The investigation revealed that there were significant (p<0.05) variations in the functional properties of the cocoyam samples with the water absorption capacity ranging from (1.56-3.01 mg/g), bulk density(0.58-0.82 mg/g), swelling index (1.54-2.91 mg/g), Oil absorption capacity (1.32-1.67 mg/g), Original Research Article Ikegwu et al.; AFSJ, 21(7): 35-52, 2022; Article no.AFSJ.86250 36 while porosity ranged from 0.30-0.76 mg/g. There were also significant (p<0.05) variations in the thermal diffusivity of the samples with the samples of Cross River Cocoyam having higher thermal diffusivity compared to sample of Bendel Cocoyam. The higher thermal diffusivity observed in the cross river cocoyam could be due to the lower moisture content of the samples. The result of the pasting properties showed that the peak viscosity, peak time, final viscosity, breakdown and set back viscosities ranged from 10.88-15.81 N/m 2 , 7.87-20.87 mins, 8.00-9.97 N/m 2 , 15.10-17.90 N/m 2 , 6.0-7.5 N/m 2 and 2.3-3.8 N/m 2. The research discovered that sample with less pasting temperatures and high peak viscosity had better thickening effect as seen in sample of Cross River Cocoyam. The moisture sorption isotherms had sigmoid-shaped profiles for all of the three temperatures. The hysteresis effect at the three temperatures was distinctly expressed. The increasing temperatures resulted in less hysteresis effect on taro flour which meant the adsorption and desorption curves were closer.
... Other related health benefits are protection against cancer, reduction of blood lipids, and blood glucose response. Dietary saponins are used to treat hypercalciuria and also showed relationship (inversely) with renal stone incidences (Shi et al. 2004). Major classes of dietary PSMs along with their plant sources and potential therapeutic role in health management are discussed in ...
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Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) are produced in the form of phytochemicals in various plant parts as a natural defense system against attack of various microorganisms and environmental stresses. The role of these compounds is beyond providing protection, as they are linked to many biochemical pathways inside and outside the plants and possess various well-known therapeutic applications. The extraordinary biological activities of plant secondary metabolites lead to their extensive use as an ingredient in medicines and for therapeutic and other culinary purposes since ages. The minimum effective concentration and effect (positive or negative) of plant secondary metabolites on particular metabolic pathways are the concerns which are still under a trial phase. They occur in very minute quantities within the plant cells, while the purity issues have resulted in manufacturing of their chemical derivatives and their industrial applications as well. Environmental, morphogenetic, and genetic factors and ultimately the processing affect the biosynthesis and the concentration of these PSM present. However, the plants are always in contact with changing conditions of light, water, temperature, pH, insect pest infestation, etc. which may adversely affect the accumulation of secondary metabolites. The present chapter has been compiled to give the readers an in-hand information about the plant secondary metabolites with primary objective of their food and functional repute. The overall contents will focus on broad classification of PSMs, various methods adopted for their extraction with their potential advantages and disadvantages, and effect of various methods of food processing on the bioavailability and bioactivity of the PSMs with proposed future research opportunities in their potential therapeutic applications.
... Tannins are group of polymeric phenolic compound, which could cause local tumors. Saponins have the properties of precipitating and coagulating red blood cells, anti-inflammatory [34]. Terpenoids were detected in Moringa pterygosperma which were reported to be active against antibacterial activity [35]. ...
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A good number of plants have been investigated worldwide to evaluate their pesticidal and piscicidal activities. This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity of root of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfaira occidentalis) on Clarias gariepinus juvenile under laboratory conditions. Phytochemical constituents of the root of T. occidentalis were screened. Juveniles of C. gariepinus were exposed to extract water with varying concentrations of T. occidentalis root extract of 25 mg L-1, 50 mg L-1, 75 mg L-1 and 0 mg L-1 (control). The acute concentration levels of the toxicant caused changes in the histology of the gill and liver of the exposed fish. In conclusion, the aqueous root extract of T. occidentalis is capable of interfering with the histological parameters of C. gariepinus juveniles. It is suggested that the culturing of T. occidentalis along water banks with presence of C. gariepinus should be monitored.
... There also exist some differences in the division of triterpene saponins and steroidal saponins in nature. The former is mainly derived from dicotyledonous plants, and the common branches are in Leguminosae, Araliaceae, Campanulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Ranunculaceae, Umbelliferae, and Rhamnaceae, etc.; the latter is mainly obtained from monocotyledonous plants, such as Liliaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Solanaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Agaveaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Rhamnaceae, etc. [15,16]. ...
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Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain caused by tissue injury or disease involving the somatosensory nervous system, which seriously affects the patient's body function and quality of life. At present, most clinical medications for the treatment of neuropathic pain, including antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, or analgesics, often have limited efficacy and non-negligible side effects. As a bioactive and therapeutic component extracted from Chinese herbal medicine, the role of the effective compounds in the prevention and treatment of neuropathic pain have gradually become a research focus to explore new analgesics. Notably, saponins have shown analgesic effects in a large number of animal models. In this review, we summarized the most updated information of saponins, related to their analgesic effects in neuropathic pain, and the recent progress on the research of therapeutic targets and the potential mechanisms. Furthermore, we put up with some perspectives on future investigation to reveal the precise role of saponins in neuropathic pain.
... The other phenolic compounds help for the preservation and protection of plants as well as help in aiding the immune system, protection of cells against damage, reduction of inflammations as well as regulation of hormones. They also help in preserving plants from the outer stresses and rodents (Shi et al., 2004). ...
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Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Rudraksha) and Ficus religiosa (Peepal) are the two different indigenous and religious plants found in Nepal. These plants are rich in antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was done to determine the antioxidants, anti-microbial properties, as well as to analyze the various phytochemicals found in the methanolic extracts of leaves of the sampled plants. The Antioxidants levels were determined by the DPPH Scavenging Assay. The methanolic extracts of the plants showed antioxidant properties i.e., 98.01 and 122.3 µg/ml for Rudraksha and Peepal, respectively. Likewise, the Antibiotic Susceptibility test was performed by Well-Diffusion assay in Mueller Hinton agar (MHA) plates. The zone of inhibition against the Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus) bacterial isolates were observed, supporting the antimicrobial activity of the plant. Additionally, various qualitative tests were performed for determining the presence/absence of the phytochemicals. Both Peepal and Rudraksha extracts gave positive tests for Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Cyclic glycosides, volatile oils, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, anthraquinone, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, and reducing sugars, and phenols. Likewise, Saponins were found to be positive only in Peepal extracts with negative result for Phlabotannins and proteins. Thus, this research will help for utilizing the two religiously important plants i.e. Rudraksha and Peepal, for further researches in the medical field and preparation of various ayurvedic medicines.
... When the temperature exceeds a certain point, saponin degradation may occur in the thermal processes, reducing extraction effectiveness. This finding is consistent with earlier research demonstrating that saponin is a thermolabile substance and that high temperatures can reduce saponin extraction efficiency [25]. Figure 1b,c indicate a growing trend for saponin content when the extraction period is raised to 3 min, and a minor reduction when the duration is increased to 9 min. ...
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(1) Background: Hedera nepalensis (Araliaceae) is a recognized medicinal plant founded in Asia that has been reported to work in antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial, and antitumor capacities. (2) Methods: The subcritical fluid extraction of saponin from Hedera nepalensis leaves and the optimum of the extraction process based on yield of saponin contents (by calculating the hederacoside C contents in dried Hedera nepalensis leaves) are examined by response surface methodology (RSM). Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the extract is tested for potential drug applications in the future. (3) Results: Based upon RSM data, the following parameters are optimal: extraction time of 3 min, extraction temperature of 150 °C, and a sample/solvent ratio of 1:55 g/mL. Under such circumstances, the achieved yield of saponin is 1.879%. Moreover, the extracts inhibit the growth of some bacterial strains (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenza) at a moderate to strong level with inhibition zone diameter values ranging from 12.63 to 19.50 mm. (4) Conclusions: The development of such a model provides a robust experimental process for optimizing the extraction factors of saponin contents from Hedera nepalensis extract using subcritical fluid extraction and RSM. Moreover, the current work reveals that saponin extracts of Hedera nepalensis leaves exhibit a potential antimicrobial activity, which can be used as scientific evidence for further study.
... Saponins have varying activities, both beneficial and toxic. Clinical studies have reported that saponins are cytotoxic due to induction of apoptosis and modulation of the immune system against rapid growing tumor cells [52]. e phytosterols/triterpenes were present in the nonaqueous solvents, i.e., were present in the acetone extract and all the fractions. ...
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Background: Herbal plants are a natural source of novel biomolecules used widely in ethnomedicine. The present study was intended to examine the antimicrobial properties, cytotoxicity, and phytoconstituents of Ocimum americanum L., an herb traditionally used by the people of Swahili (Kenya) against microbial infections. Methods: The aerial parts of Ocimum americanum L. were sourced, dried, milled, and extracted using three solvents: aqueous, acetonic, and 70% hydroethanolic. Additionally, fractions of chloroform and ethyl acetate were obtained from all crude extracts of the plant. The antimicrobial property was evaluated using agar well diffusion and microdilution techniques against human opportunistic pathogens including S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. The brine shrimp cytotoxicity test was used to analyze the lethality of the extracts and fractions. Phytochemical screening was used to qualitatively assay the presence of phytoconstituents. Results: The phytochemical assay confirmed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, reducing sugars, anthraquinones, and glycosides. The lethality test demonstrated that all the extracts and fractions were toxic against Artemia salina nauplii with LC50 values ranging from 0.59 to 559.71 µg/ml. Chloroformic fraction of the hydroethanolic extract had the highest lethality with an LC50 value of 0.59 µg/ml. Two of the extracts and their fractions displayed antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria (B. cereus and S. aureus) and fungus (C. albicans), while the same extracts had no activity against the Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and K. pneumoniae). The highest antimicrobial activity was seen in the ethyl acetate fraction of the hydroethanolic extract at 250 mg/ml against Bacillus cereus which had an inhibition zone of 26.00 ± 0.00 and MIC value of 62.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: In the current study, we report that Ocimum americanum L. demonstrated moderate antimicrobial activity, contains numerous phytocompounds, and is highly cytotoxic; thus, further research is needed for bioprospecting a novel compound.
... The flavonoids and terpenoids (isoprenoids) cytotoxicity roles against tumour cells and their preventive roles against cancer were reported in addition to their antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties (Kozlowska & Szostak-Wegierek, 2014). Tannins are antimicrobial and antioxidative (Sung et al., 2012), while saponins were reported to lower cancer risks, decrease blood lipids, and lower blood glucose (Shi et al., 2004). This study's antioxidant property determination shows that MLM has 37.98 mg g -1 ferric reducing antioxidant property and 22.56% 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylhydrate. ...
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Three hundred 1-day old broiler chickens were used to assess the effects of Mucuna leaf meal (MLM) dietary supplementation on the performance, haemato-biochemical indices, oxidative status and meat of broiler chickens. Five experimental supplemented diets were formulated: diets: 1 (0% supplement), 2 (1.1 % OXYT), 3 (0.5% MLM), 4 (1.0 % MLM) and 5 (1.5% MLM). The final weight gain of the birds fed diets 2 and 5 was higher (p < 0.05) than those birds fed the control and other diets. The relative weights of the lung were affected (p < 0.05) by dietary supplementation. Serum cholesterol concentration reduces (p < 0.05) with increased dietary MLM supplementation levels from 1.0% to 1.5%. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels increased (p < 0.05) in the broiler chickens fed a 1.5% MLM supplemented diet, compared to those fed the control and other diets. Meat cholesterol of the chickens fed 1.0%, and 1.5% MLM supplemented diets were lower (p < 0.05) than the experimental birds fed the rest diets. In conclusion, the 1.5 % MLM dietary supplementation improves body weight gain, reduces the serum cholesterol concentration, increases the serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities of the chickens and reduced the meat cholesterol.
... 27 Saponins have been found to have antimicrobial, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, antioxidant and anthelmintic effects. 28,29 Estimation of total phenolic, flavonoid and flavanol contents. Phenolic compounds have multiple biological effects such as the prevention of platelet aggregation and red blood cell damage and are one of the most important phytochemicals. ...
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Syzygium cumini (L.) skeels (Family: Myrtaceae) is a renowned medicinal plant traditionally used in various diseases and available in Bangladesh. This investigation was aimed to explore whether this plant has any potential antioxidant, antibacterial, and analgesic effects of methanolic extracts of S. cumini (leaves and bark). Quantitative determination of methanolic extracts of leaves and bark found the total phenolic contents as 199.11 mg GAE/g DW and 204.03 mg GAE/g DW, respectively. The leaves extract possessed mild antibacterial activity (leaves: 7.00 mm at 1 mg/disc, 9.15 mm at 5 mg/disc) against two different bacteria at different concentration whereas the bark extract showed no effect. A significant writhing (leaves: 23.17 ± 1.80, p≤0.001; bark: 24.33 ± 1.15, p≤0.001) and licking effects (leaves: 8.17 ± 1.49 sec, p≤0.05; bark: 9.08 ± 1.96 sec, p≤0.05) were found at 400 mg/kg of leaves and bark extracts of this plant which is very close to standard drugs mentioned in the tables. Results of this study demonstrated that methanolic extracts of S. cumini leaf and bark possessed significant antioxidant, analgesic, and mild antibacterial like activities which tend to suggest medicinal aspects. Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 21(1): 15-24, 2022 (June)
... Saponin is used in the treatment of hypercalciuria and as antidote against acute lead poisioning, it counteract oxidative stress and protect against cell death. 21 Flavonoids decrease risk of disease through various physiological mechanism which include antiviral, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and the antioxidant effects, it also decrease cancer risk and cardiovascular diseases, this can trigger detoxification, decrease inflammation and reduce the risk of tumors spreading. 22 Alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological activities including antimalaria, anti-asthma, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, analgesic, vasodilatory and anti-hyperglycemic activities. ...
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The leaves and stem bark of Spondias mombin have been acclaimed to be used by local populace to treat diseases and as food supplements. The research determined and compared the phytochemicals and mineral composition of the plant leaves and stems bark. The phytochemical analyses were done using standard methods. The mineral element analysis was done using multiple parameter photometer. The result of phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids (8.3±0.5%, 1.5±0.4%), flavonoids (11.67±1.4%, 9.8±0.2%), saponins (8.65±0.4%, 5.3±1.2%), tannins (0.96±0.1, 0.88+0.1%) and phenol (1.14±0.01, 1.2±0.01%) for leaves and stem bark, respectively. While the specific phytochemicals result showed the presence of proanthocynanin, naringenin, flavan-3-ol, anthocyanin, sapogenin, phenol, flavonones, steroids, kaempferol, flavones, catechin and resveratrol at specific concentrations for each extract. Ribalinidine, naringenin, spartein and oxalate were present in the leaves extract and absent in the stem bark extract. Rutin, quinine, ephedrine and epicatechin were present in the stem bark extract and absent in the leaves extract at various concentrations. The mineral element composition of the plant components revealed the presence of aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc and copper at different concentration for both leaves and stem bark extract. Magnesium, manganese and cobalt were absent in the leaves extract and slightly present in the stem bark extract. Their various concentrations were not harmful as they are within the permissible range. These compounds contained in the plant have been reported in literatures to possess therapeutic properties
... The other phenolic compounds help for the preservation and protection of plants as well as help in aiding the immune system, protection of cells against damage, reduction of inflammations as well as regulation of hormones. They also help in preserving plants from the outer stresses and rodents (Shi et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Rudraksha) and Ficus religiosa (Peepal) are the two different indigenous and religious plants found in Nepal. These plants are rich in antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was done to determine the antioxidants, anti-microbial properties, as well as to analyze the various phytochemicals found in the methanolic extracts of leaves of the sampled plants. The Antioxidants levels were determined by the DPPH Scavenging Assay. The methanolic extracts of the plants showed antioxidant properties i.e., 98.01 and 122.3 µg/ml for Rudraksha and Peepal, respectively. Likewise, the Antibiotic Susceptibility test was performed by Well-Diffusion assay in Mueller Hinton agar (MHA) plates. The zone of inhibition against the Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus) bacterial isolates were observed, supporting the antimicrobial activity of the plant. Additionally, various qualitative tests were performed for determining the presence/absence of the phytochemicals. Both Peepal and Rudraksha extracts gave positive tests for Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Cyclic glycosides, volatile oils, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, anthraquinone, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, and reducing sugars, and phenols. Likewise, Saponins were found to be positive only in Peepal extracts with negative result for Phlabotannins and proteins. Thus, this research will help for utilizing the two religiously important plants i.e. Rudraksha and Peepal, for further researches in the medical field and preparation of various ayurvedic medicines.
... A recent study reported saponin content in different legumes such as cowpea (2.99 mg/ g), black gram (1.82 mg/g), moth bean (3.12 mg/g) and mung bean (1.28 mg/g) (Longvah et al., 2017). The variation among different reports of saponin content might be due to the different maturity stages of plant seeds which affect the content of saponins (Shi et al., 2004). Saponin showed a significant negative correlation with nutritionally vital minerals including Fe (r = − 0.456), Mg (r = − 0.471) and K (r = − 0.349). ...
Article
Ricebean accessions (n=38) cultivated in India were evaluated for their comprehensive nutrient, anti-nutrients and mineral composition. Protein and total dietary fibre ranged between 23.23 to 27.33 and 12.27 to 16.69 g/100g, respectively. Among the oligosaccharides, verbascose was not detected, however, raffinose and stachyose ranged between 47 to 186 and 117 to 5765 mg/100g, respectively. Among the free sugars, sucrose was found dominating (up to 370 mg/100g). Resistant starch (4.13 to 8.62%), iron (3.49 to 7.46 mg/100g), zinc (1.90 to 3.72 mg/100g) and selenium (0.28 to 4.48 µg/100g) varied significantly (p<0.05) among ricebean samples. Phytic acid, saponin, trypsin inhibitor and oxalate analysed in ricebean accessions ranged between 303 to 760 mg/100g, 19 to 46 mg/g, 309 to 1076 mg/100g and 219 to 431 mg/100g, respectively. Multivariate analysis using hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), and principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to decipher the diversity of nutrients and anti-nutrients across the ricebean accessions. Based on HCA, dendrogram-1 (nutrients) and dendrogram-2 (minerals, anti-nutrients) were produced, having four clusters in each. In the dendrogram-1 and 2, the largest cluster had (n=21) and (n=15) accessions, respectively. The PCA analyse the uncorrelated set of variables (principal components) and it condenses a large set of data variables. Based on the eigenvalue >1, a total of eight PCs were formed contributing total variance of 78.8 %. The factor loading contribution in the PC1 and PC2 were from iron, fructose, glucose, raffinose and total dietary fibre, selenium (Se) and protein, respectively.
... OR features the diffusive transfer from the oil to the continuous phase, which leads to the growth of larger droplets at the expense of small ones. Influenced by the temperature, the mass transfer kinetics are altered and may stimulate OR in α-TOH-QSs-NEs at 50 • C. QSs are also described as thermally sensitive (Shi et al., 2004) and may accelerate the demulsification process of oil droplets. Moreover, OR is the most common destabilizing mechanism that affects NEs loaded with flavor oils because of their non-negligible solubility in water (Barradas & de Holanda e Silva, 2020). ...
Article
Alpha-terpineol (α-TOH) is a promising monoterpenoid detaining several biological activities. However, as a volatile molecule, the incorporation of α-TOH within formulated products poses several challenges related to its stability. In this sense, nanoencapsulation works as a key technology to protect the bioactivity of low molecular weight oils, like α-TOH, against environmental stresses (heat, light, and moisture), mitigating their susceptibility to degradation (oxidation and volatilization). Physical properties of encapsulated flavor/essential oil have been extensively reported, whereas there is a lack in the literature regarding their chemical stability, which is usually the main purpose of encapsulation. Thus, in this study, the physicochemical stability of the formulated oil-in-water nanoemulsion loaded with α-TOH stabilized with Quillaja saponins (QSs) as a natural emulsifier (α-TOH-QSs-NE) were tracked in a long-term (up to 280th day). Along with time, mean droplet diameter (MDD) and turbidity were used as a reference for physical parameters; while the chemical stability was monitored using gas chromatography analysis to quantify the mark content of α-TOH into the NE. Results indicated that α-TOH-QSs-NE was successfully formulated with a high-load amount of α-TOH (90 mg mL⁻¹). α-TOH-QSs-NE showed great physicochemical stability regardless the storage-temperature (5°C or 25°C) up to 280th day, with no significant alterations in the MDD or turbidity, where c.a. 79% of the initial amount of the nanoemulsified α-TOH remained detectable in α-TOH-QSs-NEs, with no finding of degradation products. Thus, the data here disclosure may be useful for innovative application of α-TOH in foodstuffs.
... These may have a negative impact on protein digestibility and amino acids bioavailability (Gilani, Xiao, & Cockell, 2012). Saponins exhibit anticancer activity and may alleviate hyperlipidemia (Shi et al., 2004;Campos-Vega et al., 2010). In addition, condensed tannins and phytic acid have antioxidant activity and phytic acid exhibits anticancer activity (Campos-Vega et al., 2010). ...
Chapter
Pseudocereals are a heterogeneous group of underutilized grains which comprises a wide diversity of species with variable amounts of nutrients, phytochemicals (saponins, polyphenols, phytosterols, phytosteroids, etc.), and high‐quality proteins. Pseudocereals are gluten‐free and have a well‐balanced amino acid profile, with enhanced bioavailability and digestibility. These grains are a common source of dietary plant proteins in developing countries. While their production is only important locally, in recent years, the consumption of pseudocereals has increased in Western countries and they have been added to the daily diet. These grains are a healthy alternative for coeliacs and are highly appreciated as an ingredient for gluten‐free and other bakery products. Recent studies have revealed that, due to their diverse compounds, pseudocereals have been explored as “super‐food” ingredients with the potential to reduce the risk of non‐transmissible diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, and immunodeficiencies. Some results of these studies are supported by in vitro , in vivo , and human trials, which have shown promising outcomes. Several studies have measured specific biomarkers serving as indicators of human health and found that they are strongly influenced by specific bioactive compounds present in pseudocereals such as phytochemicals and peptides. Although these techniques have emerged as a tool that can complement traditional dietary assessment methods, they have barely been used recently to analyze bioactive compounds in pseudocereals. This chapter reviews the role of the bioactives contained in pseudocereals by taking into account the available in vitro , in vivo , and clinical data and linking biological measurements and models of disease at the subcellular, cellular, organ, and biological system levels. This involves considering potential biomarkersfor states of disease and wellness and thus providing an overview on the potential use of these bioactive substances as functional food ingredients.
... Saponins Saponins are natural glycoside compounds often called natural detergents due to their foamy texture. [14] It has antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties that improve immune function by stimulating the production of T-cells. [8] It lowers cholesterol and fat level. ...
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Background: Musa× paradisiaca. Linn is one of the most cultivated crops in India. It is commonly called Plantain. In Ayurveda, it is called Kadali. The name itself explains that it attracts everyone owing to its qualities. Palayanko-dan is a variety of Kadali/Plantain which is identified as Musa× paradisiaca. Linn. and it has many medicinal qualities. It is essential to do drug discoveries from natural sources to upshot in a diversified medicine portfolio for human use. The current research is owing to the phytochemical analysis of the Scape juice of Musa× paradisiaca. Linn.
... In cultivated crops, the predominant saponins are triterpenoids. Some of the plant families that contain saponins are amaranthaceae, aquifoliaceae, apiaceae, berberidaceae, chenopodiaceae, cucurbitaceae, caryophyllaceae, zygophyllaceae, leguminosae and myrsinaceae, along with some other families [81][82][83]. Legumes, including beans, peas and soybeans, are rich in triterpenoid saponins. The grasses and cereals are saponin-deficient, except for the species in Avena (Oas), which are rich in steroidal and triterpenoid saponins [84]. ...
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Saponins are triterpenoid or steroidal glycosides and are an important group of naturally occurring compounds of plant origin. They exhibit diverse pharmacological potentials including radical scavenging, as well as neuroprotective, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities, owing to their diverse chemical scaffolds. Saponins consist of an aglycone part (non-sugar) and a glycone part (sugar) and have at least one glycosidic (C-O sugar bond) linkage present between the glycone and aglycone mostly at C-3. On the basis of the aglycone part, saponins are classified into triterpenoid glycosides, steroid glycosides and alkaloid glycosides. Saponins exhibit neuroprotective activities against various disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) including stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). They mediate their therapeutic effects by modulation of various pathological targets. This study highlights various neuroprotective mechanisms of saponins including free radical scavenging, modulation of neuroprotective signaling pathways, activation of neurotrophic factors, modulation of neurotransmitters, inhibition of BACE1 enzyme and tau hyper-phosphorylation. The study concludes that saponins have considerable efficacy against various pathological targets of neurological disorders, especially AD, and might be an important source of leads against neurodegenerative disorders.
... Potential metabolites identified in the present study also play a crucial role in our health. Soyasaponins accumulated in SB-DT2 have strong adjuvant properties [44]. Cosmosiin is reported to have beneficial effects on diabetic complications by enhancing adiponectin secretion, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-β, and GLUT4 translocation [45]. ...
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Many environmental stresses can affect the accumulation of metabolites in plants, including drought. In the present study, we found a great deal of variability in the seed metabolic profiles of the tolerant (Matterhorn, SB-DT2 and SB-DT3) common bean genotypes in comparison to the sensitive genotypes (Sawtooth, Merlot and Stampede) using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography−tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). The genotypes were grown in the field and subjected to drought stress after flowering (terminal drought stress). We aimed to investigate the accumulation of genotype-specific metabolites and related pathways under terminal drought stress by comparing tolerant and sensitive genotypes within a race. A total of 26 potential metabolites were identified across genotype comparisons. Significant metabolic pathways, including monobactam biosynthesis, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, pentose phosphate pathway, C5-branched dibasic acid metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, vitamin B6 metabolism and flavonoid biosynthesis, were derived from the enriched metabolites. Many of these metabolic pathways were specific and varied with genotype comparisons. SB-DT2 vs. stampede revealed more significant metabolites and metabolic pathways compared to Matterhorn vs. Sawtooth and SB-DT3 vs. Merlot under terminal drought stress. Our study provides useful information regarding the metabolite profiles of seeds and their related pathways in comparisons of tolerant and sensitive common bean genotypes under terminal drought conditions. Further research, including transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, may contribute to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms and nutritional differences among seeds of common bean genotypes grown under terminal drought conditions.
... Furthermore, at higher temperatures, the dissolution capability of the solvent is enhanced, and the surface tension and solvent viscosity decrease, which improves the mass transfer rate and, thereby, the availability of bioactive chemicals for extraction (Chen et al., 2007). This finding corroborates earlier research demonstrating that saponin is a thermolabile substance and that high temperatures can reduce saponin extraction efficiency (Shi et al., 2004). Fig. 2B illustrates the effect of the ethanol concentration-extraction time interaction on total ginsenoside content. ...
Article
This study's aim is to apply response surface methodology (RSM) to model and optimize the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique for extracting the sum of ginsenosides (Rg1, Rb1, and Rg3) and total ginsenosides from cultivated wild ginseng. To extract ginsenosides from cultivated wild ginseng, a new ASE-based method, combined with RSM modeling and optimization, was developed. The RSM method, which was based on a five-level, three-factor central composite design, was used to obtain the optimal combination of extraction conditions. Briefly, the optimal extraction conditions for the sum of ginsenosides (Rg1, Rb1, and Rg3) and total ginsenoside were as follows: 88.64% ethanol for each extraction solvent, 105.98°C and 129.66°C of extraction temperature, 28.77 and 15.92 min of extraction time, extraction pressure of 1,500 psi, nitrogen purge of 60 s, flush volume of 60%, and one extraction cycle. A 3D response surface plot and contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to obtain the optimal conditions. Under the above conditions, the experimental extraction yields of the sum of ginsenosides (Rg1, Rb1, and Rg3) and total ginsenoside content were 7.45 and 32.82 mg/g, respectively, which closely agrees with the model's prediction values.
... Saponins (beta-Escin), sapo in Latin, are one of the important secondary metabolites in the plant, insects, and marine organisms. They are amphiphilic, have surfactant, soap-like foams, and are heat-stable (Melzig et al. 2001;Haralampidis et al. 2002;Shi et al. 2004), used as herbs and known as antifungal and antibacterial (Francis et al. 2002;Zhang et al. 2006). Divided into triterpenoid and steroidal saponins based on their aglycones structure and biochemistry (in plants, the core structures-27 carbon atoms-as furostan (16β, 22-epoxy-cholestan) and spirostan (16α, 22:22α, 26-diepoxycholestan), they usually have a hydroxyl group at C-3 position for monodesmosidik, and at C-26 at saponin furastanol bidesmosidik or at C-28 at triterpen bidemosidik, sometimes also reported at C-2, C-15, C-16, C-21, lyobipolar so can affect to lower aqueous surface tension and cell membranes. ...
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Mycoses or fungal infections are a general health problem that often occurs in healthy and immunocompromised people in the community. The development of resistant strains in Fungi and the incidence of azole antibiotic resistance in the Asia Pacific which reached 83% become a critical problem nowadays. To control fungal infections, substances and extracts isolated from natural resources, especially in the form of plants as the main sources of drug molecules today, are needed. Especially from Piperaceae , which have long been used in India, China, and Korea to treat human ailments in traditional medicine. The purpose of this review was to describe antifungal activity from Piper crocatum and its phytochemical profiling against lanosterol 14 alpha demethylase CYP51. The methods used search databases from Google Scholar to find the appropriate databases using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram as a clinical information retrieval method. From 1,150,000 results search by database, there were 73 selected articles to review. The review shows that P. crocatum contains flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, saponins, polyphenols, eugenol, alkaloids, quinones, chavibetol acetate, glycosides, triterpenoids or steroids, hydroxychavikol, phenolics, glucosides, isoprenoids, and non-protein amino acids. Its antifungal mechanisms in fungal cells occur due to ergosterol especially lanosterol 14 alpha demethylase CYP51 inhibition as a result of 5,6 desaturase (ERG3) downregulation. P. crocatum has an antifungal activity by its phytochemical profiling that act against fungi by inhibiting the fungal cytochrome P 450 pathway, make damaging cell membranes, fungal growth inhibition, morphological changes, and fungal cell lysis.
... Total saponins in the studied sweetpotato varieties ranged from 77.07 to 441.07 mg/g, and this is comparable to the average amount of 200 mg/g reported in soybeans, a saponin-rich food ( Isanga and Zhang, 2008 ). Saponins are a broad group of compounds, and in the past were recognised as antinutrients because they seemed extremely toxic to fish and some ruminants ( Shi et al., 2004 ). However, more recent research has suggested that saponin toxicity in humans is unlikely, unless consumed in large doses or administered intravenously, in which case it could cause haemolysis of red blood cells ( Marrelli et al., 2016 ). ...
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Rising incidences of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) necessitates research into local functional foods, crucial in managing these conditions. This study aimed to investigate compositional changes in the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of peeled and unpeeled roots of Ugandan sweetpotato varieties with different flesh colours using spectrophotometric methods. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities, on dry weight basis were significantly higher (P<0.05) in unpeeled than peeled roots. Phenolic compounds were significantly higher (P=0.001) in white, cream, and purple-fleshed roots (59.67-121.04 mg GAE/g) than in yellow and orange-fleshed roots (0.89-10.89 mg GAE/g). The deep orange-fleshed had the highest total carotenoids (averagely 269.82 µg/g) and the white the lowest (averagely 8.36 µg/g). Total alkaloids in the sweetpotato roots ranged between 24.05 and 233.70 µg CE/g, below the potential toxicity range of 3-10mg/g. The anthocyanin content of purple-fleshed roots was significantly higher (15.29 mg/g; P<0.001) than the other varieties, which ranged between 0.86 and 2.44 mg/g. Principal component analysis showed a stronger relationship between phenolics, anthocyanins, tannins, and ABTS radical scavenging antioxidant activity. Vitamin C and total carotenoids were more correlated with FRAP antioxidant activity. Consumption of different sweetpotato varieties with the peels could aid in managing NCDs in SSA.
... According to reports, phenols and alkaloids are the two most significant compounds in phytogens, with alkaloids having a stronger link with antioxidant activity than phenols (Gan et al., 2017). The presence of saponins at a worthwhile proportion inJLP is of health importance because, along with their use in treating hypercalciuria, as an antidote for acute lead poisoning, and as an inhibitor of dental cavities, saponins are another substance with a reputation for strengthening immune function and so lowering cancer risks, lowering blood sugar and blood lipids (Shi et al., 2004). Tannin, a phenolic molecule with a high molecular weight that is also present in JLP, is well-known for its capacity to form complexes with proteins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, and gelatin as well as its antibacterial and antioxidant properties (Widsten et al., 2014). ...
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Determining the proximate composition, phytochemical profile, antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects of Justicia carnea leaf powder (JLP) is the goal of this study. The results revealed that the crude fat (8.19%) had the lowest content in JLP and the nitrogen-free extract (37.85%) had the greatest. JLP included 9.98 percent crude protein, 17.54 % crude fibre, and 18.18 % ash, respectively. Phenol had the highest concentration (383.15 mg/g), whereas flavonoids (1.84 mg/g) had the lowest concentration. Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and steroids all had concentrations of 24.03 mg/g, 84.81 mg/g, 188.13 mg/g, and 231.3 mg/g, respectively. JLP had a 62.21 % inhibition of lipid peroxidation and a 28.49 % scavenging of ABTS radicals, respectively. The percentages for the DPPH radical scavenging, Fe chelation, and hydroxyl radical inhibition were 54.05 %, 42.81 %, and 54.35 %, respectively. JLP's alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibition activities were 65.96 and 65.82 %, respectively. JLP had a 35.51 % albumin denaturation inhibition and a 61.58 % antiprotease activity. Thus, these results suggested that JLP possesses antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities.
... Saponin are refers to as anti-nutrients however, clinical studies have showed that they possess beneficial effects on human body ranging from anti-cholesterol, antidiabetic and anticancer [42,43]. ...
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One of the most common traditional fermented food products consumed by all class of people in Southern part of Nigeria is Ogi. Ogi is a gurel made from different types of cereal ranging from maize, sorghum, millet among others. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate nutrient, phytochemicals, functional properties, and glycemic index of Ogi produced from different grains. Grains such as yellow maize (YM), white maize (WM), popcorn maize (PC), red sorghum (RS), white sorghum (WS) and finger millet (FM) were processed into Ogi samples, packaged in airtight container prior to analysis and stored at-20 °C. Proximate results showed that Ogi sample produced from PC significantly contained the highest protein content followed by sample YM. Potassium was observed to be the most abundant mineral elements in Ogi (14.50-19.10 mg/100 g). The phytochemical composition (mg/g) of the experimental samples ranged from 0.34-1.62, 53.82-177.09, 0.00-0.10, 3.71-69.22 and 2.08-6.08 mg/g in oxalate, saponin, flavonoid, phytate and tannin, respectively. The glycemic index ranged 48.83% in YM to 50.71% in WS, while the glycemic load ranged 31.96% in YM to 37.82% in WS, respectively. The result revealed that Ogi samples, especially YM was high in calcium, Ca/ P ratio, iron, zinc but low in phytate and tannin content. Sample YM also exhibit lower glycemic index, when compared with other Ogi samples. Hence, YM may be a better grain for the production of Ogi samples.
... Cho et al. [95,96], studied the effect of Spinacia oleracea (spinach) leaf extract which is a saponin-rich extract on platelet activity. Saponins are natural compounds that have shown positive impacts on cardiovascular health by acting as antioxidant, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic agents [97]. Different concentrations (100, 300 and 500 µg/mL) of the S. oleracea saponin-rich extract showed significant inhibitory effects on aggregation in rat isolated platelets upon activation by 10 µg/mL collagen in a concentration dependent manner (53%, 50% and 40%, respectively). ...
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a primary cause of deaths worldwide. Thrombotic diseases, specifically stroke and coronary heart diseases, account for around 85% of CVDs-induced deaths. Platelets (small circulating blood cells) are responsible for the prevention of excessive bleeding upon vascular injury, through blood clotting (haemostasis). However, unnecessary activation of platelets under pathological conditions, such as upon the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques, results in thrombus formation (thrombosis), which can cause life threatening conditions such as stroke or heart attack. Therefore, antiplatelet medications are usually prescribed for people who are at a high risk of thrombotic diseases. The currently used antiplatelet drugs are associated with major side effects such as excessive bleeding, and some patients are resistant to these drugs. Therefore, numerous studies have been conducted to develop new antiplatelet agents and notably, to establish the relationship between edible plants, specifically fruits, vegetables and spices, and cardiovascular health. Indeed, healthy and balanced diets have proven to be effective for the prevention of CVDs in diverse settings. A high intake of fruits and vegetables in regular diet is associated with lower risks for stroke and coronary heart diseases because of their plethora of phytochemical constituents. In this review, we discuss the impacts of commonly used selected edible plants (specifically vegetables, fruits and spices) and/or their isolated compounds on the modulation of platelet function, haemostasis and thrombosis.
... Allowing them to graze on yucca plants has proven to be effective in reducing the infestation of rumen protozoa. In addition, Hendricks (2013) and Shi, et al., (2004), highlighted that humans generally do not suffer severe poisoning from saponins. The cholesterin in humans inactivates them so that they only affect the mucus membranes. ...
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Seven varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Ife Brown, IT98K-128-3, IT98K-506-1, IT93K-452-1 and IT95K-1072-57, IT06K-149-1, and IT06K-136 were obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (IITA) and evaluated at the Biological Garden of the University of Delta, Agbor, for the levels of saponins present. The results obtained revealed the following contents:- Ife Brown (0.11 mg/100-1), IT98K-128-3 (0.13 mg/100-1), IT98K-506-1 (0.20 mg/100-1), IT93K-452-1 (0.18 mg/100-1) and IT95K-1072-57 (0.15 mg/100-1), IT06K-149-1 (0.23 mg/100-1), and IT06K-136 (0.22 mg/100-1) respectively. Consequently, Ife Brown, IT98K-128-3 and IT95K-1072-57 were recommended for cultivation in commercial quantities by farmers in Delta State due to their lower contents of saponins.
Chapter
Every year, a major portion of food is wasted due to food contamination which leads to food toxicity. On entering the human body through food or water, food contaminants result in several foodborne diseases (FBDs) and cause societal, and economic disturbances. The food contaminants are broadly categorized as microbial or environmental contaminants, naturally occurring toxic constituents, and those resulting from food additives or novel foods or ingredients. Some of these naturally existing plant-based food toxins are anti-nutritional factors (ANFs). Usually, ANFs are present in small quantities in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and pulses to protect them from insects, microbes, or pests, and may not be harmful when consumed. However, when consumed by people sensitive to an individual ingredient, they may induce hazardous health effects. ANFs inhibit the nutrient absorption and digestion in human body. A deeper knowledge of chemical structure of these ANFs may prove helpful in devising technological strategies to produce or process toxin-free plant-based foods, thus improving the quality of the food, without compromising the health of the consumers. In this chapter, we attempt to elucidate different anti-nutrients, their structures, and adverse effects as well as strategies to reduce their levels to improve the quality of food.
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Various plants form the basis of multiple traditional ethnic cuisines and ethnomedicinal practices across the globe. The ethnic cuisines cater to the nutritional, dietary and medicinal requirements of the tribal and rural communities even today. Using literature from various scholarly databases, this study was conducted to consolidate a comprehensive review on the use of Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. in various traditional ethnic cuisines and ethnomedicinal preparations across the globe. The survey shows that it is used in multiple ethnic cuisines and is variously known in different countries and among the communities. Further, it possesses multiple nutritional and ethnomedicinal properties. Considering its importance in ethnic foods and ethnomedicinal preparations, it is important to investigate the nutritional composition, phytochemical constitution and pharmacological basis of ethnomedicinal uses. Therefore, we further compiled this information and found that it is a rich source of both micro- and macronutrients and packed with several bioactive compounds. Survey of pharmacological studies on its traditional medicinal uses supports its ethnomedicinal properties. Despite its importance in traditional food and ethnomedicinal systems, it remains underexplored. Limited information on the toxicity of its various extracts shows that further studies should be conducted to understand its safety aspects. Further clinical studies to prospect possible drug candidates from it should be attempted.
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Metabolic disorders are major clinical challenges of health that are progressing globally. A concurrence of metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and systematic hypertension leads to metabolic syndrome. Over the past years, the metabolic syndrome leads to a five- and two-fold rise in diabetes mellitus type II and cardiovascular diseases. Natural products specifically plant extracts have insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties and are also considered as an alternative option due to few adverse effects. Nanotechnology is one of the promising strategies, which improves the effectiveness of treatment and limits side effects. This review mainly focuses on plant extract-based nanosystems in the management of the metabolic syndrome. Numerous nano-drug delivery systems, i.e., liposomes, hydrogel nanocomposites, nanoemulsions, micelles, solid lipid, and core–shell nanoparticles, have been designed using plant extracts. It has been found that most of the nano-formulations successfully reduced oxidative stress, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and lipid profile in in vitro and in vivo studies as plant extracts interfere with the pathways of metabolic syndrome. Thus, these novel plant-based nanosystems could act as a promising candidate for clinical applications.
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Mangrove bioresources are considered as promising for bioprospecting due to rich biological diversity such as food, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial sectors. Mangrove fruits are one of the most important bioresource used by coastal communities of Odisha, India and contributing significantly to food security and livelihood. However, some potential and functional mangrove fruits which are still underutilized and underexplored due to escaped attention and scientific inquiry. Therefore, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive study of edibility, socio-economic importance, nutritional, antinutritional, and antioxidant properties of mangrove fruits of Odisha. Several fruits such as Aegiceras corniculatum, Heritiera fomes, Kandelia candel, Sonneratia apetala, and Sueda maritima which are nutritious and also used in pharmaceutical industries to produce anticancer, antidiabetic, antitumor, and other therapeutic agents. Hence, bioprospecting, conservation, and commercialization of underutilized mangrove fruits can be a potential way of ensuring food, medicine, and nutritional security in future.
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Oxidative stress represents one of the main factors driving the pathophysiology of multiple ophthalmic conditions including presbyopia, cataracts, dry eye disease (DED), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Currently, different studies have demonstrated the role of orally administered nutraceuticals in these diseases. For instance, they have demonstrated to improve lens accommodation in presbyopia, reduce protein aggregation in cataracts, ameliorate tear film stability, break up time, and tear production in dry eye, and participate in the avoidance of retinal neuronal damage and a decrease in intraocular pressure in glaucoma, contribute to the delayed progression of AMD, or in the prevention or treatment of neuronal death in diabetic retinopathy. In this review, we summarized the nutraceuticals which have presented a positive impact in ocular disorders, emphasizing the clinical assays. The characteristics of the different types of nutraceuticals are specified along with the nutraceutical concentration used to achieve a therapeutic outcome in ocular diseases.
Chapter
Proteins are the principal supplier of nitrogen for growth, repair and maintenance of tissues and vital physiological functions. Plants produce a variety of noxious compounds to protect themselves against the predators like herbivores, insects, pathogens, and microbes as well as to fight against the adverse environmental factors. The noxious compounds, which impact the optimum utilization of food nutrients and reduce their digestion, absorption and metabolic utilization and may generate adverse health effects, are termed as antinutritional factors (ANFs). Depending on their structure and molecular weight, these ANFs of plant foods can limit the utilization of their nutrients and may trigger variable adverse physiological effects in humans. The major ANFs and toxic compounds present in plant foods are protease inhibitors, α-amylase inhibitors, α-galactosides, anti-minerals, phytates, oxalates, tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, lectins, phytohaemagglutinins (PAH), gossypol, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, compounds causing favism, lathyrogens, goitrogens, phytoestrogens, lipoxygenases, anti-vitamin factors, uricogenic nucleobases in yeast protein products, toxic proteins, and food allergens etc. Some of these ANFs in plant protein foods can be toxic, some make them unpalatable by adding bitter taste, whereas the others may have adverse effects leading to reduced growth and fitness through nutrient complexation, metabolic inhibition and/or interference with digestion and absorption of nutrients. The safety, nutritional quality, and palatability of plant protein foods can however be improved by a variety of processing techniques. This chapter describes the presence of these ANFs in plant protein food sources, their mechanism of action, processing methods to reduce or eliminate them from plant food sources and showcases their adverse health effects in humans.
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ackground and Objective: Watermelon is a fruit grown in tropical regions and widely consumed for its refreshing, sweet and juicy taste. This study evaluated the vitamin and phytochemical compositions as well as the antioxidant activity of its juice. Materials and Methods: Watermelon fruit was purchased from Ogbete market in Enugu State, Nigeria and the various analyses were carried out using standard methods. The antioxidant activity was measured using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation assays. Results: From the result of the vitamin analysis, vitamin B3 was the highest in concentration (6.62±3.54 mg mLG1 ) while folic acid was the least (0.12±0.04 µ mLG1 ). The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoid (3.45±0.04 mg mLG1 ), cardiac glycoside (0.21±0.02 mg mLG1 ), phenol (0.17±0.02 mg mLG1 ), terpenoids (0.12±0.02 mg mLG1 ) and saponin (0.09±0.01 mg mLG1 ) while oxalate, phytate and alkaloids were not detected. The antioxidant activities were concentration-dependent. The IC50 of watermelon juice for scavenging ability on DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were 40.0and 76.0 mL, respectively while OD0.5 for reducing power was 45.0 mL. Ascorbic acid was used as standard and exhibited better antioxidant ability for DPPH radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC50 of 12.0 and 46.0 mL, respectively. However, the reducing power ability of the standard (OD 0.5 of 52.0) was lower than that of watermelon juice. Conclusion: This study showed that watermelon juice is a good source of nutrients and the presence of these phytochemicals and the antioxidant potential shows that it may be useful for therapeutic purposes.
Conference Paper
Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) rhizome, Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaf, and brown seaweed (Sargassum polycycstum) have bioactive compounds that potent to treat Diabetes Mellitus (DM). This research aims to get the best proportion of their mixture as functional drinks. Methanolic extract of fresh and flour form and decoction of flour form of each ingredient analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total phlorotannin content (TPhC). The decoction then screened for phytochemicals. Functional drinks were made using decoction method. The research design used a Completely Randomized Design with six treatment levels, namely M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, and M6. Then, determined by the multiple attribute method with parameters TPC and TPhC to get the best proportion of mixture and then screened for phytochemicals. Turmeric rhizome flour had the highest TPC (16.76±0.51 mg GAE/g) and brown seaweed flour decoction had the highest TPhC (11.11±1.38 mg PGE/g). Phytochemical screening of decoction of flour form revealed the presence and absence of some bioactive compounds. The best functional drink is with the proportion of 50%:25%:25% with TPC of 6.92±0.10 mg GAE/g, TPhC of 4.85±0.11 mg PGE/g and the presence of all compounds tested by phytochemical screening.
Chapter
Cancer is one of the most dreadful disease conditions all over the world. With the side effects and cost of conventional treatment, there is a demand for new therapies to prevent cancer. Research studies proved many plant products possess anticancer properties. Currently, a few plant-based drugs are used to treat it. The phytochemicals are investigated by in vitro and in vivo to assess their mechanism of action against cancer. This chapter is an overview of anticancer compounds extracted from plants of Solanaceae family with the potentials results. Many research has confirmed the anticancer efficiency of the biomolecules, such as solanine, solamargine, tomatidine, Withanolides, scopoletin, capsaicin found in Solanaceae, and their mode of action, such as cell cycle arrest, inhibiting signaling pathways, autophagy, suppression of enzymes in various human cancer cell lines of breast, pancreas, colorectal, liver, and cervical and also in animal models. This chapter seeks to provide an outline of key examples of anticancer activity of phytochemicals from the Solanaceae family, which offers a track for the development of novel medicines for cancer treatment as a single drug or in combinational drug. This chapter helps to identify the novel bioactive molecule for cancer treatment as lead molecule with less side effects in future.
Article
Despite mounting concerns regarding the narrowness of the genetic base of soybean [(Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in North America and the challenges that it may pose in the changing global environment and climate, exotic germplasm remains seldom used by breeders owing to various concerns. The objective of this study was to evaluate a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) genomic diversity panel of 200 soybean genotypes for seed yield, seed quality and agronomic trait performance. The GWAS panel consisted of lines derived from several generations of bi-parental crosses between the Canadian and Chinese cultivars (CD-CH), the Canadian cultivars (CD), and exotic Chinese cultivars (CH) evaluated at Elora and Woodstock, ON, in 2019 and 2020. In the combined analysis of variance, the CD-CH group showed a significant increase in seed yield, although the performance of this group was otherwise comparable or inferior to the adapted, the Canadian cultivars. Canadian cultivars were superior to both CD-CH and, exotic Chinese cultivars in seed oil and seed protein concentration. The yield potential of the exotic-derived soybeans lines observed in this study provide a great source of novel genetics for soybean breeders interested in introgressing novel alleles from exotic sources to improve yield and seed quality traits and to help combat climate change.
Chapter
Nutrition is widely recognized as one of the chief factors driving profitability, efficiency, and development of livestock production. Plant-derived feedstuffs are high in macronutrients and micronutrients, but they also possess anti-nutritional factors (ANFs). Anti-nutritional factors are secondary compounds that lower the nutrient content of forages and reduce forage feed intake by livestock. Protease inhibitors, amylase inhibitors, lectins, tannins, mimosine, phytic acid, gossypol, oxalates, cyanogens, saponins, nitrates, alkaloids, and anti-vitamins are some of the most common ANFs found in livestock feed. The ANFs block or interfere with how the animal’s body absorbs other nutrients, resulting in reduced bioavailability of various legumes and cereal components. Thus, ANFs may cause micronutrient malnutrition and mineral deficiencies. Different traditional techniques and methods are used alone or in combination to reduce the ANFs content in livestock feed, such as fermentation, germination, debarking, sterilization, steam sterilization, and soaking. The majority of ANFs found in livestock feeds offer potential health advantages or risks for livestock.KeywordsPlant-based dietAnti-nutrientsPotential health benefitsAdverse health effectsLivestock
Chapter
Antinutrients are naturally occurring substances in plants, well known to block the absorption of beneficial or essential organic nutrients and inorganic minerals. Major antinutrients such as enzymes (lipase, amylase, and protease), trypsin inhibitors, phytate, polyphenols, lectins, glucosinolates, oxalates, and saponins have been characterized in different plant species. In general, these antinutrients are reported to have bitter taste and are unpalatable with bad odor and have a role in plant defenses. Antinutrients, which are known to bind the nutrients, severely affect the latter’s bio-accessibility and ultimately bioavailability. The current chapter briefly summarizes the various kinds of antinutrients and their role in limiting bioavailability of nutrients. Eventually, these antinutrients cause mineral deficiency and micronutrient malnutrition in humans.Hence, it is indispensable to reduce their contents in foods to a safe level for human consumption. Further, various strategies and concepts to tackle the deleterious effects of antinutrients are discussed. Many processing methods namely decortication, roasting, boiling, microwave heating, soaking, germination, autoclaving, fermentation, and extrusion technique are reported to decrease the antinutrient content in food crops. Further, the current understanding of the antinutrient’s health promoting effects such as reduction of blood glucose, cholesterol levels, prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancer are also discussed.
Article
Mexico has various Faba bean (Vicia faba) seeds, differentiated by agronomic and chemical properties. The present work evaluates the effect of thermal treatment (roasting and boiling) on chemical and non-nutritional components of three varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba). Three faba bean Mexican varieties were utilized, of late, intermediate, and early maturity, under thermal treatments of roasting (120°C/10 min) and boiling (120°C/20 min, 1.0546 kgf/cm²). Results demosntrated that the treatments have different results: while the content of fiber and ashes increases with both methods, the proteins, ether extract, and carbohydrates remained constant with the samples boiled. In contrast, only the concentration of ethereal extract is affected with toasted. Similarly, digestibility increased from 2 to 6% after both treatments. Furthermore, trypsin inhibitors decreased between 79 and 89% in the three varieties with roasting, while in boiling they were eliminated. Phytic acid decreased 40-33% in the HTA and HTP varieties regardless of the thermal treatment; for the HPA variety, it was possible to reduce up to 31% in roasting and 20% in boiling Total and condensed phenolics, vicin and convincin, decreased to 23 and 33% in heat-treated samples, mainly when boiled L-DOPA was only present in two raw species (HPA and HTA), and it was eliminated with both treatments. Thermal treatments improved the biological quality of proteins in faba bean seeds by removing or reducing the concentration of non-nutritional compounds and increasing the digestibility of nutrients.
Chapter
Common beans are one of the species from the Leguminosae family which are included in the pulses group one of the popular staple food around the world. They play an important role in human nutrition and health due to the chemical composition of their whole grains. Carioca beans are one of the main commercial types of common beans most produced and consumed in Brazil, especially as cooked grains with broth. Their tegument darkens for most cultivars during storage, and this chemical and physical change can be associated to the hard‐to‐cook phenomenon in the grains. Besides the color modification during storage, the nutritional and functional properties of beans can be mostly preserved. There are few studies regarding the molecular mechanisms of carioca beans to human health and nutrition. In this chapter, we highlight the presence of diverse compounds in the grain from different genotypes of carioca beans available in recent literature and their beneficial effects for consumers. In that regard, we review the content, profile, and mechanism of action of nutrients and bioactive compounds in animal or human microbiota, such as bioactive peptides, nondigestible carbohydrates, micronutrients, and some other food components capable of regulating metabolic processes. We believe that this compiled information on composition and important functions of carioca beans will encourage their increased consumption as well as their use as ingredient to develop new products or as source of interesting, isolated compounds for different industrial applications.
Chapter
Inflammation and oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders are on the genesis of several highly prevalent noncommunicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, which currently represent the leading cause of premature death worldwide. However, evidence suggests that healthy dietary habits may exert positive antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects by preventing the onset or modulating such chronic conditions. In this context, pulse-based functional foods and ingredients have emerged as versatile and convenient vehicles to promote higher nutritional intake with additional health benefits. In this chapter, we describe the potential use of pulses and their bioactive compounds in the development of functional foods and ingredients capable of modulating inflammation and oxidative stress, discussing challenges and opportunities for both the scientific community and food industry. The most promising bioactive compounds appear to comprise carbohydrates and nondigestible components, proteins and bioactive peptides, tocopherols and carotenoids, phytosterols, saponins, and polyphenols. Both the direct and indirect influences of these compounds over inflammation and oxidative stress-related health disorders have been reported. Nevertheless, the development of functional foods incorporating pulse-based ingredients poses several challenges. The largest difficulty relates to ensuring the sustenance of biologic activity throughout food supply chain and after consumption. More research regarding the optimization of growing and processing conditions that lead to better functional properties of pulses and pulse-based products is needed. Pulse flours, as well as their fiber and protein fractions, have become a convenient choice as pulse-based functional ingredients, mainly incorporated into baked products, providing important metabolic benefits. However, the bioavailability, efficacy and safety of pulse bioactive compounds require more thorough investigation, particularly during shelf-life periods. Also, since lentils, chickpeas, and beans have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds (particularly their colorful cultivars), increased attention of researchers and food industry to these foods is justified. Lastly, more human controlled clinical trials testing the biological effects of pulse-based novel foods are required.
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The effect of drying air temperature and relative humidity on the rate of drying and damage to navy beans was investigated. A thin-layer apparatus was developed to dry beans from an initial moisture content of around 25% to 14% wet basis (w.b.) using temperatures between 32° and 62°C and relative humidities between 7.5% and 45%. The rate of moisture diffusion from the beans was mathematically defined as a function of drying air temperature and bean moisture content. The degree of bean damage was inversely proportional to the relative humidity of drying air when it was below 26%. No damage was observed for relative humidities greater than 26% for the range of temperatures used.
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Significant varietal differences were observed in the contents of phytic acid, saponin and trypsin inhibitor activity of four varieties of Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia Jacq.). Tannins and lectins were absent. The dry seeds were given different treatments including soaking, sprouting and cooking and the changes in the level of the antinutritional factors were estimated. Soaking the seeds in plain water and mineral salt solution for 12 hr decreased phytic acid to the maximum (46–50%) whereas sprouting for 60 hr had the most pronounced saponin lowering effect (4466%). The other methods of processing were less effective in reducing the levels of these antinutritional factors. The processing methods involving heat treatment almost eliminated trypsin inhibitor activity while soaking and germination partly removed the activity.
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The immunomodulatory activity of ginsenoside Rg1 from Panax ginseng was studied in mice using sheep red cells as the antigen. It was found that ginsenoside Rg1 at a dose of 10 mg/kg administered for three consecutive days before immunization increased the number of spleen plaque-forming cell, the titers of sera hemagglutinins as well as the number of antigen-reactive T-cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 also increased the number of T-helper cells with respect to the whole T-cell number and the splenocyte natural killer activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 induced an augmentation of the production of IL-1 by macrophages and exerted a direct mitogenic effect on microcultured thymus cells. Ginsenoside Rg1 also partly restored the impaired immune reactivity by cyclophosphamide treatment.
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Drying damage was assessed for white beans dried with commercial grain dryers and also with a laboratory-scale, thin-layer drying apparatus. At moderate drying temperatures (40-45 degree C) there was a significant increase in damage level in only two of eight tests with the commerical grain dryers. Consequently, the amount of damage attributable to artificial drying was minor compared to that which had occurred prior to drying. The thin-layer drying experiments demonstrated that humidity of the drying air was key factor in controlling seed coat cracks. Seed coat damage was negligible if relative humidity of the drying air was 30% or greater. A simple and rapid chemical staining technique, the Indoxyl Acetate Test, was investigated as a tool to speed up the determination of seed coat damage in white beans. The test showed a positive correlation with the visual damage results.
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We examined the inhibitory effects of “group A saponin” and “group B saponin” fractions, which were extracted and separated from soybean seed hypocotyls, on water-soluble 2, 2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) (AAPH)- and lipid-soluble 2, 2′-azobis(2, 4-dimethylvaleronitrile)(AMVN)-initiated lipid peroxidation reactions that were conducted with mouse liver microsomes. The simultaneous addition of the group A saponin fraction dose-dependently inhibited AAPH- or AMVN-initiated lipid peroxidation in microsomes more strongly than that of the group B saponin fraction. The group A saponin fraction inhibited the AAPH-initiated lipid peroxidation with a lag phase, while it immediately blocked the AMVN-initiated lipid peroxidation. The group A saponin fraction inhibited microsomal AAPH-initiated lipid peroxidation even when added to the reaction mixture after the lag phase period. Microsomes pretreated with the group A saponin fraction showed inhibition of AAPH-initiated lipid peroxidation with a prolonged lag phase, and the saponin fraction-pretreated microsomes showed inhibition of the AMVN-initiated lipid peroxidation in which a lag phase was found. These results indicate that in mouse liver microsomes, the group A saponin fraction from soybean seed hypocotyls, which is present outside and/or near the microsomal membranes, inhibits AAPH-initiated lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the initiation and propagation of this reaction, while it prevents microsomal AMVN-initiated lipid peroxidation mainly by inhibiting the propagation of this reaction. In addition, the present results indicate that the group A saponin fraction can inhibit AAPH- or AMVN-initiated lipid peroxidation in mouse liver microsomes by its presence within the membranes and/or by binding to them.
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Since alfalfa meal prevents hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in rabbits and alfalfa saponins prevent the expected rise in cholesterolemia induced by dietary cholesterol in monkeys, the experiments being reported here were performed to determine whether alfalfa saponins affect atherogenesis in rabbits. In addition, the effects of alfalfa seeds were studied. Cholesterol-fed rabbits were randomly assigned to 3 groups: (a) control animals (N = 18); (b) animals maintained on a diet containing 1.0 to 1.2% alfalfa saponins (N = 18); and (c) animals maintained on a diet containing 40% alfalfa seeds (N = 17). Results after a 4-month observation period demonstrated that alfalfa saponins and alfalfa seeds reduce hypercholesterolemia, aortic sudanophilia, and the concentration of cholesterol in aortic intima-plus-media and in the liver, but do not induce changes in the hematocrit.
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A full account of the structure revision of soyasapogenols is presented. The structures of soyasapogenols A, B, and E have been confirmed to be expressed as 3β, 21β, 22β, 24-tetrahydroxy-olean-12-ene (1), 3β, β22β, 24-trihydroxyolean-12-ene (2), and 3β, 24-dihydroxyolean-12-en-22-one (5), respectively, rather than the previously reported 3β, 21α, 22α, 24-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene (1'), 3β, 21α, 24-trihydroxyolean-12-ene (2'), and 3β, 24-dihydroxyolean-12-en-21-one (5'). In consequence, the structures of soyasaponins I, II, and III are formulated as 3-O-[α-Lrhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]soyasapogenol B (8), 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]soyasapogenol B (9), and 3-O-[β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]soyasapogenol B (10), respectively.
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Saponins are bioactive substances with physiological activities and bitter taste. We investigated the distributions of saponins in soybean plants. Acetyl-soyasaponins A1 and A4 occur only in seed hypocotyls of soybean plants. Soyasaponin I was detected in all organs of the plant. However, soyasaponin I levels in plant showed very heterogenous distributions, for example, stem and main root had very low soyasaponin I levels, but nodule and leaf had higher levels.
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Soyasaponin I (major), II and III, all of which possess soyasapogenol B (2) as the common aglycone, have been isolated from the MeOH extractive of soybean (Glycine max MERRILL, Leguminosae). On the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, the structure of soyasaponin I has been elucidated to be 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-soyasapogenol B (7) and the structures of soyasaponin II and III to be 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-soyasapogenol B (8) and 3-O-[β-D-galactopyranosyl (1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-soyasapogenol B (9), respectively.
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In order to study the effect of various salts on the hard-to-cook phenomenon, black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were stored under tropical conditions to induce the defect and soaked in various aqueous sodium salt solutions prior to cooking. Statistical analyses of hardness data showed that storage conditions and pH of soaking solutions did not produce significant effects but anion type was important in inducing softness as follows: . Softening was also promoted by increasing the ionic strength of the soaking solution. Scanning electron microscopy of treated beans indicated that storage conditions contributed more to the degree of cell separation after cooking than salt treatment, which had little effect. These results bring a mechanism based on chelation and ion exchange into question. Differential scanning calorimetry data can be interpreted as meaning that soaking beans in salt solution caused a major reduction (10–15°C) in the temperature of protein denaturation. This suggests that aqueous salts influence storage proteins, perhaps by solubilization and rendering them more thermally labile.
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Antinutrients commonly found in plant foods have both adverse effects and health benefits. For example, phytic acid, lectins, phenolic compounds (tannins), saponins and enzyme (amylase and protease) inhibitors have been shown to reduce the availability of nutrients and cause growth inhibition, while phytoestrogens and lignans have been linked with infertility problems. However, phytic acid, lectins, phenolic compounds, amylase inhibitors and saponins have also been shown to reduce the blood glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods and/or the plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. In addition, phytic acid, phenolics, saponins, protease inhibitors, phytoestrogens and lignans have been related to reduced cancer risks. Because antinutrients can also be mitigating agents, they need re-evaluation and perhaps a change in name in the future.
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The effects of solvent and time on extraction of 2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4-pyrone (DDMP)-conjugated soyasaponin I in dehulled peas (Pisum sativum L) were studied. Extraction in 80% ethanol gave a higher and more stable yield than 100% methanol over the time studied. Acetonitrile did not extract any detectable saponins. Both soyasaponin I and the DDMP-conjugated form were present in the extracts of dehulled, dried peas. The proportion of soyasaponin I to the DDMP-conjugate, calculated as the ratio of the molecular ions, increased with increasing extraction time, from an initial 0·24 after 0·5 h to 0·55 after 24 h of extraction in 80% ethanol, showing that the DDMP-conjugate was hydrolysed during the extraction. Storage of dried dehulled peas also increased the proportion of soyasaponin I, from 0·063 in newly harvested peas to 0·34 after 9 months of storage. Peas harvested in 1988 and stored for 7 years had a ratio of 0·78. These results clearly show that the DDMP-conjugate was converted to soyasaponin I both during storage and extraction of the peas. © 1998 Society of Chemical Industry.
After 90 years of decline caused by economic and social factors, the deregulation and fiscal changes in 1988 brought about a structural change in the private rented sector. The emergence of a true open market, altered investment criteria and demographic and lifestyle changes have led to the creation of a multi-billion pound investment market. Investors, managers and valuers have had to develop new skills and attitudes to adapt to these changed circumstances.
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Afromosin [1] and soyasaponin I [2] isolated from Wistaria brachybotrys exhibited remarkable inhibitory effects on mouse skin tumor promotion, and afromosin also exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on pulmonary tumor promotion. The combined effects of these compounds on the two-stage skin carcinogenesis were also examined, and it was concluded that the combination of 1 with 2 enhanced the inhibitory effect.
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Changes in the saponin content and composition of both chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) and lentils (Lens culinaris) were investigated after the seeds were soaked in distilled water, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate solutions. The effect of cooking for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the seeds were presoaked in distilled water was also studied. Soaking did not modify the saponin content or composition of chickpeas and lentils regardless of the pH of the soaking solution. The native saponin, soyasaponin VI, was partially degraded during cooking into soyasaponin I, and both of these saponins leached into the cooking solution, 2−5% and 6−14% for chickpea and lentil, respectively. An overall loss of saponin content was found for lentil (15−31% loss), but none was observed for chickpea. Keywords: Saponins; soaking; cooking; Cicer arietinum; Lens culinaris
Article
he objective of this work was to study the effects of extrusion cooking on improving the functional and nutritive properties of dry beans that had been stored, at 23 +/- 3 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% relative humidity for 12 months. After storage, the bean cooking time increased 4.5-fold, while texture and flavor deteriorated in quality. Water absorption, water solubility, and emulsifying capacity were the same for the extrusion cooked beans, before and after storage. Paste viscosity was slightly higher for the beans extruded shortly after harvest. Protein nutritive value of the freshly harvested beans was totally preserved in the stored beans submitted to extrusion cooking. Extruded mixed flours (1:3 w/w) of freshly harvested beans and rice or stored beans and rice, respectively, improved significantly in their water absorption capacity, viscosity of paste at 25, 90, and 50 degrees C, and nutritive value, but decreased in water solubility index and in emulsifying capacity, in relation to extruded flours of beans alone.
Article
A zahnic acid tridesmoside, 3-O-[beta-D-gluocpyranosyl(1-2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-2-beta,3-beta,16-alpha-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-23,28-dioic acid-23-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinoside], has been identified as the main saponin present in the aerial parts of alfalfa by a combination of chromatographic, chemical, and spectroscopic techniques. Moreover, four medicagenic acid glycosides and soyasaponin I have been isolated from the same source and identified. Three of the medicagenic acid glycosides are identical to those previously found in alfalfa roots, while the fourth has been identified as 2-beta-hydroxy-3-beta-O-glucuronopyranosyl 28-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside]olean-12-en-23-oic acid. Biological activity was measured using the fungus Trichoderma viride, and hemolytic activity was assessed using a hemolytic test. The zahnic acid glycoside did not inhibit fungal growth over a wide range of concentrations and exhibited only weak hemolytic activity.
Article
The effects of soaking and canning on the lipid, saccharide, protein, phenolic acid and saponin contents of four market classes (navy, dark red kidney, pinto and black turtle soup) of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) were determined. These compounds are potential flavour precursors. Significant (P < 0.05) decreases in the content of the saccharide, non-protein nitrogen, phenolic acid and saponin contents occurred with processing. Lipid composition und totul nitrogen content of the raw and canned beans were not signifiiantly (P < 0.05) different. Leuching and thermal degradation of these components contributed to the decreases in their content.
Article
Differences were observed in saponin contents of eight varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and four of black gram (Phaseolus mungo). Common domestic processing and cooking treatments reduced the saponin level of the pulses significantly. Sprouting had the most pronounced effect followed by autoclaving, soaking and ordinary cooking. Cooking of soaked as well as unsoaked seeds had a similar diminishing effect.
Article
The hydrolysis products of soyasaponins in legumes and of pure standards have been examined using t.l.c., g.c. and g.c.-m.s. Interrelationships between eight soyasapogenols, produced under conditions of aqueous or non-aqueous acid hydrolysis have been established. The significance of the work to the analysis of soyasaponins is discussed.
Article
One of the compounds contributing to the undesirable sensory characteristics (bitterness and astringency) of some cultivars of dried pea and their products has been identified by chemical and spectroscopic techniques as soyasaponin I, a sapogenin trisaccharide previously reported in soya.
Article
A gas chromatographic method has been developed for the analysis of saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). The method, which involves separation and quantitation of the trimethylsilylated sapogenols, has been applied to the analysis of the UK-grown crop obtained by selection from lowland Chilean ecotypes. Total saponin contents of 1·03 and 1·19% were found for material grown in 1987 and 1988. The major aglycone in the quinoa saponin mixture was identified as phytolaccagenic acid (>40% total), with hederagenin (∼25%) and oleanolic acid (30%) aglycones also being present. The effects of washing and abrasion on total and individual saponin content were investigated; the data obtained suggest differential cellular locations of the individual saponins. The processing of quinoa led to changes in sensory characteristics; removal of saponins was associated with reductions in bitterness and astringency. Microscopic analysis revealed considerable differences in washed and abraded samples, both before and after cooking; in particular the abraded samples showed a greater degree of cellular disruption.
Article
Single factor changes from a standard canning process indicated that significant reductions in splitting resulted from higher soak Ca concentrations, higher soak temperatures, higher brine Ca concentrations, and shorter cooking times. Splitting in canned kidney beans was markedly reduced by soaking beans before cooking at temperatures of 66–71°C in solutions containing 150–350 ppm CaCl2. Treatments giving lower gain in weight during soaking led to less splitting. Lower splitting was associated with lower drained weight and firmer cooked beans.
Article
SummaryA thin-layer air drying apparatus was designed and constructed to determine the drying characteristics of various agricultural and food products. The equipment was designed to monitor the weight loss during drying and to operate over a practical range of air temperatures and humidities. This paper presents a description of the apparatus and an evaluation of its performance. The results of studies conducted to determine the thin-layer drying behaviour of soybeans and white beans are included.