Article

The effects of manuka honey on plaque and gingivitis: a pilot study.

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Abstract

Research has shown that manuka honey has superior antimicrobial properties that can be used with success in the treatment of wound healing, peptic ulcers and bacterial gastro-enteritis. Studies have already shown that manuka honey with a high antibacterial activity is likely to be non-cariogenic. The current pilot study investigated whether or not manuka honey with an antibacterial activity rated UMF 15 could be used to reduce dental plaque and clinical levels of gingivitis. A chewable "honey leather" was produced for this trial. Thirty volunteers were randomly allocated to chew or suck either the manuka honey product, or sugarless chewing gum, for 10 minutes, three times a day, after each meal. Plaque and gingival bleeding scores were recorded before and after the 21-day trial period. Analysis of the results indicated that there were statistically highly significant reductions in the mean plaque scores (0.99 reduced to 0.65; p=0.001), and the percentage of bleeding sites (48% reduced to 17%; p=0.001), in the manuka honey group, with no significant changes in the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that there may be a potential therapeutic role for manuka honey confectionery in the treatment of gingivitis and periodontal disease.

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... It has also been reported to have a low pH (3.5 -4.5) [5,[9][10][11]. Manuka honey is a monofloral honey that has a long history of antibacterial powers in New Zealand folklore [12]. Around 60 types of bacteria, including aerobes and anaerobes, grampositives and gram-negatives, have been reported to be inhibited by Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka) honey, the most well-known of the honeys [13]. ...
... Finally, honey can help wound healing by stimulating the immune system [34]. The interaction of wound exudates with the honey's intrinsic glucose oxidase slowly releases hydrogen peroxide from honey applied to a lesion [7][8][9]11,12]. ...
... Manuka honey's therapeutic capabilities have been confirmed in vitro and in vivo studies against a wide range of medically significant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [11,12]. Honey's primary use is as a topical antibiotic to treat surgical site or wound infections [40]. ...
Article
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Manuka honey originates from the New Zealand manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium). It has been recognized for its anti-bacterial and wound-healing activity. Antibacterial activity of manuka honey is due to reactive methylglyoxal (MG) as main constituent. It is a complex mixture of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, vitamins and minerals containing numerous kinds of phytochemicals with high phenolic and flavonoid content. It have also antiulcer property, cancer and skin property. Also used medicinally all over the world. Manuka honey so called unique manuka honey with the presence of methylglyoxal.
... It has also been reported to have a low pH (3.5 -4.5) [5,[9][10][11]. Manuka honey is a monofloral honey that has a long history of antibacterial powers in New Zealand folklore [12]. Around 60 types of bacteria, including aerobes and anaerobes, grampositives and gram-negatives, have been reported to be inhibited by Leptospermum scoparium (Manuka) honey, the most well-known of the honeys [13]. ...
... Finally, honey can help wound healing by stimulating the immune system [34]. The interaction of wound exudates with the honey's intrinsic glucose oxidase slowly releases hydrogen peroxide from honey applied to a lesion [7][8][9]11,12]. ...
... Manuka honey's therapeutic capabilities have been confirmed in vitro and in vivo studies against a wide range of medically significant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [11,12]. Honey's primary use is as a topical antibiotic to treat surgical site or wound infections [40]. ...
... However, in addition to this, MH contains nonperoxide antibacterial factors associated with its bioactive phytochemical components (UMF) such as D glucono δ-lactone, which reduces its pH and exerts natural antibacterial properties rendering it shelf-stable. [13,14] Methylglyoxal (MGO), the aldehyde form of pyruvic acid, has been identified to be the chief antibacterial compound in it. Methylglyoxal is toxic toward pathogens even at low concentrations interrupting cell divisions, arresting growth, and specifically causing the degradation of bacterial DNA. ...
... [5] Previous studies have reported MH with UMF ≥ 15 to be having antibacterial properties. [5,14] The MH used in the present study had antibacterial activity rated UMF = 19. This study compared the effectiveness with chlorhexidine. ...
... Although the method of application of honey varied, a similar reduction of plaque scores was reported in previous studies. [1,6,14] Antiplaque effect of mouthwashes is explained by the inhibitory action on the bacteria forming the biofilm. Unique Manuka factor known as MGO present specifically in MH is toxic toward pathogens, interrupts cell divisions, and specifically causes the degradation of bacterial DNA. ...
Article
Background: Chlorhexidine is considered a gold standard among the chemical plaque control measures. Recently, a search for a natural alternative having similar effectiveness of that of chlorhexidine is gaining importance due to various side effects reported. Honey is a natural product with antibacterial properties that can be used to improve oral health. Manuka honey (MH) is considered superior due to its antibacterial properties. However, studies pertaining to effectiveness of MH and chlorhexidine on oral health are limited. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of MH and 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) mouthwash on reducing gingivitis and Streptococcus mutans count (SM). Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial blinded study was conducted among 12–15 years old children with (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth) scores of 1–4, plaque and gingival scores of 1–2 were selected, and an equal number of children (30 each) were randomly allocated to MH and CHX groups. Participants were instructed to rinse 5 ml of MH and 10 ml of CHX twice daily for 14 days. Unstimulated saliva was collected from the children, and plaque and gingival indices were assessed at baseline, 7th day, and 14th day. Unstimulated saliva was subjected to microbiological analysis for SM. Student's t-test and repeated-measures analysis of variance test were applied for inter- and intragroup comparison, respectively. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in plaque and gingival scores and SM count between the groups at baseline, 7th day, and 14th day. Statistically significant reductions (P < 0.01) in plaque, gingival scores, and SM count were observed in both the groups at 7th and 14th day from baseline. No adverse events were reported during the trial. Conclusion: Effectiveness of MH was comparable with CHX mouthwash in reducing gingivitis and SM count. MH seems to be a promising antimicrobial agent effective in improving gingival health and reducing caries risk.
... (Ahmed et al 2013) A pilot study has been carried out to investigate Manuka honey's antibacterial properties to reduce plaque and bleeding scores. The results suggested that there may be a potential therapeutic role for manuka honey confectionery in the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis (English et al 2004). Samani et al (2011) have reported that honey significantly augmented and accelerated the wound healing after periodontal surgical flap with a notable improvement in gingival index. ...
... The use of honey in dentistry has been reported, however studies related to periodontal therapy are very limited (Samani et al 2011, English et al 2004. The traditional therapy for periodontal disease includes scaling and root planing to disrupt the subgingival microflora (Baehni 1997). ...
... This is consistent with Taib et al (2018) and Samani et al (2001) who reported an increasing trend of plaque scores in the study subjects. On the other hand, English et al (2004) reported high significant reduction in the mean plaque score in their honey group compared to no changes in the control group. These inconsistent findings might be due to the different types of honey used and method of honey application. ...
Conference Paper
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Supportive Periodontal Therapy – Long-term Benefit
... [27] In addition, honey has been effective in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis lesions and infectious ulcers after surgeries and in decreasing salivary counts of S. mutans in patients with xerostomia and in decreasing plaque and hemorrhage in patients with gingivitis. [28][29][30][31] Therefore, this significant ability of honey to heal oral ulcers might be attributed to its effect on prevention of the proliferation of common pathological microorganisms in the oral cavity, resulting in shortening of the healing period. [19] This excellent property of honey creates a unique environment after oral cavity surgeries because in such conditions microorganisms that are normally found in the oral cavity are pathogenic and prevent wound healing. ...
... Based on the results of a study by Mohabatra et al. (2011), raw and processed honey has great antibacterial activity with a high potential to decrease tooth sensitivity to caries. [32] In addition, English et al. (2004) and Atwa et al. (2014) reported that this natural product prevents aggregation of dental plaque, gingivitis, and other gingival diseases. [31,33] Some studies have shown that honey is not cariogenic but has anticariogenic activity. ...
... [32] In addition, English et al. (2004) and Atwa et al. (2014) reported that this natural product prevents aggregation of dental plaque, gingivitis, and other gingival diseases. [31,33] Some studies have shown that honey is not cariogenic but has anticariogenic activity. Khamverdi et al. (2013) showed that honey significantly decreased S. mutans and Lactobacillus counts. ...
Article
Objective: The aim of the this study was to evaluate the effect of honey on the healing of tooth extraction wounds in children 4‒9 years of age. Subjects and methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 51 patients, 4‒9 years of age were selected randomly. All the subjects required extraction of one deciduous molar tooth. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. In group 1, after extraction of the tooth, the dentist used a cotton swab applicator to place a layer of honey on a piece of gauze moistened with normal saline solution (NSS) and placed it on the socket. In group 2, honey was not used; rather, NSS was applied. On days 3 and 7 after tooth extraction, the wound sizes were measured. Results: In both groups, the wound sizes decreased significantly on the third day compared with baseline and on the seventh day compared with the third day (P < 0.05). On the third and seventh days after tooth extraction, wound sizes in the honey group were significantly lower than those in the NSS group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Honey resulted in a decrease in wound sizes and faster healing after extraction of teeth in children. Therefore, use of honey can be recommended after minor surgeries in the oral cavity.
... [8][9][10][11] Usage of Honey in Dental and Oral Diseases Honey is implicated in the treatment of dental and oral diseases. [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] Honey contains about 181 known substances and nutrients such as amino acids, natural carbohydrates and enzymes, trace minerals (calcium, phosphorus and fluoride). 28 Diastase enzyme is responsible for converting starch to dextrins and sugars, 29 whereas invertase enzyme is responsible for converting sucrose in a nectar source to glucose and fructose. ...
... Periodontal disease (Periodontitis) is a serious form of gingivitis and chronic inflammation caused by bacteria, which destroys gums and other supporting structures around the teeth. 19,22,32 Periodontitis is treated by natural honey. The distinctive characteristic of natural honey to treat periodontal disease lies in the stimulation of the growth of granulation tissue and epithelial cells by its anti-inflammatory activity. ...
... Manuka honey has superior antimicrobial properties, which can successfully be used in the treatment of wound healing, peptic ulcers and bacterial gastro-enteritis. 22 A pilot study is undertaken to determine whether or not Manuka honey with its superior antibacterial activity with UMF (Unique Manuka Factor) above 15 could be used to reduce dental plaque and clinical levels of gingivitis. A chewable "honey leather" is produced for this trial. ...
... From ancient times, PNH has not only been used as food sweetener but also as natural beauty agent and has been employed by some cultures for its medicinal attributes [Crane, 1975]. The numerous health benefits of honey made it an important aspect of traditional medicines, and researchers have also documented honey's benefits in modern medicine [Beck and Smedley, 1944;Menshikov and Feidman, 1949;Khotkina, 1955;Salem, 1981;Emarah, 1982;Haffejee and Moosa, 1985;Kandil et al, 1987;Ali, 1995aAli, , 1995bSela et al, 1998;Molan, 1999a;Baltuskevicius et al, 2001;Gharzouli et al, 2001;Molan, 2001;Gharzouli et al, 2002; Al- Waili, 2003;Al-Waili, 2004; English, Pack and Molan, 2004;Mahawar and Jaroli, 2006;Korkmaz and Kolankaya, Yaghoobi et al, 2008], especially in wound treatments [Efem, 1988;Atimono et al, 1990;Bergman et al, 1993;Ajibola, 1995;Al-Waili and Saloom, 1999;Molan, 1999a]. Several different surveys have been compiled on the nutritional and the health aspects of honey [Molan, 1998;Molan, 1999a;Molan, 1999b;Molan, 2001a;Molan, 2001b;Al-Quassemi and Robinson, 2003]. ...
... In 2001, Molan concluded that honey with high level of antibacterial activity has the potential to reduce the risk of dental caries [Molan, 2001b]. In addition to the carioprotective effect of New Zealand Manuka honey (a very potent antimicrobial honey), Molan and co-workers have shown from their extensive research on the influence of honey on oral health that honey prevents dental plaque, gingivitis, periodontitis [English et al, 2004]. Other workers in different laboratories have also shown that honey is non-cariogenic or less cariogenic than the refined sugar, sucrose [Edgar and Jenkins, 1974;Decaix, 1976;Steinberg et al, 1996;Sela et al, 1998]. ...
... In order to avoid the exposure of infants with immature GIT to the risk of contamination with Cl. botulinum and its toxin-producing spores, it is advisable not to feed infants that are below one year old with raw honey. However, in order to avoid the risk of introducing Clostridial infection through this natural product, honey can be sterilized by gamma irradiation without any loss of NH's properties [English et al, 2004]; thus, preventing contamination without reducing its nutraceutical value and potency. ...
Thesis
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The excessive consumption of refined sugars mainly fructose is linked to metabolic dysfunction. The early introduction of refined sugars in the diets of children has resulted in an increased incidence of childhood metabolic dysfunction. There are conflicting reports on the gender susceptibility to developing metabolic dysfunction. Natural honey (NH) has been shown to have health benefits when included in the diet. The neonate is sensitive to dietary manipulations which can have long lasting effects. The short and long term effects of inclusion of NH in the diets of neonates were investigated in rat models. This was with a view to determine whether NH can substitute refined sugars such as cane syrup (GS), without adverse effects, and whether there were any gender differences in response to the dietary modification. In the long term study, 59 suckling Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed with either NHor GS-supplemented diets from age 7 (neonate) to 91 (adulthood) days. For the short term study to investigate the effects of NH in neonates, 69 SD pups were gavaged with NH or GS twice daily at 12-hour intervals and allowed to nurse freely in between from age 7 to 20 days. The rats in all groups were weighed daily during the period when they were gavaged and then twice weekly thereafter to assess body weight gain (BWG) over the study periods. The adult rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 13 weeks of age before termination. The rats’ growth was determined through their BWG and linear growth was assessed by measurements on the bones (femur and tibia) weight, length and density. Blood was collected for the assessment of clinical biochemistry and plasma markers of general health including the circulating metabolic substrates (glucose, triglycerides (TGs), free fatty acids (FFAs)); hormones (insulin, leptin); liver and renal functions were also obtained. Morphometric measurements (weight, lengths and histology) were also done on the abdominal viscera. Hepatic storage of metabolic substrates (glycogen and lipids) was determined. The analysis of the proximate composition of the NH and GS as well as the diets was performed with the Student’s t-test. A repeated measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferonni’s post hoc test was used to analyse the BWG and OGTT, while the other parameters were analysed by one-way ANOVA with Neuman-Keul’s post hoc test, and level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The matched diets were found to be isonitrogenous and isocalorific. Following the long term study, the NH fed rats showed tolerance to an oral glucose load. GS increased fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs (p < 0.05), FFAs (p < 0.0001), visceral fat weight (p < 0.0001), and caused hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia, hepatomegaly and fatty liver in the males. NH increased intestinal villi growth and preserved the liver integrity in both males and females. Although, the GS-fed female rats did not suffer multiple risks of metabolic syndrome (MetS), there were high FBG concentration and hypercholesterolemia induced at low dose and metabolic dyslipidemia shown as high TG levels at high dose. These findings were contrary to the notion about the females having a lower susceptibility to developing metabolic syndrome than males. Some traditional rites include the feeding of honey to infants at birth, and there is evidence of the dietary inclusion of sugars in infant formulations. The need to evaluate the safety of honey consumption vis-à-vis refined sugars in children becomes imperative. Thus, after inducing metabolic syndrome in the rats through 12-week GS feeding, the effects of both diets on neonates were studied. In the neonates, there was no difference in all the parameters measured except the higher circulating non fasting FFAs (p < 0.0001) and hepatic storage of lipids (p < 0.001) in GS-fed than the NH-fed pups. Metabolic syndrome did not develop within the short term. NH was thus found to be a healthy source of dietary sugars, improved glycaemic control and metabolic profiles. The study underscored the differential effects of dietary treatments in male and female rodents. This pointed to the advantages of gender based comparative studies in biomedical research. The study confirmed the nutraceutical value of NH, and advocated for its consumption as a healthy substitute to refined sugars. The consumption of refined sugars by infants should be discouraged, and females should also be cautious in excessive sugar intake, as they can also be susceptible to the metabolic adverse health effects of artificial sweeteners.
... 13,26 The third effect of honey can be explained by its acidic nature (ranging between 3.2 and 4.5) which for bacterial growth is not ideal (7.2-7.4). 22,26,27 There are many varieties of honey that are wellresearched and sold in the market with different standardization of antibacterial activities like Taulang honey (TH), Manuka honey, Langnese honey, pure unprocessed Indian hive bee honey, pasture honey, jelly bush honey, African jungle honey. Some of the clinically practiced honey include Manuka and Medihoney, although Taulang honey, a multifloral honey from Malaysian jungles is also recently gaining popularity. ...
... Honey, as a single therapy, is used only in 10 studies 14,28,46,47,53,55,27,[39][40][41] and in few studies, it was used after the standard therapy. 35 This creates challenges in drawing conclusions and thus leads to limitations with reference to repetition and generalization of the outcomes of these studies. ...
Article
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A B S T R A C T Introduction In recent times, the traditional honey has shown a revival as a topical treatment for variety of wounds. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the available evidences and further evaluate the role of honey in modern wound care management. Method The databases which were used for this purpose includes the PubMed and the ISI web of science. The review only contains the studies being conducted on humans. The review only contains the studies being conducted on humans covering burns, ulcers and other type of wounds (like traumatic, post-operative, malignant wounds.…). Under “Design”, research designs namely, RCTs and CCTs were included. Result In all three of the identified wound types, honey as a dressing with healing promoting properties is supported by evidences, whereas, the other known properties of honey like debridement, deodorizing, anti-inflammatory and wound pain-reducing effects are found to be less supported by the evidences. Interpretation Many limitations were quite evident in the included studies related with the methodology, quality, and sample size. This review tries to reveal all such limitations and gaps and also recommends certain suggestions for the future research.
... Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is associated with various periodontal diseases [21], and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, associated with aggressive periodontitis [22], are 2 International Journal of Dentistry sensitive to manuka honey when grown as planktonic bacteria [23,24] but P. gingivalis is considerably more resistant when cultivated as a biofilm [25]. English et al. [26] reported reduced plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding among human participants with gingivitis after chewing manuka honey strips for ten minutes daily for 21 days, suggesting beneficial application of manuka honey as an oral health aid. ...
... A few clinical studies have reported reduction in plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding [26,30] and decreased proportion of mutans streptococci [31] with application of honey intraorally, supporting the use of honey as an oral antimicrobial agent. Thus, the present preclinical study assessed the potential for subgingival application of manuka honey in the treatment of periodontal diseases. ...
Article
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Background . Topical application of manuka honey is effective in the treatment of burns and soft-tissue infections. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of manuka honey against plaque-associated bacteria in vitro in order to evaluate the potential application as an adjunct to periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods . The minimum bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of manuka honey were compared to those of white clover honey against a variety of plaque-associated bacteria, at the natural and neutral pH. Dissolved calcium was measured following incubation of honeys with hydroxyapatite (HA) beads to assess their potential to demineralise oral hard tissues. Results . Both honeys inhibited most tested oral bacteria at similar MIC/MBC, but Streptococcus mutans was comparatively resistant. The honeys at pH neutral had little effect on antimicrobial activity. Incubation of HA beads in honey solutions resulted in pH-dependent calcium dissolution, and inoculation with S. mutans promoted further demineralisation by both types of honey. Conclusion . Manuka honey is antimicrobial towards representative oral bacteria. However, the relative resistance of S. mutans in association with the high concentrations of fermentable carbohydrates in honey and the direct demineralising effect at natural pH mitigate against the application of honey as an adjunct in the treatment of periodontal disease.
... In the Manuka honey group, there were statistically significant reductions in mean plaque scores (from 10.99 to 0.65, p = 0.001) and in the number of bleeding sites (from 48% to 17%, p = 0.001). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the control group [81]. This showed that Manuka honey is as effective against oral microorganisms as it is against systemic bacteria, as demonstrated in previous clinical studies. ...
Article
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Honey has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms, but its effects on oral biofilms are largely unknown. In this review, we analyzed the currently available literature on the antimicrobial activity of honey against oral biofilms in order to determine its potential as a functional food in the treatment and/or prevention of oral diseases. Here, we compare studies reporting on the antimicrobial activity of honey against systemic and oral bacteria, discuss methodological strategies, and point out current gaps in the literature. To date, there are no consistent studies supporting the use of honey as a therapy for oral diseases of bacterial origin, but current evidence in the field is promising. The lack of studies examining the antibiofilm activity of honey against oral microorganisms reveals a need for additional research to better define aspects such as chemical composition, the mechanism(s) of action, and antimicrobial action.
... Overall, nine clinical studies were identified where honey was used as an anticariogenic agent ( Table 2). A pilot clinical study evaluating the anti-plaque effect of manuka honey was conducted in 2004 [80]. In this study, manuka honey significantly reduced the plaque score after a 21-day trial, but no changes were observed in a control group (sugarfree chewing gum). ...
Article
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The successful application of honey in wound care management has been achieved due to honey’s potent antibacterial effects, characterised by its multifactorial action. Impressive clinical efficacy has ignited its further use in diverse clinical disciplines, including stomatology. Indeed, there is increasing usage of honey in dental medicine as a preventive or therapeutic remedy for some periodontal diseases mainly associated with bacteria, such as dental caries, gingivitis and mucositides. Dental caries is undoubtedly a major oral health problem worldwide, with an increasing tendency of incidence. The purpose of this perspective review is to describe the recent progress in the laboratory and clinical use of honey in the prevention of dental caries, with emphasis on the antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of honey. The role of honey in the cariogenic process is also discussed. In addition, the quality of honey and the urgent in vitro evaluation of its antibacterial/antibiofilm properties before clinical use are highlighted. Findings based on data extracted from laboratory studies demonstrate the pronounced antibacterial effect of different honeys against a number of periodontal pathogens, including Streptococcus mutans. Although the promising antibiofilm effects of honey have been reported mainly against S. mutans, these results are limited to very few studies. From a clinical point of view, honey significantly reduces dental plaque; however, it is not superior to the conventional agent. Despite the positive in vitro results, the clinical effectiveness of honey in the prevention of dental caries remains inconclusive since further robust clinical studies are needed.
... Manuka Honey (MH) is monofloral honey obtained from the species Leptospermum scoparium which has a long-standing reputation in New Zealand for its antimicrobial effect. [32] The present study was able to show the antibacterial effect of net MH against E. faecalis [ Table 2]. This result is consistent with the published literature as Kumar 2014 [22] has found that MH was able to inhibit E. faecalis. ...
Article
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Background: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is known to play a key role in the etiology of constant endodontic infections. Recently, suggestions of natural alternatives to overcome the downsides of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) have been discussed in the literature. Aims: The present study investigates the antibacterial effect and compares the bacteria-killing time of six possible natural alternatives in comparison to 2.5% NaOCl, namely net Manuka Honey (MaH), crude black seed oil (BSO), 100% apple vinegar (AV), castor oil, crude sesame oil, and a novel plant extract (Bactil®). Materials and Methods: Agar well-diffusion assay was used to determine the antibacterial effect of the products against E. faecalis. Muller‒Hinton broth (MH broth) was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). Time-kill assay was performed to investigate the killing time required by the tested product to inhibit E. faecalis at 30, 60, 90, and 120 s. Results: Four out of the six tested products (crude BSO, 0.2% Bactil®, 100% AV, and net MH) exhibited an antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. While after MBC and MIC determination, only two of the products (0.4% BSO and 0.2% Bactil®) were able to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis within 30 s of exposure similar to the positive control 2.5% NaOCl. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, both 0.4% BSO and 0.2% Bactil® were as effective as 2.5% NaOCl against E. faecalis and could be suggested for further testing as promising natural alternatives to disinfect the root canal system. Keywords: Antibacterial, disinfection, Enterococcus faecalis, root canal treatment, sodium hypochlorite
... Honey have been used for maintenance of oral health because of its multifunctional form (Ramsay et al., 2019) Firstly, plaque forming can be inhibited by honey because of its antimicrobial property. In previous studies, S. mutans, P. gingivalis and L. acidophilus counts reduced with chewing honey (Atwa et al., 2014;English et al., 2004). Thus, honey was presented as periodontal protection (Chapple., 1996;Samani et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Honey is a traditional food which has been used as therapy for many diseases and still essential part of diet. Beside its nutritional properties, honey has many important features such as preventing cancer, neurological and cardiovascular diseases, infections; protecting gastrointestinal system; boosting immune system; alleviating some post-operation complications and correcting hormonal levels. In this study, researches including in vivo and in vitro experiments in addition to human controlled trials examining the effects of honey on each system were included. It was aimed to link these studies' results and traditional practices. Although the researches are sufficient to explain the benefits of honey in general terms, more controlled trial examples are needed on the subject. Promoting accessibility and awareness about medical standardized honeys also aimed in this study. In order to provide these, in addition to informing people, producers should be warned about safe honey production and packaging. Özet Bal, birçok hastalık için tedavi olarak kullanılan ve halen beslenmenin vazgeçilmez bir parçası olan geleneksel bir besindir. Balın besleyici özelliklerinin yanı sıra kanserden, nörolojik ve kardiyovasküler hastalıklardan, enfeksiyonlardan korunma; gastrointestinal sistemin korunması; bağışıklık sistemini güçlendirmek; bazı ameliyat sonrası komplikasyonları hafifletmek ve hormonal seviyeleri düzeltmek. Bu çalışmada, balın her bir sistem üzerindeki etkilerini inceleyen insan kontrollü denemelere ek olarak in vivo ve in vitro deneyleri içeren araştırmalara yer verilmiştir. Bu çalışmaların sonuçları ile geleneksel uygulamalar arasında Journal of Apitherapy and Nature/Apiterapi ve Doğa Dergisi, 5(1), 35-68, 2022 Zeynep Gulsah COSKUN, Fatma COSKUN 36 bağlantı kurulması amaçlanmıştır. Yapılan araştırmalar balın faydalarını genel hatlarıyla açıklamaya yetse de konuyla ilgili daha kontrollü deneme örneklerine ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Bu çalışmada aynı zamanda tıbbi standardize edilmiş ballar hakkında erişilebilirliği ve farkındalığı teşvik etmek de amaçlandı. Bunların sağlanabilmesi için toplumu bilgilendirmenin yanı sıra güvenli bal üretimi ve paketleme konusunda üreticiler uyarılmalıdır.
... (Mokhtari et al., 2019;Singhal et al., 2018) By contrast, anti-cariogenic effects are reported and honey can even decrease plaque formation because of its antibacterial activity against common cariogenic bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli and Porphyromonas gingivalis. (Ahmadi-Motamayel et al., 2013;Atwa et al., 2014;English et al., 2004) Summarizing (Table 1), honey has numerous positive effects on all types of wounds in the oral cavity, from surgical wounds to ulcerative wounds. Not only do wounds seem to heal faster, but also pain and patient discomfort are lower using honey. ...
Article
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Hospital-acquired infections and treatment-related wound complications constitute a tremendous burden for the health care system, particularly given the serious increase in multidrug resistant pathogens. Imagine that a large part of nosocomial infections can be prevented using a simple treatment. In this respect, honey is used mainly in topical cutaneous wound care because of its potent broad-spectrum antibacterial and wound healing activities. However, therapeutic use outside this scope has been limited. The current review provides an in-depth view of studies using honey outside the conventional wound care indications. Non-conventional routes of honey application include subcutaneous, intra-socket, abdominal, and oral administration in novel indications, such as post colon surgery, mucositis, and tooth extraction. Honey consistently demonstrates beneficial therapeutic activities in these novel applications, orchestrating antimicrobial and prophylactic activity, reducing inflammation and wound dehiscence, and inducing healing, epithelialization, and analgesic activity. Several molecular mechanisms are responsible for these beneficial clinical effects of honey during the course of wound healing. Pro-inflammatory effects of honey, such as induction of iNOS, IL-1β, and COX-2, are mediated by TLR4 signaling. In contrast, honey's anti-inflammatory actions and flavonoids induce anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways by inducing NRF2 target genes, including HO-1 and PRDX1. The molecular and biochemical pathways activated by honey during the different phases of wound healing are also discussed in more detail in this review. Variation between different honey origins exists, and therefore standardized medical-grade honey may offer an optimized and safe treatment. Honey is a valuable alternative to conventional antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapies that can strongly reduce nosocomial infections.
... Moreover, when honey is applied to wounds, it causes a soothing reaction and reduced burn pain rapidly [106,107]. H. English et al. reported that the honey named manuka is a gifted functional food for wound and ulcers treatment because it possesses antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori) [108]. Another study reported that manuka honey, rich in sugar content, plays an important therapeutic role in treating periodontal and gingivitis disease [109]. ...
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Honey is a mixture of 25 sugars with other bioactive substances (i.e., organic acids, enzymes , antioxidants, and vitamins) and has been known as a highly nutritious functional food. Traditionally , it has been widely used in medicinal applications to cure various diseases. The effectiveness of honey in different applications has been used for its antimicrobial activity, absorption of hydrops, cleansing, removing odor, assisting granulation, recovery of nutrition, and formation of tissue and epithelium, which proved that honey has dehydrating and preserving properties to make it ideal for the cryopreservation of cells and tissues. Cryopreservation is an advanced preservation technique for tissue, cells, organelles, or other biological specimen storage, performed by cooling the sample at a very low temperature. It is the most common approach to improved preserving fertility (sperm, embryos, and oocytes) in different species that may undergo various life-threatening illnesses and allows for the genetic screening of these cells to test the sample for diseases before use. However, with toxic cryoprotectant (CPA), cryopreservation of fertility has been challenging because of their particular structure and sensitivity to chilling. Honey's unique composition, as well as its dehydrating and preserving properties, qualify it to be used as a natural cryoprotectant. The aim of this study is to emphasize the ability of honey as a natural cryoprotectant in cryopreservation. The articles for this review were searched from Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Scopus, using the keywords, honey, cryopreservation, natural cryoprotectant/CPAs, extenders, and fertility. Honey, as a natural cryoprotectant in fertility cryopreservation, yielded satisfactory results, with respect to improved post-thaw quality and viability. It is now proved as a non-toxic and highly efficient natural cryoprotectant in fertility preservation because its increasing viscosity at low temperature can provide a protective barrier to cells by reducing ice formation. Furthermore, its antioxidant property plays a vital role in protecting the cells from thermal damage by reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS). This review provides a road map for future studies to investigate the potential of honey in the cryopreservation of other cells and tissue and contribute to the scientific research, regarding this remarkable natural product.
... In many of these and other cases, honey has been used to heal wounds not responding to treatment with conventional antibiotics and antiseptics [24][25][26][27][28] . Honey has also been effectively used to treat various oral soft tissue conditions including intraoral iatrogenic wounds 29 , radiation induced mucositis 30 , aphthous ulcers 31 , herpes labialis 32 , and gingivitis 33 . ...
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Background and Objectives: Dry socket is a common complication following tooth extraction that indicates inflammation and exposure of alveolar bone of the socket. This study aimed to compare local honey application to dry socket with the traditional zinc oxide eugenol paste. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with dry socket were enrolled in the study. After cleansing the sockets, group 1 (30 patients) received local Kurdistan honey (Apis mellifera) dressing, and group 2 (30 patients), zinc oxide eugenol paste dressing. Dressing was changed every other day until symptoms were relieved. Post-dressing pain was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at 1st to 5th, and at 7th and 15th post-dressing days. Healing of the socket was also assessed at the same periods for granulation tissue formation and epithelialization. Results: There were 36 males and 24 females with a male:female ratio of 1.5:1. Mean age of patients was 36.3 years with a range of 16 to 67 years. The most common cases of dry socket were noted in the age group of 30-39 years followed by 20-29 years. There was no significant difference in pain score between both groups (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in healing score between both groups during the first 5 days of treatment (p>0.05). By the 7th and also 15th day, the healing of honey treated sockets appeared better than zinc oxide eugenol dressed sockets regarding blood clot formation, clot stabilization, and epithelialization. Conclusion: Local application of Kurdistan honey to dry socket cavities is as effective as zinc oxide eugenol paste dressing in relieving pain; furthermore, it may be better than zinc oxide eugenol paste in promoting healing at 7th and 15th post-dressing days.
... The antibacterial activity of MH (UMF 15+) was confirmed in a pilot study for the treatment of gingivitis and plague, where the mean plaque score was significantly reduced in volunteers (English et al., 2004). Additionally, oral ingestion of MH (as a sugar substitute) with electrolytes shortened bacterial diarrhea episodes in infants and children (Haffejee & Moosa, 1985). ...
Article
Manuka honey (MH) is a mono-floral honey obtained from the Manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) belonging to the Myrtaceae family and grows as a shrub or a small tree mostly throughout New Zealand and Eastern Australia. MH is highly valued for its non-peroxide antibacterial properties mainly attributed to its exclusive content of methylglyoxal (MGO). Additionally, MH is rich in macro-and micro-nutrients including, sugars, free amino acids, proteins, enzymes, essential minerals, vitamins, and various secondary metabolites (flavonoids, phenolic acids, and 1, 2-dicarbonyl compounds). The presence of these beneficial phytochemicals is directly linked to its favored health benefits viz., wound healing, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Significant modern pharmacological and clinical evidence have highlighted the wide medicinal applications of MH as a unique mono-floral honey. This comprehensive review capitalizes on MH with emphasis on the interrelationship between its holistic chemical composition, metabolism, action mechanisms, and health effects. Moreover, the review recapitulates the diverse health benefits of MH and related patents in food and functional food applications. MH health benefits are credited to its unique chemical composition. It represents an alternative remedy for different ailments to include bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral infections, and is currently exploited in a massive number of patents. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to uncover its action mechanism in wound healing, how to improve its pharmacokinetics, and to identify its bio-transformed metabolites inside the body.
... A study done by Elbagoury et al [26] revealed the antibacterial effect of natural honey against anaerobic Bacteroides present in a dental abscess and osteomyelitis. Studies done on honey by English HK et al [27] found the anti-inflammatory activity of honey and also raises the possibility of it being useful as a therapeutic agent for periodontitis. Studies done by Molan PC [28] and Weston RJ [29] found the anticariogenic activity of honey against various oral pathogens causing dental caries. ...
Article
There has been a change in thinking of the people across the world with a growing tendency towards-GO NATURAL‖ especially in the field of health sciences. Ayurveda is the ancient Indian system of health-care and longevity and should be considered as an alternative by integrating it with the modern dentistry. The present review aims to discuss various Ayurvedic plants and their significance in dentistry. Along with the PUBMED, MEDLINE, Medknow indexed journals, peer-reviewed and non-indexed journals were also reviewed using aloe vera, turmeric, honey, licorice, triphala and oral health as the keywords. The incorporation of Ayurveda into modern oral health-care practices will make dentistry much safer, affordable and more accessible for the lower socioeconomic groups in society.
... 35 verShannon et al. (1979);Bowen & Lawrence (2005).36 verMolan (2001);English et al. (2004) continente americano. Datações radicarbônicas contextuais indicam uma idade mínima entre 10.700 a 10.500 anos cal. ...
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The karstic region of Lagoa Santa (Minas Gerais state) contains several archaeological sites dating back to the early Holocene with an astonishing number of well-preserved human remains. The Lapa do Santo rockshelter site, in the northern part of the karst, contains more than 30 human interments in which complex funerary rituals were identified, including defleshing, decapitation and intentional teeth removal. The sedimentary matrix containing the skeletal remains is mostly made of ashes from ancient combustion structures, lit within a period of about 3000 years. Several lithic artifacts have been recovered from the site, most of them of small dimensions (length around 22 mm). Lithics are mostly flakes (rarely retouched), cores and splinters made from single crystals of hyaline quartz. Previous technological research suggests that lithic artifacts were used to cut and scrape small and soft materials, like plants. To verify whether the lithics from Lapa do Santo were indeed used to process plant resources, analyses of plant microremains (phytoliths and starch) were undertaken in 20 artifacts from the site. The artifacts were recovered from three different excavation units (1 m x 1 m) and one interment, following a specific protocol to prevent contamination during collection. Sediment samples from the site were also analyzed in order to differentiate between microremains retained in the lithics after their use or incorporated later from the surrounding sediments. The analyses revealed a larger amount of phytoliths in the lithics (19 of them) and sediment (all samples) and starch in most of the artifacts (16 of them) and in one sediment sample. The identified phytolith morphotypes are diagnostic of the following plant taxa: Aristidoideae, Bambusoideae, Chloridoideae, Arecaceae, Poaceae, including Panicoideae and among these, Zea mays (corn), Cyperaceae, including Cyperus/Kyllinga sp; Zingiberales and Eudicots. The starch grains show resemblances (even though not completely sometimes) to those belonging to: Araceae, Arecaceae, Poaceae, including wild grasses and Zea mays, Ipomoea batatas, Capsicum sp. and Dioscorea sp. The results indicate that the instruments were used to process raw (non cooked) starchy plants. Almost every phytolith from the N23 excavation unit that are present in lithics, are also present in the sediment from this unit (except the ones of Cyperaceae, present in lithic but not in the sediment), which strongly suggest contamination of the lithics with the phytoliths and starch from the sediment. From the P11 excavation unit there are phytolithis of two plant taxa (Aristidoideae and Zingiberales) in the lithics that are not present in the sediment. From the AE1 excavation unit there are phytoliths from four plant taxa (Bambusoideae, Chloridoideae, Cyperus/Kyllinga sp. and Zingiberales) in the lithics that are not present in the sediment. This suggests that the phytoliths in these artifacts may have been originated by their use and not by contamination with the sediment. KEYWORDS: Microarchaeobotany, Lagoa Santa, Phytoliths, Starch, Lithic Artifacts, Early Holocene. RESUMO: A região cárstica de Lagoa Santa (Minas Gerais) contém dezenas de sítios arqueológicos, cujos mais antigos datam do Holoceno Inicial (período entre 10.000 e 7000 anos A.P.), com coleções numerosas de remanescentes esqueletais humanos bem preservados. O sítio em abrigo Lapa do Santo, localizado ao norte do carste, contém mais de 30 sepultamentos humanos escavados, tendo sido identificadas práticas funerárias complexas que incluem o descarnamento, a decapitação e a remoção intencional de dentes. A matriz sedimentar que contém os vestígios é constituída de cinzas de antigas estruturas de combustão, acesas em um período de 3000 anos. Muitos artefatos líticos foram escavados no sítio, a maioria com pequenas dimensões (comprimento com cerca de 22 mm). Os líticos do sítio são lascas (raramente retocadas), núcleos e resíduos de lascamento, grande parte produzidos com cristais de quartzo hialino. Estudos tecnológicos e experimentais prévios sugerem que os líticos seriam usados para cortar e raspar materiais pequenos e macios, como plantas. Nesta pesquisa, para verificar o uso dos líticos da Lapa do Santo para o processamento de plantas, foram realizadas análises de microvestígios botânicos (fitólitos e amido) recuperados em 20 líticos do sítio. Esses artefatos foram recuperados de três unidades de escavação diferentes e do contexto de um sepultamento, seguindo um protocolo específico para evitar a contaminação durante a coleta. Amostras de sedimento do sítio também foram analisadas para verificar a possível contaminação dos microvestígios retidos nos líticos com os microvestígios presentes no sedimento. As análises revelaram fitólitos nos líticos (n = 19) e no sedimento (em todas as amostras), assim como amido na maioria dos líticos (n = 16) e em uma única amostra de sedimento. Os morfotipos de fitólitos identificados são diagnósticos dos seguintes táxons de plantas: Aristidoideae, Bambusoideae, Chloridoideae, Arecaceae (palmeiras), Poaceae (gramíneas) incluindo Panicoideae e, dentre essas, Zea mays (milho), Cyperaceae, inclusive Cyperus/Kyllinga sp; Zingiberales e Eudicotiledôneas (arbóreas). Os grãos de amido identificados apresentam semelhanças, embora nem sempre totalmente, com aqueles pertencentes aos táxons: Araceae (taioba), Arecaceae, Poaceae incluindo gramíneas selvagens e Zea mays; Ipomoea batatas (batata-doce), Capsicum sp. (pimenta e pimentão) e Dioscorea sp. (cará). Os resultados indicam que os instrumentos foram usados para processar plantas amiláceas cruas. Na quadra N23 quase todos os fitólitos que estão presentes nos líticos estão presentes também no sedimento (com exceção de Cyperaceae, presentes nos líticos, mas não no sedimento). Isso sugere uma possível contaminação dos líticos com os fitólitos do sedimento. Na quadra P11 há fitólitos de dois táxons de plantas (Aristidoideae e Zingiberales) nos líticos que não estão presentes no sedimento. Na quadra AE1 há fitólitos de quatro táxons de plantas (Bambusoideae, Chloridoideae, Cyperus/Kyllinga sp. e Zingiberales) nos líticos, que não estão presentes no sedimento ao redor. A presença exclusiva desses fitólitos nos líticos das quadras P11 e AE1, mas não no sedimento, indica que tais plantas foram, de fato, processadas com os artefatos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Microarqueobotânica, Lagoa Santa, Fitólitos, Amido, Instrumentos Líticos, Holoceno Inicial.
... Manuka and avocado oil, paracress, and chitosan proved a strong antibacterial effect, which in the GinGinat group contributed to a decrease in the key oral pathogens, and was responsible for maintaining the equilibrium of the buffer capacity in the mouth. [13][14][15] In the postsurgical recovery period, it particularly affected the sites around wounds, which in the GinGinat group enhanced better healing. Along with that, reduction of dental plaque was observed as well. ...
Article
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Background The innovative complex technology of encapsulation of the natural extracts allows the products to be more efficient in surgical wound healing due to penetration of the microcapsules in the soft tissues. Aims The aim of the randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of microencapsulated natural extracts contained in the gel on wound healing process after oral surgical procedures. Methods The study included 95 patients with indications for endodontic surgery: third molar surgical extraction or dental implants placement. The patients were randomly divided in two groups based on the postsurgical protocol on treating the wound after surgery: A/: Subgroup 1: GinGinat group used a gel composed of different natural products (GinGinat gel, LoB Foundation, Paris, France) for treating the surgical area; B/ Subgroup 2: Standard protocol used saline solution for treating the wound after surgery. At the seven day follow upallpatients were asked to rate their experience and satisfaction on the recovery process after surgery based on a questionnaire. They were observed and evaluated for satisfaction with the recovery process based on using Likert-type scale. Results The results showed a statistically significant difference in the postoperative recovery period between the GinGinat and standard group (p < 0.001) based on a therapist’s evaluation. The GinGinat group was rated with the higher clinical score compared to the standard group (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the recovery postoperative period between the GinGinat and standard group as rated based on the results of a patient’s questionnaire (p < 0.001). Conclusion The results showed clinical improvement and better postsurgical healing of the wounds as well as the stronger analgesic effect after the application of microencapsulated granulas which are contained in the natural extracts as opposed to the standard postsurgical protocol.
... have been used for this analysis with relevant modern medical websites and science books. Anti bacterial, anti microbial, promotes oral wellness, gingivitis, anti oxidant, [12,13,14] 12 Trikatu-Shunti(Zingiber officinalis) Maricha(Piper nigrum) Pippali(Piper longum) ...
... Consequently, various antimicrobial agents have widely applied for a treatment adjunct of gingivitis, particularly in the refractory problem [6]. For instance, English, Pack and Molan [7] have investigated that manuka honey has superior antimicrobial properties which can significantly reduce gingival bleeding within 21 days test. ...
Article
The present study was intended to prepare and optimize the mucoadhesive buccal patch of gambier leaf extract using chitosan (CH) and tapioca starch (TS) composite as the polymer complexes. The patch formulation was designed based on 22 factorial design in order to optimize the composition of CH and TS. The physical and chemical characteristics of the prepared patches, including mass and thickness uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, swelling index, percent of elongation, and mucoadhesive time were successfully evaluated. Based on statistical analysis, the optimum concentration of CH and TS was 900 mg and 300 mg, respectively, with desirability percent of 0.968. The characterization of the optimum patch showed that the variability coefficient of the mass and thickness uniformity was 0.4805 ± 0.1887% and 0.9716 ± 1.2026%, surface pH of the patch was 6, folding endurance >300 times, elongation percent was 53.333 ± 0.1082%, and mucoadhesive time was 320 ± 1.1547 min. The catechin content, as the active agent of the gambier leaf extract, was 92.1667 ± 0.3626%, and the FT-IR characterization indicated that there are no chemical interactions between each patch component.
... The antibacterial property of honey was first recognized by Vanketel in 1895 [25]. The anti-inflammatory activity of honey has been studied in various clinical trials where it decreased severity of mucositis in post radiotherapy cases [26], in treatment of gingivitis [27] and in ophthalmological inflammations [28]. In a study honey has been found to be inhibitory to both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and to both aerobes and anaerobes including Staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas [29]. ...
Article
Purpose: Herpes simplex gingivostomatitis (HSGS) in children is a common painful infectious disease. This study aims to examine the combined efficacy of honey with acyclovir suspension compared to acyclovir alone for treating HSGS in young children. Material and methods: This Randomized double blind placebo controlled study was conducted from June 2015 to September 2017 in a tertiary referral hospital. One hundred children aged 2-8 years with HSGS were randomly classified into 2 groups; study group: treated with honey plus oral acyclovir and control group: treated with oral acyclovir alone. Severity of oral lesions, Fever, eating and drinking ability, pain scores and need for analgesics were compared between 2 groups on day 3, 5 and 7 after starting treatment. Results: Children receiving honey plus acyclovir (i.e. study group) had significantly earlier disappearance of herpetic oral lesions; median 3 days vs. 6 days in control group (P = 0.022), drooling; 2 days vs. 4 days (P = 0.030) and eating difficulty; 3 days vs. 8 days (P = 0.001). Study group also had significantly lower pain scores, better eating and drinking ability and significantly less need for analgesics at 3 time-points of assessment. Fever disappeared in both groups with no statistically significant difference. Conclusions: The combined use of honey with oral acyclovir can produce favorable outcome than acyclovir alone in children with Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis.
... bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid even at a very low concentration. 23 Rupesh et al 6 reported that manuka honey with UMF 15 is highly effective in reducing dental plaque and on the growth of cultures of oral bacteria. ...
Article
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Aim The aim of the study was to test the antibacterial activity of manuka honey and compare its efficacy with another commercially available honey (Dabur honey) on the cariogenic bacteria on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and methods An in vitro study was carried out on 40 agar specimens; the samples were divided into two groups of 20 samples consisting of S. mutans and Lactobacil-lus respectively. The 20 samples in each group were further subdivided into four groups of five each, which were tested with 25% manuka honey, 100% manuka honey, 25% Dabur honey, and 100% Dabur honey for both Lactobacillus and S. mutans groups. The antibacterial activity was tested using the agar well diffusion method against S. mutans and Lacto-bacillus. Antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the diameter of inhibition of zones surrounding the wells. The results obtained were statistically analyzed (one-way analysis of variance test, p-value). Results The results showed that 25% of manuka honey has statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001) antibacterial effect than 25% of Dabur honey on both Streptococcus and Lactobacillus species, and manuka honey with 100% concentration showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001) antibacterial effect than 100% Dabur honey on the same species of bacteria. 100% of both the honeys showed statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001) antibacterial effect than 25% concentrations of the same on S. mutans and Lactobacillus. Conclusion Manuka honey had more antibacterial activity than Dabur honey on S. mutans and Lactobacillus bacteria in the in vitro study. This effect was dependent on the concentration of honey used. How to cite this article: Beena JP, Sahoo P, Konde S, Raj SN, Kumar NC, Agarwal M. Manuka Honey: A Potent Cariostatic Agent—An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018;11(2):105-109.
... Anti-plaque: Anti-microbial spectrum of honey is fairly broad, acting against gram positive and negative rods and cocci, yeast and fungi [67,68]. Several researchers have reported significant reduction in counts of S. mutans, P. gingivalis and L. acidophilus after chewing honey [69][70][71]. Yadav et al. and Bansal et al. have reported a significant reduction in mean gingival scores and in S. mutans colony count after application of honey [72,73]. Honey might play a role in controlling periodontal disease by its antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties, activation of leucocytes and by stimulation of the growth of granulation tissue and epithelial cells, which would in turn aid in repair of the damage done by infecting bacteria and by the free radicals [74][75][76][77]. ...
Article
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Honey is a sweet natural gift of nature. Honey either alone or as a mixture with any of the following-lemon, clover, milk, cinnamon or water is normally used in our daily life for treatment of fatigue, weight loss, indigestion, hearing loss, halitosis, pimples, influenza, heart diseases, toothache, hair loss, bladder infections, infertility etc. Commercially honey is used as moisturizer, hair conditioner, laxative, aphrodisiac, rooting hormone and as cleansers. This review article has been framed after going through several search engines and PUBMED indexed journals over the last ten years to explore the role of honey in oral health.
... Honey has evidenced therapeutic features that indicate its potentiality in the treatment of periodontal disease, mouth ulcers and other problems of oral health. 9 The remarkable antibacterial properties, easy availability, and economic feasibility make honey a prospective therapeutic agent. Identification of honeys with high levels of antibacterial activity in laboratory studies has put a new light on the possibility of honey being of benefit to oral health. ...
... 112 Manuka honey, in a clinical trial, is found to be effective in treating periodontal disease and gingivitis. 113 Recently, it is revealed that intrarectal administration of honey is effective in treating colitis. 114 Honey on one hand inhibits more than sixty different pathogenic bacterial species and on the other hand enhances the growth of beneficial gastrointestinal tract flora. ...
Article
Background: The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has made it more difficult and expensive to treat infections. Honey is getting worldwide attention as a topical therapeutic agent for wound infections and potential future candidate for systemic infections. Objectives: The purpose of this review was to summarise different antibacterial bio-active compounds in honey, their synergistic interaction and their clinical implications in topical and systemic infections. In addition, contemporary testing methods for evaluating peroxide and non-peroxide antibacterial activity of honey were also critically appraised. Design: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Pub Med, reference lists and databases were used to review the literature. Results: Honey contains several unique antibacterial components. These components are believed to act on diverse bacterial targets, are broad spectrum, operate synergistically, prevent biofilm formation, and decrease production of virulence factors. Moreover, honey has the ability to block bacterial communication (quorum sensing), and therefore, it is unlikely that bacteria develop resistance against honey. Bacterial resistance against honey has not been documented so far. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey only targets pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the growth of normal gastrointestinal flora when taken orally. It also contains prebiotics, probiotics, and zinc and enhances the growth of beneficial gut flora. The presence of such plethora of antibacterial properties in one product makes it a promising candidate not only in wound infections but also in systemic and particularly for gastrointestinal infections. Agar diffusion assay, being used for evaluating antibacterial activity of honey, is not the most appropriate and sensitive assay as it only detects non-peroxide activity when present at a higher level. Therefore, there is a need to develop more sensitive techniques that may be capable of detecting and evaluating different important components in honey as well as their synergistic interaction. Conclusions: Keeping in view the current guidelines for treatment of diarrhea, honey is considered one of the potential candidates for treatment of diarrhea because it contains a natural combination of probiotics, prebiotics, and zinc. Therefore, it would be worthwhile if such a combination is tested in RCTs for treatment of diarrhea.
... have been used for this analysis with relevant modern medical websites and science books. Anti bacterial, anti microbial, promotes oral wellness, gingivitis, anti oxidant, [12,13,14] 12 Trikatu-Shunti(Zingiber officinalis) Maricha(Piper nigrum) Pippali(Piper longum) ...
... disease [13]. However little information is available with regards to effect of different honeys on putative oral pathogens. ...
... Thanks to antimicrobial properties, Manuka honey has been applied not only in oncology and gastroenterology, but also in dentistry. Its presence helped to reduce the formation of plaque, reduce the symptoms of bleeding gums in the mouth [18], as well as inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutant that causes dental caries [19]. ...
... disease [13]. However little information is available with regards to effect of different honeys on putative oral pathogens. ...
Article
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Antibacterial activities of the two honey samples, produced by the honeybee (Apis mellifera), were assayed using standard well diffusion method. Both honey samples were tested at four concentrations (5%, 25%, 50% and 100% w/v) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, and mean zones of inhibition were measured. Both honey samples used were effective in inhibiting the growth of the test organisms at 25-100% concentrations (w/v). No honey sample was inhibitory at 5% concentration (w/v). The inhibitory effect of undiluted concentration of the honey samples (100% w/v) on Escherichia coli was comparable to that of Amoxicillin (20.0 ± 0.1 mm) and Chloramphenicol (17.5 ± 0.2 mm). Tetracycline had a very low inhibitory effect on the test organisms. In conclusion, natural honey can be employed in treating some common diseases especially those caused by the tested microorganisms and carries the potential of introducing new template into modern medicine.
... The finding in the present study demonstrate that plaque levels and gingival bleeding scores could be reduced by the antibacterial properties of honey similar to the chlorhexidine. These findings are consistent with the finding of English et al. [19]. It is now well known that the first step of dental plaque formation is the adhesion of bacteria owning to the S. mutans group to the tooth surfaces. ...
Article
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Honey has been used since ancient times, in folk medicine for healing the infected wounds. Its efficiency is also well known against the infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. However, very few studies are available in literature, which show the antibacterial effect of honey on the levels of dental plaque when used as a mouth rinse. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of honey (10%) with chlorhexidine gluconate (0.12%) on the dental plaque levels and gingival health. 30 healthy subjects (mean age 19.4±3 years) participated in the study. Subjects were randomly divided into: test group (10% Honey) and control group (0.12% Chlorhexidine gluconate). Use of any form of mechanical oral hygiene method during the experimental period was not permitted. Rinsing with water or any other fluid after the procedure was not allowed. Full mouth Plaque Index (PI) and Full mouth Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded at baseline, 7th and on the 15th day. The differences in the PI score between the group 1 and group 2 at baseline, 7th and 15th day during the experimental period were 0.05, 0.10 and 0.28 which were statistically insignificant. The differences in the PBI score between group 1 and group 2 at baseline, 7th and 15th day were 0.24, 0.32 and 0.55 respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Both test and control groups showed significant reduction of plaque formation, however the reduction levels were slightly better with test group, but the differences were not statistically significant indicating that honey at 10% concentration appears to be effective for plaque control without any side effects. Keywords: Chlorhexidine gluconate; Dental plaque; Gingivitis
... Its medical properties made it a constant presence in both modern and ancient civilizations. Honey shows anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti oxidant activity, is able to reduce cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, and even proves beneficial in oral health [1][2][3][4][5]. ...
Article
A novel analytical procedure based on solid-phase extraction, HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS2 analyses is here presented for the study of seven different monofloral honey types from Tuscany (Italy) in terms of their phenolic content. In particular, an embedded polar group RP-Amide stationary phase is employed in order to achieve the separation and quantitation of 24 different polyphenols. Extraction recoveries and dynamic linear ranges are determined, and limits of detection as low as 1 ng/g are obtained. Quantitation of the polyphenol content revealed total concentrations in the order of 100–102 μg/g, with chestnut honeys showing the highest results. Further analyses with HPLC-MS2 proved invaluable in the identification of unknown compounds found in the honeys. Processing of the chromatographic data via Principal component analysis divided the sample pool in three groups. Each group showed distinctive traits that can be used to distinguish some of the honey types from the others.
... 9 The antibacterial property of honey was first recognised by Vanketel in 1895. 15 The anti inflammatory activity of honey has been studied in various clinical trials where it decreased severity of mucositis in post radiotherapy cases, 16 in treatment of gingivitis 17 and in ophthalmological inflammations. 18 Pain post tonsillectomy is due to mechanical and thermal injuries to tonsillar fossa leading to inflammation. ...
Article
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Introduction: Honey has been used since ancient times for healing of skin wounds and preventing infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of honey on pain, infection and wound healing in post operative tonsillectomy cases. Materials and Methods: 40 patients planned for tonsillectomy under general anaesthesia were taken up in the study. 20 patients in the study group were given oral honey post operatively along with other medication whereas remaining 20 patients in control group were not given oral honey. Patients were evaluated post operatively after 1, 2, 7 and 14 days for post operative pain, healing of tonsillar fossa wound, post operative bleed, fever, recovery time, patient satisfaction and other criterias. Results: The results showed that pain was much lesser in study group. There was better wound healing, shorter recovery time with greater patient satisfaction. There were lesser post operative complications like fever with lesser need for intramuscular analgesics. No specific side effects of honey were noted. Conclusion: So it can be concluded that honey can be considered as a complementary medicine in post operative tonsillectomy cases.
Article
Background: Antibacterial agents have always been the part and parcel in the treatment of periodontal infection. One such known agent is Active Leptospermum Honey (ALH) which has been the most studied species of medical grade honey used for the treatment of wounds and burns. Therefore, this study revolves around evaluating the efficacy of active leptospermum honey as a local drug delivery (LDD) agent on probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment level (RAL), and periodontal pocket pH. Materials and Methods: Based on the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 100 sites with probing pocket depth of ≥ 5mm in posterior region will be selected. The sites will be grouped as: Test Group: 50 sites, Control Group: 50 sites, following the assessment of baseline clinical and biochemical parameters. At the baseline appointment, each patient received full mouth scaling and root planning (SRP). They were called back after 48 hours. Following the assessment of biochemical parameters by using pH test paper strips, MEDIHONEY® was placed as a local drug delivery (LDD) agent in test sites. In control sites only SRP was done. Patients were recalled after 30 days following LDD to reassess only gingival index, plaque index and biochemical parameters. Patients were recalled at 90 days following LDD for the reassessment of all clinical and biochemical parameters. Results: Plaque and gingival inflammation reduced in both groups but test group showed more reduction. Pocket depths were reduced significantly in test site. There was significant pH reduction in test sites. Clinical attachment level was also seen to be improved in the sites which were tested. Conclusion: When administered locally, Active Leptospermum Honey demonstrated lessening of PPD, gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI), as well as higher levels of clinical attachment (CA).
Article
Objective: : To assess the effects of Manuka honey, Ocimum sanctum, Curcuma longa, and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus levels. Material and methods: A randomized controlled trial will be conducted on dental students of Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad. The study participants will be divided into four groups. Each group will have a total of 20 individuals. By using a lottery system, Group A (Manuka honey mouthrinse), Group B (Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse), Group C (Curcuma longa mouthrinse), and Group D (0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse) will be chosen. To match the circadian cycle, saliva will be collected at baseline and again after 2 weeks between 10 and 10.30 a.m. The sterile container will subsequently be delivered to the microbiological laboratory and processed as soon as possible to measure Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus count. For 2 weeks, participants were told to use 10 mL of mouthrinse twice daily. Results: : The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) score of all the four groups showed reduction in their scores from baseline to after the study period. For both S. mutans and L. acidophilus, there was a substantial Percentage Reduction (PR) between the prerinse and postrinse samples in all four groups. Discussion: : Because quantitative actions play a crucial part in the caries disease process, the changes in microbial activity before and after administration of experimental mouthwashes were examined. Conclusion: : Essential oil aqueous extracts were as efficient antibacterial mouthwashes as chlorhexidine and iodine mouthwashes.
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Honey is one of the most nutritional natural products that not only provides us healthy nutrition but also has a potential to be an alternative treatment option for different pathologies from microbial infection to metabolic disease. Honey is a byproduct of flower syrup produced by honeybees and possesses an intricate chemical composition that varies with botanical sources and geographical locations. This chapter is aimed to provide readers an understanding of complex composition, biological activities, adverse effect, and therapeutic benefits of honey. Honey possesses many biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-cancer, and anti-metastatic effects, suggesting potential therapeutic roles in many human pathologies. Flavonoids and polyphenols in honey are the two active ingredients, which are of therapeutic importance in many diseases. In conclusion, honey may be developed as a natural therapeutic agent for many pathologies, and extensive studies are therefore recommended.
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Natural honey (NH) is a highly nutritious substance and is considered as one of nature’s wonders which has been used by all cultures, traditions and civilizations as a food and medicine. Natural honey (NH) is a by-product made by honeybees by using nectar of flowers and sugary non-floral deposits obtained from plants that is then converted into honey by a process of regurgitation and evaporation. Later the honeybees store honey as a primary source of food in wax honeycombs inside the beehive. Honey is classified on the basis of processing, physical, chemical, and nutritional properties. Honey also plays a part in symbolism and religion. The appearance, quality, sensory perception, and composition of NH vary greatly depending on the nectar source, environmental and climatic conditions. Honey’s main constituents include carbohydrates, primarily fructose and glucose although it also contains various oligosaccharide sugars. Besides these NH, also contains minute quantities of amino acids, proteins, enzymes, trace elements, minerals, vitamins, aroma substances, and polyphenols. NH shows a vast range of health and nutritional properties. NH imparts antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immune boosting property, antiviral, antiparasitory, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects. Honey has also been well known for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders like peptic ulcers, gastroenteritis, and gastritis. Thus NH has proved a valuable nutritional food and medicinal entity.
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Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that deficiency of various nutrients is associated with periodontal disease. Based on this evidence, it can be hypothesized that various functional foods, which include active components that have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property, may benefit periodontal health. This article systematically reviews the currently available literature on the effects of functional foods on periodontal health. We performed a systematic review of relevant English- and Japanese-language medical literature published from January 1995 to October 2010, with critical appraisal of epidemiological studies evaluating the effects of functional foods on periodontal health. On randomized controlled trials, supplements containing vitamins C and E were found to significantly improve the clinical parameters and biomarkers of periodontal disease. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with calcium and soy isoflavone was shown to maintain the alveolar bone level in periodontal maintenance. In randomized clinical trials, oral administration of Lactobacillus spp. as probiotics reduced periodontal pathogens, improved the status of periodontal disease and could contribute to beneficial effects on periodontal health. As antibacterial agents including chemicals and substances isolated from plants, chewing gum that contains chlorhexidine or eucalyptus extract showed a meaningful effect on plaque and gingival inflammation in human clinical trials. Other nutritional supplementation such as fatty acids and vitamins also showed beneficial effects on periodontal inflammation. However, additional studies will be necessary to more fully assess the potential of functional foods to favorably affect periodontal health.
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The present study aimed to explore the antibacterial efficacy of the honey produced by the five bee species that prevail in Kerala namely, Apis cerana indica F. (Ac), Apis mellifera L. (Am), Apis dorsata F. (Ad), Apis florea F. (Af) and Trigona irridipennis S. (Ti). Antibacterial study was carried out against seven bacterial strains of which three were gram positive and four were gram negative. The results obtained were compared with standard antibiotic ampicilline. It was found that the antibacterial efficacy was more in the honeys when they were taken in the pure form. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed by measuring the zone inhibition diameter (ZID) exhibited by the honey against the pathogen.
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The aim was to investigate if honey causes erosion and if salivary pellicle modified with honey, or its components, or the by-product propolis has a protective effect against dental erosion and adhesion of early bacterial colonizers. The tested substances were: 3 types of honey, methylglyoxal (MGO), hydrogen peroxide, propolis. First in the erosion experiment, 120 human enamel specimens were covered with salivary pellicle and modified with the substances. Then they were eroded with 1% citric acid, pH 3.6 for 2 min, before surface hardness was measured. In the microbiological assay, the enamel specimens (n = 126) covered with modified salivary pellicle were contaminated with bacterial suspensions. The antimicrobial activity of each substance and their effect on early bacterial colonizer adhesion and biofilm formation were determined. Despite a low pH, honey did not cause erosion. On the other hand, pellicle modification with the tested solutions did not protect the enamel from erosion. Microbiologically, the 3 honeys inhibited species-specific growth of oral bacteria. Propolis decreased initial attachment of Streptococcus gordonii, while one honey inhibited demineralization of enamel by biofilm. In conclusion, pellicle modification with honey, or its components, or propolis did neither protect against erosion nor promote it. Propolis presented some bacterial adhesion inhibition.
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Honey, a natural substance traditionally used as a sweetener, is a remarkably complex food. Besides the main components carbohydrates and water it also contains several minor compounds with biological activity. In this chapter functional and nutritional properties of honey, known to be dependent on its botanical and also geographical origin, are presented. Through reported analytical data emphasis is given on Slovenian types of honey.
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The data of the monitoring of the birth defects of the neural tube for 1985-2007 years from Crimean Republic Medical Genetic Center has been analyzed. The group of comparison: 127 cases of the neural tube defects. The control group: 127 cases of birth of healthy children closest by the time and place of birth (for each case from comparison group). By the method of superposed epochs the weekly values of the hellogeophysical indices (Ap index of geomagnetic activity, Wolf Numbers - index of Solar activity, interplanetary magnetic field polarity) during the gametogenesis and embryo period of prenatal development. The statistical significance of the values of heliogeophysical Indices in the comparison and control groups was calculated using the statistical Wilcoxon criterion for the independent groups. It was founded that during 12-18 days of embryogenesis embryos with neural tube defects the increased geomagnetic activity is probable, comparing with the control group. Since the forming of the major part of the neural tube defects takes place during 2-3 weeks of embryo growth, the increase of geomagnetic activity during or before this stage may be one of the ecological risk factors for this pathology.
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The global market for chewing gum is approximately 13 lac tonnes per year reprcsenting almost a US 19 billion dollar industry, meriting heavy media and print promotion by the gum manufacturing industry. Chewing gum has almost as long a history as the mankind itself. Chewing gums have been marketed for a variety of benefits such as an adjunctive, oral hyglene aid, for smoking cessation and as a preventive option for various dental problems Iike plaque accumulation, gingivitis, caries etc. The medicinal uses of chewing gum have also been realised in the last thirty years. The ease of administration and control of dosage makes it a potent drug delivery system. Consequently, chewing gums have seen changes in their components over a period of time with many active ingredients being added to exploit this potential. Effects of various therapeutic substances in chewing gums have been studied over the last few decades. This review aims to compare the benefits and drawbacks of chewing gum to provide an objective insight from a neutral perspective.
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From ancient times, honey is being used as a therapeutic agent apart from its wide use as a sweetener. Honey is known to have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory property. Honey is used widely in the treatment of burns, to heal wounds, gastritis, ulcers and diarrhea and also in veterinary use. Today honey is available as candies as well as in gelled form. 90% of human population suffers from mild gingivitis to chronic periodontitis in their life time. As bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics newer generation drugs are being prescribed by the dentist. Hence research has turned in finding newer alternative therapy, which can be easily accessed and affordable to common man. Honey is a natural sweetener and can be used as an alternative in treatment of periodontal infections.
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