MAT1-modulated cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase activity cross-regulates neuroblastoma cell G1 arrest and neurite outgrowth.

Department of Pathology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 06/2004; 64(9):2977-83.
Source: PubMed


Cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase (CAK) regulates cell cycle G1 exit, where cells commonly commit either to proliferate or to differentiate. CAK activity in G1 regulation is determined by its assembly factor and targeting subunit, ménage à trois 1 (MAT1). The precise mechanism of how proliferation/differentiation transition is induced from cancer cell G1 arrest remains unknown. We present evidence that in neuroblastoma CHP126 cells, CAK interacts with and phosphorylates retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha). Retinoic acid (RA)-induced neuroblastoma cell proliferation/differentiation transition is associated with decreased CAK activity, as evidenced by a switch from CAK hyperphosphorylation of pRb and RXRalpha to hypophosphorylation of pRb and RXRalpha. Manipulation of MAT1 abundance shows that MAT1 reduction mimics RA-induced hypophosphorylation of pRb/RXRalpha, proliferation inhibition, and neurite outgrowth, whereas MAT1 overexpression resists these RA actions. Thus, these findings reveal an important mechanism by which MAT1-modulated CAK activity is crucial in the switch from proliferation to differentiation in neuroblastoma cells.

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Available from: Timothy Triche, Jun 20, 2014
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    • "Liganded RARs and RXRs act as heterodimers [4] to induce expression of target genes at the retinoic acid responsive element (RARE) of their promoters [5]. In the presence of RA, the effects of RARa are also mediated by phosphorylation-modification [6] [7] [8] and ubiquitination-proteolysis [9] [10]. Currently, the molecular bases of these distinguished pathways mediated by RA remain largely unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cip/Kip family protein p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, is directly transactivated by retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) upon retinoic acid (RA):RARalpha binding. Yet the role of p21 upregulation by RA in lymphoma cells remains unknown. Here, we show that, in human pre-B lymphoma Nalm6 cells, RA-induced proliferation inhibition results from massive cell death characterized by apoptosis. Upregulated p21 by RA accompanies caspase-3 activation and precedes the occurrence of apoptosis. p21 induction leads to increased p21 complex formation with cyclin E/CDK2, which occurs when cyclin E and CDK2 levels remain constant. CDK2 can alternatively promote apoptosis, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Data presented here suggest a novel RA-signaling, by which RA-induced p21 induction and complex formation with cyclin E/CDK2 diverts CDK2 function from normally driving proliferation to alternatively promoting apoptosis.
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    ABSTRACT: The vitamin A metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) plays essential roles in nervous system development, including neuronal patterning, survival, and neurite outgrowth. Our understanding of how the vitamin A acid functions in neurite outgrowth comes largely from cultured embryonic neurons and model neuronal cell systems including human neuroblastoma cells. Specifically, atRA has been shown to increase neurite outgrowth from embryonic DRG, sympathetic, spinal cord, and olfactory receptor neurons, as well as dissociated cerebra and retina explants. A role for atRA in axonal elongation is also supported by a limited number of studies in vivo, in which a deficiency in retinoid signaling produced either by dietary or genetic means has been shown to alter neurite outgrowth from the spinal cord and hindbrain regions. Human neuroblastoma cells also show enhanced numbers of neurites and longer processes in response to atRA. The mechanism whereby retinoids regulate neurite outgrowth includes, but is not limited to, the regulation of the transcription of neurotrophin receptors. More recent evidence supports a role for atRA in regulating components of other signaling pathways or candidate neurite-regulating factors. Some of these effects, such as that on neuron navigator 2 (NAV2), may be direct, whereas others may be secondary to other atRA-induced changes in the cell. This review focuses on what is currently known about neurite initiation and growth, with emphasis on the manner in which atRA may influence these events.
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